The Ten Commandments known as the Decalogue, are a set of biblical principles relating to ethics and worship, which play a fundamental role in the Abrahamic religions. The Ten Commandments appear twice in the Hebrew Bible: in the books of Deuteronomy; the commandments include instructions to have no other gods before him, to honour one's parents, to keep the sabbath day holy, as well as prohibitions against idolatry, murder, theft and coveting. Different religious groups follow different traditions for numbering them. Modern scholarship has found influences in Hittite and Mesopotamian laws and treaties, but is divided over when the Ten Commandments were written and who wrote them. In biblical Hebrew, the Ten Commandments are called עשרת הדברים and in Mishnaic Hebrew עשרת הדברות, both translatable as "the ten words", "the ten sayings", or "the ten matters"; the Tyndale and Coverdale English biblical translations used "ten verses". The Geneva Bible used "tenne commandements", followed by the Bishops' Bible and the Authorized Version as "ten commandments".
Most major English versions use the word "commandments". The English name "Decalogue" is derived from Greek δεκάλογος, the latter meaning and referring to the Greek translation δέκα λόγους, deka logous, "ten words", found in the Septuagint at Exodus 34:28 and Deuteronomy 10:4; the stone tablets, as opposed to the commandments inscribed on them, are called לוחות הברית, Lukhot HaBrit, meaning "the tablets of the covenant". The biblical narrative of the revelation at Sinai begins in Exodus 19 after the arrival of the children of Israel at Mount Sinai. On the morning of the third day of their encampment, "there were thunders and lightnings, a thick cloud upon the mount, the voice of the trumpet exceeding loud", the people assembled at the base of the mount. After "the LORD came down upon mount Sinai", Moses went up and returned with stone tablets and prepared the people, in Exodus 20 "God spoke" to all the people the words of the covenant, that is, the "ten commandments" as it is written. Modern biblical scholarship differs as to whether Exodus 19-20 describes the people of Israel as having directly heard all or some of the decalogue, or whether the laws are only passed to them through Moses.
The people were afraid to hear more and moved "afar off", Moses responded with "Fear not." He drew near the "thick darkness" where "the presence of the Lord" was to hear the additional statutes and "judgments", all which he "wrote" in the "book of the covenant" which he read to the people the next morning, they agreed to be obedient and do all that the LORD had said. Moses escorted a select group consisting of Aaron and Abihu, "seventy of the elders of Israel" to a location on the mount where they worshipped "afar off" and they "saw the God of Israel" above a "paved work" like clear sapphire stone, and the LORD said unto Moses, Come up to me into the mount, be there: and I will give thee tablets of stone, a law, commandments which I have written. 13 And Moses rose up, his minister Joshua: and Moses went up into the mount of God. The mount was covered by the cloud for six days, on the seventh day Moses went into the midst of the cloud and was "in the mount forty days and forty nights." And Moses said, "the LORD delivered unto me two tablets of stone written with the finger of God.
Before the full forty days expired, the children of Israel collectively decided that something had happened to Moses, compelled Aaron to fashion a golden calf, he "built an altar before it" and the people "worshipped" the calf. After the full forty days and Joshua came down from the mountain with the tablets of stone: "And it came to pass, as soon as he came nigh unto the camp, that he saw the calf, the dancing: and Moses' anger waxed hot, he cast the tablets out of his hands, brake them beneath the mount." After the events in chapters 32 and 33, the LORD told Moses, "Hew thee two tablets of stone like unto the first: and I will write upon these tablets the words that were in the first tablets, which thou brakest." "And he wrote on the tablets, according to the first writing, the ten commandments, which the LORD spake unto you in the mount out of the midst of the fire in the day of the assembly: and the LORD gave them unto me."According to Jewish tradition, Exodus 20:1–17 constitutes God's first recitation and inscription of the ten commandments on the two tablets, which Moses broke in anger with his rebellious nation, were rewritten on replacement stones and placed in the ark of the covenant.
The passages in Exodus 20 and Deuteronomy 5 contain more than ten imperative statements, totalling 14 or 15 in all. Different religious traditions divide the seventeen verses of Exodus 20:1–17 and their parallels in Deuteronomy 5:4–21 into ten "commandments" or "sayings" in different ways, shown in the table below; some suggest. All scripture quotes above are from the King James Version. Traditions: T: Jewish Talmud, makes the "prologue" the first "saying" or "matter" and combines the prohibition on worshiping deities other than Yahweh with the prohibition on i
A valve-regulated lead–acid battery is a type of lead–acid battery characterized by a limited amount of electrolyte absorbed in a plate separator or formed into a gel. There are two primary types of absorbent glass mat and gel cell. Gel cells add silica dust to the electrolyte. AGM batteries feature fiberglass mesh between the battery plates which serves to contain the electrolyte and separate the plates. Both types of VRLA batteries offer advantages and disadvantages compared to flooded Vented Lead Acid batteries, as well as to each other. Due to their construction, the gel cell and AGM types of VRLA can be mounted in any orientation, do not require constant maintenance; the term "maintenance free" is a misnomer as VRLA batteries still require cleaning and regular functional testing. They are used in large portable electrical devices, off-grid power systems and similar roles, where large amounts of storage are needed at a lower cost than other low-maintenance technologies like lithium-ion. Lead–acid cells consist of two plates of lead, which serve as electrodes, suspended in an electrolyte consisting of diluted sulfuric acid.
