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Temple of Zeus, Olympia

The Temple of Zeus at Olympia was an ancient Greek temple in Olympia, dedicated to the god Zeus. The temple, built in the second quarter of the fifth century BC, was the model of the developed classical Greek temple of the Doric order; the Temple of Zeus was built on an ancient religious site at Olympia. The Altis, an enclosure with a sacred grove, open-air altars and the tumulus of Pelops, was first formed during the tenth and ninth centuries BC, Greece's "Dark Age", when the followers of Zeus had joined with the followers of Hera. Construction began around 470 BC and is estimated to have been completed in 457 BC; the architect was Libon of Elis. The temple was of peripteral form, with a frontal pronaos, mirrored by a similar arrangement at the back of the building, the opisthodomos; the building sat on a crepidoma of three unequal steps, the exterior columns were positioned in a six by thirteen arrangement, two rows of seven columns divided the cella into three aisles. An echo of the temple's original appearance can be seen in the Second Temple of Hera at Paestum, which followed its form.

Pausanias visited the site in the second century AD and states that the temple's height up to the pediment was 68 feet, its breadth was 95 feet, its length 230 feet. It was approached by a ramp on the east side; because the main structure was of a local limestone, unattractive and of poor quality, it was coated with a thin layer of stucco to give the appearance of marble so as to match the sculptural decoration. It was roofed with tiles of Pentelic marble, cut thin enough to be translucent, so that on a summer's day, "light comparable to a conventional 20-watt bulb would have shone through each of the 1,000 tiles."From the edge of the roof projected 102 waterspouts or gargoyles in the shape of lion heads, of which 39 are extant. Incongruities in the styles of the spouts provide evidence that the roof was repaired during the Roman period; the sculptural decoration, in imported Parian marble featured carved metopes and triglyph friezes, topped by pediments filled with sculptures in the Severe Style, now attributed to the "Olympia Master" and his studio.

The Eastern pediment depicts the chariot race between Pelops and Oenomaus while the Western pediment features a centauromachy with Theseus and the Lapiths. The god Apollo is featured on the western pediment pointing towards the human side in the centauromachy, indicating his favor, towards the northern side of the temple. Pausanias reports in his Description of Greece that the Eastern pedimental sculpture was created by Paeonius and the Western sculpture was carved by Alcamenes; the metopes from the temple depict the twelve labours of Heracles. The temple housed the renowned statue of Zeus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World; the Chryselephantine statue was 13 m high, was made by the sculptor Phidias in his workshop on the site at Olympia. The statue's completion took 13 years and was one of Classical Greece's most revered artistic works; the installation of the colossal statue coincided with substantial modification of the cella. The internal columns and their stylobates were dismantled and repositioned, which necessitated retiling the roof.

The original floor, paved with large blocks of shell stone, was covered with water-resistant lime, which may have helped protect the statue's ivory against humidity. The Roman general Mummius dedicated twenty-one gilded shields after he sacked Corinth in 146 BC. In AD 426, Theodosius II ordered the destruction of the sanctuary during the Persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire. Archaeologists have long postulated that the ruined Temple was destroyed by the earthquakes of AD 522 and 551, known to have caused widespread damage in the Peloponnese, although a 2014 paper hypothesizes that the columns may have been "intentionally pulled down by ropes during the early Byzantine period". Flooding of the Kladeos river, or by tsunami, led to abandonment of the area in the 6th century; the site was covered by alluvial deposits of up to 8 meters deep. The site of the ancient sanctuary, long forgotten under landslips and flood siltation, was identified in 1766. In May 1829, the French team of archaeologists of the "Scientific Expedition of Morea" excavated the Temple of Zeus for the first time, taking several fragments of the pediments to the Musée du Louvre.

Systematic excavation began in 1875, under the direction of the German Archaeological Institute, has continued, with some interruptions, to the present time. List of Greco-Roman roofs Apollon of Olympia · Pausanius Description of Greece Collection of images of the building layout and sculptures of the temple of Zeus Ground floor planof the temple by Dörpfeld, from the library of Universität Heidelberg

Hunsdon House

Hunsdon House is a historic house in Hunsdon, England, northwest of Harlow. Constructed in the 15th century, it was most notably the estate of Henry VIII of England, it has been rebuilt several times since and is no longer as grand as it was in the Tudor era. It is a Grade I listed building, it was constructed of brick in 1447 by Sir William Oldhall in the shape of a tower, but as Oldhall supported the House of York during the Wars of the Roses, he was stripped of the property by the Lancastrian Henry VI. Upon the Yorkist Edward IV's accession to the throne in 1471, the land was returned to the Oldhall family. John Oldhall died in the Battle of Bosworth and with the Lancastrians back in power, the estate was taken over by Henry VII. Henry traded it to his mother Margaret Beaufort for Old Soar Manor in Kent in 1503. After the deaths of Margaret and her husband Edmund Tudor, her son Henry VII gave it to Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk in 1514. Howard's son reduced the height of the tower for safety reasons in 1524.

When Henry VIII retook possession in 1525 after Howard's death, he set about expanding the house into a palatial estate in the Tudor style, complete with royal apartments and a moat. Although he visited and enjoyed hunting in the deerpark, the house was used for his children Mary, who lived there until her accession to the throne, she inherited the house after the death of her father and kept it until her death. Prince Edward notably spent much time at Hunsdon, most famously in 1546 when his portrait was painted with the house in the background. Elizabeth I made Henry Carey the first Baron Hunsdon, after first granting the house to him in 1559. In 1623, the house suffered a structural failure during a sermon given by a local friar to an audience of about 300 people in an upper chamber; the floor collapsed. The incident was known as "The Fatal Vespers"; the manor stayed in the Carey family for over 100 years, after which it passed to the Bluck family and the Calvert family. Much of Henry VIII's expansions were torn down in the early 17th century, the moat was filled some time in the 18th century.

The house was rebuilt at the beginning of the 19th century, but 1860 renovations by Nicolson Calvert changed much of the architecture to an Elizabethan style. One last renovation in 1983 revealed some of the 15th-century brickwork; the current house is less than a quarter of its size under Henry VIII. Category: Tudor architecture Category: Tudor England

2016 UCI Road World Championships – Women's road race

The Women's road race of the 2016 UCI Road World Championships took place in and around Doha, Qatar on 15 October 2016. The course of the race was 134.1 km with the finish in Doha. Lizzie Deignan was the defending champion, having won the world title in 2015. Deignan was unable to defend her title; the gold medal and rainbow jersey went to 20-year-old Danish rider Amalie Dideriksen, who became the youngest rider in a decade to win the title, only the fifth rider to win both the junior and elite world titles, having won the junior title in 2013 and 2014. She finished ahead of Kirsten Wild of the Netherlands, while the bronze medal went to Finland's Lotta Lepistö; the race started at the Qatar Foundation in Education City before the race made its way towards The Pearl-Qatar, with 27.7 kilometres being completed before the first passage of the finish line. Thereafter, seven laps of 15.2 kilometres were completed before the race's conclusion. All times are in Arabia Standard Time. 146 cyclists from 46 nations were entered in the women's road race, with 142 riders taking the start.

The numbers of cyclists per nation are shown in parentheses. Of the race's 146 entrants, 103 riders completed the full distance of 134.1 km