African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, some have Native American ancestry. According to U. S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants do not self-identify as African American; the overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities. Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America.
After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, the last four million black slaves were only liberated after the Civil War in 1865. Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens; the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, only white men of property could vote. These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States; the first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine, is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.
The ill-fated colony was immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned; the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence. The first recorded Africans in British North America were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants; as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. An indentured servant would work for several years without wages; the status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", a small cash payment called "freedom dues".
Africans could raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom. They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away. In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism.
Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683. One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case; the popular conception of a race-based slave system did not develop until the 18th century. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam. All the colony's slaves, were freed upon its surrender to the British. Massachusetts was the first British colony to recognize slavery in 1641. In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under English common law; this principle was called partus sequitur ventrum. By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the c
Nashville is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Tennessee. The city is located on the Cumberland River; the city's population ranks 24th in the U. S. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the total consolidated city-county population stood at 691,243; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-independent municipalities within Davidson County, was 667,560 in 2017. Located in northern Middle Tennessee, Nashville is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in Tennessee; the 2017 population of the entire 14-county Nashville metropolitan area was 1,903,045. The 2017 population of the Nashville—Davidson–Murfreesboro–Columbia combined statistical area, a larger trade area, was 2,027,489. Named for Francis Nash, a general of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, the city was founded in 1779; the city grew due to its strategic location as a port and railroad center. Nashville seceded with Tennessee during the American Civil War and in 1862 became the first state capital to fall to Union troops.
After the war the city developed a manufacturing base. Since 1963, Nashville has had a consolidated city-county government, which includes six smaller municipalities in a two-tier system; the city is governed by a mayor, a vice-mayor, a 40-member metropolitan council. Reflecting the city's position in state government, Nashville is home to the Tennessee Supreme Court's courthouse for Middle Tennessee. Nashville is a center for the music, publishing, private prison and transportation industries, is home to numerous colleges and universities such as Tennessee State University, Vanderbilt University, Belmont University, Fisk University, Lipscomb University. Entities with headquarters in the city include Asurion, Bridgestone Americas, Captain D's, CoreCivic, Dollar General, Hospital Corporation of America, LifeWay Christian Resources, Logan's Roadhouse, Ryman Hospitality Properties; the town of Nashville was founded by James Robertson, John Donelson, a party of Overmountain Men in 1779, near the original Cumberland settlement of Fort Nashborough.
It was named for the American Revolutionary War hero. Nashville grew because of its strategic location, accessibility as a port on the Cumberland River, a tributary of the Ohio River. By 1800, the city had 345 residents, including 136 enslaved African Americans and 14 free African-American residents. In 1806, Nashville was incorporated as a city and became the county seat of Davidson County, Tennessee. In 1843, the city was named as the permanent capital of the state of Tennessee; the city government of Nashville owned 24 slaves by 1831, 60 prior to the war. They were "put to work to build the first successful water system and maintain the streets." The cholera outbreak that struck Nashville in 1849–1850 took the life of former U. S. President James K. Polk. There were 311 deaths from cholera in 1849 and an estimated 316 to about 500 in 1850. By 1860, when the first rumblings of secession began to be heard across the South, antebellum Nashville was a prosperous city; the city's significance as a shipping port made it a desirable prize as a means of controlling important river and railroad transportation routes.
In February 1862, Nashville became the first state capital to fall to Union troops. The state was occupied by Union troops for the duration of the war; the Battle of Nashville was a significant Union victory and the most decisive tactical victory gained by either side in the war. Afterward, the Confederates conducted a war of attrition, making guerrilla raids and engaging in small skirmishes, with the Confederate forces in the Deep South constantly in retreat. In 1868, a few years after the Civil War, the Nashville chapter of the Ku Klux Klan was founded by Confederate veteran John W. Morton. Chapters of this secret insurgent group formed throughout the South. In 1873 Nashville suffered another cholera epidemic, as did towns throughout Sumner County along railroad routes and the Cumberland River. Meanwhile, the city had reclaimed its important shipping and trading position and developed a solid manufacturing base; the post–Civil War years of the late 19th century brought new prosperity to Nashville and Davidson County.
These healthy economic times left the city with a legacy of grand classical-style buildings, including the Parthenon in Centennial Park, near downtown. On April 30, 1892, Ephraim Grizzard, an African-American man, was lynched in a spectacle murder in front of a white mob of 10,000 in Nashville, his lynching was described by journalist Ida B. Wells as: "A naked, bloody example of the blood-thirstiness of the nineteenth century civilization of the Athens of the South." From 1877 to 1950, a total of six lynchings of blacks were conducted in Davidson County, most in the county seat of Nashville near the turn of the century. By the turn of the century, Nashville had become the cradle of the Lost Cause of the Confederacy, as the first chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy was founded here and the Confederate Veteran magazine was published here. Most "guardians of the Lost Cause" lived near Centennial Park. At the same time, Jefferson Street became the historic center of the African-American community.
It remained so until the federal government s
Ronald Lynn Ramsey is an American auctioneer and lobbyist who served as the 49th Lieutenant Governor of Tennessee and Speaker of the State Senate from 2007 to 2017. A Republican from Blountville in East Tennessee, Ramsey succeeded long-term Democratic Lieutenant Governor John S. Wilder in 2007, who had held the office of Lieutenant Governor since 1971. Tennesseans do not elect their lieutenant governor. Ron Ramsey announced that he would not seek re-election in 2016, would instead retire from politics. State Representative Jon Lundberg won the primary election on August 2016 to take Ramsey's seat. Ramsey graduated from Sullivan Central High School in 1973, obtained his Bachelor of Science degree in 1978, majoring in Building Construction Technology at East Tennessee State University in Johnson City, he is a member of the advisory board of the Farm Credit Association, a former president of the Blountville Business Association, a former president and current member of the Bristol TN-VA Association of Realtors.