VRLA cells have the same chemistry. In AGM and gel type VRLA's, the electrolyte is immobilized. In AGM this is accomplished with a fiberglass mat; when a cell discharges, the lead and diluted acid undergo a chemical reaction that produces lead sulfate and water. When a cell is subsequently charged, the lead sulfate and water are turned back into acid. In all lead–acid battery designs, charging current must be adjusted to match the ability of the battery to absorb the energy. If the charging current is too great, electrolysis will occur, decomposing water into hydrogen and oxygen, in addition to the intended conversion of lead sulfate and water into lead dioxide and sulfuric acid. If these gases are allowed to escape, as in a conventional flooded cell, the battery will need to have water added from time to time. In contrast, VRLA batteries retain generated gases within the battery as long as the pressure remains within safe levels. Under normal operating conditions the gases can recombine within the battery itself, sometimes with the help of a catalyst, no additional electrolyte is needed.
However, if the pressure exceeds safety limits, safety valves open to allow the excess gases to escape, in doing so regulate the pressure back to safe levels. Both flooded and VRLA designs require suitable ventilation around the batteries. VRLA cells may be made of flat plates similar to a conventional flooded lead–acid battery, or may be made in a spiral roll form to make cylindrical cells. VRLA batteries have a pressure relief valve which will activate when the battery starts building pressure of hydrogen gas a result of being recharged. Valve activation allows some of the gas or electrolyte to escape, thus decreasing the overall capacity of the battery. Rectangular cells may have valves set to operate as low as 2 psi; the cell covers have gas diffusers built into them that allow safe dispersal of any excess hydrogen that may be formed during overcharge. They are designated to be maintenance free, they can be oriented in any manner, unlike normal lead–acid batteries, which must be kept upright to avoid acid spills and to keep the plates' orientation vertical.
Cells may be operated with the plates horizontal. At high overcharge currents, electrolysis of water occurs, expelling hydrogen and oxygen gas through the battery's valves. Care must be taken to prevent rapid charging. Constant-voltage charging is the usual, most efficient and fastest charging method for VRLA batteries, although other methods can be used. VRLA batteries may be continually float charged at around 2.18-2.27 volts per cell at 25 °C, depending on the type and battery manufacturer specifications. An equalization charge cycle, having a higher voltage-low current profile, may be utilized to reverse a battery sulfation condition; some designs can be fast charged at high rates. Sustained charging at 2.7 V per cell will damage the cells. Constant-current overcharging at high rates will exceed the capacity of the cell to recombine hydrogen and oxygen; the first lead-acid gel battery was invented by Elektrotechnische Fabrik Sonneberg in 1934. The modern gel or VRLA battery was invented by Otto Jache of Sonnenschein in 1957.
The first AGM cell was the Cyclon, patented by Gates Rubber Corporation in 1972 and now produced by EnerSys. The cyclon is a spiral-wound cell with thin lead foil electrodes. A number of manufacturers seized on the technology to implement it in cells with conventional flat plates. In the mid-1980s two UK companies and Tungstone introduced 10 year life AGM batteries in capacities up to 400 Ah, stimulated b
The Education Achievement Authority is the governing body of the Education Achievement System, a Michigan statewide school system for failing schools. The office of the State Superintendent or an Emergency Manager of a school district may transfer a failing school from its district into the System, not under an approved redesign plan. Michigan Governor Rick Snyder created the authority in June 2011 to take over and turn around failing schools. On August 26, 2011, the EAA Executive Committee went into executive session to discuss hiring John Covington as chancellor. In the summer of 2011, John Covington was appointed chancellor of the Authority school system. Pursuant to a complaint, on October 28 Judge Robert Colombo ruled them in violation of Open Meetings Act for failing to have a 2/3 vote to enter the executive session of August 26. Curt Guyette of the Metro Times wrote that "The EAA has been mired in controversy since its inception. "In December 2011, Covington held meetings in the Detroit area to explain the Authority, take input about system including whether the EAA should start with more than Detroit Public Schools.
The Authority began taking over Detroit schools in September 2012. Covington resigned as chancellor on July 13, 2014 with an interim, Veronica Conforme, appointed the next day. After the last remaining candidate dropped out on November 4, 2014, Conforme was named chancellor the next day. By 2014 many students who went to EAA schools moved back to Detroit Public Schools campuses, the EAA campuses had significant declines in enrollment. Veronica Conforme, the EAA chancellor, announced that she will give autonomy to individual campuses in an effort to improve the academics and public image of the EAA. In December 2014 Eastern Michigan University put the EAA on notice; as of 2015 the EAA did not spend a $11.5 million federal grant it received as part of the Teacher Incentive Fund. In February 2016 the Eastern Michigan University Board of Regents submitted notice to withdraw from the Achievement Authority in June 2017. Following the notice Michigan Senate leaders announced they would be working to dismantle the EAA as part of a Detroit Public Schools support package.
The EAA students used Buzz, an educational software program developed by Agilix Labs that had its testing phases during the EAA instruction. The program used software made by the School Improvement Network; as of 2012, 25% of the teachers were from Teach for America. As of 2016 the following schools are controlled by the EAA:Elementary and middle schools: Mary M. Bethune Elementary/Middle School Burns Elementary/Middle School Law Academy Nolan Elementary/Middle School Phoenix Elementary/Middle School Brenda Scott Elementary/Middle SchoolHigh schools: Central Collegiate Academy Denby High School Henry Ford High School Mumford High School Pershing High School Southeastern High SchoolCharter schiols: Murphy Performance Academy Stewart Performance Academy Trix Performance Academy as of 2011 Financial emergency in Michigan