He works as a real estate broker and an auctioneer. Ramsey represents Senate District 4, which encompasses Johnson and Sullivan counties in East Tennessee, he was elected to the General Assembly as a member of the Tennessee House of Representatives in 1992, served two terms. During his time as a state representative, Ramsey represented the 1st district, composed of Sullivan County, he was elected to the state Senate in 1996 and was reelected in 2000, 2004 and 2008. In 2007, Ramsey garnered the support all of the GOP senators and one Democratic senator, Rosalind Kurita of Clarksville, in the vote for speakership of the Senate, he won with 18 votes to 15 for Wilder. He is the first Republican to serve as speaker of the Senate in 140 years. Ramsey appointed Kurita as speaker pro tempore in return for her support. Ramsey was reelected as speaker of the Senate of the 106th General Assembly in 2009 by a vote of 19–14, making him the longest serving Republican lieutenant governor in Tennessee state history, the only one since the speaker was granted the additional title of lieutenant governor by state statute.
During the 2004 election cycle, Ramsey was one of a few prominent Tennessee General Assembly leadership members who accepted campaign contributions from both the Jack Daniel's PAC and the Wine & Spirits Wholesalers of Tennessee PAC. In 2008, Ramsey endorsed Fred Thompson for President of the United States. On March 16, 2016, Ramsey posted on his Facebook page that he would not seek re-election and leave politics all together, dispelling rumors that he was to run for governor in 2018. On February 28, 2009, Ramsey announced that he would run for the Republican nomination for governor of Tennessee. In July 2010, 20 Tea Party organizations, about half of the 40 Tea Party groups in Tennessee, endorsed Ramsey for governor because of his stances on state sovereignty, health care and fiscal issues. On July 14, 2010, Ramsey said that states would have to deal with attempts to bring Sharia law to the U. S.: "But you cross the line when they start trying to bring Sharia law into the United States. Now, you could argue whether being a Muslim is a religion, or is it a nationality, way of life, whatever you want to call it.
Now we do protect our religions, but at the same time this is something we are going to have to face."On August 5, 2010, Ramsey finished third, receiving 22% votes of the total for the GOP Nomination in the state of Tennessee. "Lieutenant governor's contest may be a mystery worth decoding". Larry Daughtrey; the Tennessean. May 28, 2006. "3) Pharmacists For Life Joins International Boycott" Life Communications. November, 1994. "Campaign Finance Reform Bill Fails". Andy Spears. May 3, 2005. "John Gregory uses checkbook to promote conservative causes". Hank Haynes. September 3, 2006. "Faith Healers: The born-again Gregory brothers worked a financial miracle from cast-off drug brands". Forbes. Zina Moukheiber. October 28, 2002. "Campaign gift spat touches the governor". Tennessean. Bonna de la Cruz. October 2, 2004. Gubernatorial Campaign Site Ron Ramsey's profile at the Tennessee General Assembly Ron Ramsey's archived profile as a state representative Search the Tennessee Online Campaign Finance Database for records filed by Ramsey Tennessee Legislative Bills Sponsored and Co-sponsored by Senator Ron Ramsey Appearances on C-SPAN
Tennessee Republican Party
The Tennessee Republican Party is the affiliate of the United States Republican Party in Tennessee. It is called the Tennessee Grand Old Party or the TNGOP. Upon its entry into the Union in 1796 Tennessee was Democratic-Republican. Tennessee became a two-party system for more than 20 years during the Jacksonian era; the Democratic Party was formed by Jackson followers and this party was dominant against the rival Whig Party led by Henry Clay. But in 1835, there was a turn in power of party and a Whig governor was elected. Tennessee after the Civil War was part of the Democratic South for about a century. East Tennessee however remained Republican. Though the state was predominantly Democratic two different presidential elections won the state of Tennessee in 1920 and 1928. In the 1960s and 1970s Republicans made a push into the Democratic power when in 1966, Howard Baker was elected US senator. Again Republicans made another push, when Winfield Dunn was elected governor, the first Republican Governor in over 50 years.
The Tennessee Republican Party has had five chairmen since 2005. On December 11, 2004, the State Executive Committee unanimously elected Bob Davis as Chairman of the Tennessee Republican Party to serve for the calendar years 2005 and 2006, he was subsequently elected to a second two-year term, 2007 and 2008, but resigned from the chairmanship in August 2007 to become Senior Adviser to presidential candidate Fred Thompson. The party's State Executive Committee chose Robin Smith, former chairman of the Hamilton County Republican Party and vice chairman of the Tennessee GOP under Davis, to complete Davis's two-year term. Republicans won a historic victory in Tennessee's 2008 elections, when the party won majorities in both houses of the Tennessee General Assembly for the first time since the Reconstruction Era election of 1868. Smith was unanimously re-elected at the end of 2008 to a full two-year term as chairman for calendar years 2009 and 2010. In April 2009, Smith announced her resignation in order to run for Congress in Tennessee's 3rd congressional district in the August 2010 Republican primary.
The Chairman of the Republican Party of Tennessee is Scott Golden, elected on December 3, 2016. Michael Sullivan serves as Candice Dawkins as Opperations Director; the Tennessee Republican Party controls the governor's office and a majority in the Tennessee Senate and the Tennessee House of Representatives. Republicans hold both of the state's U. S. Senate seats and 7 of the state's 9 U. S. House seats. Marsha Blackburn Lamar Alexander Phil Roe, 1st District Tim Burchett, 2nd District Chuck Fleischmann, 3rd District Scott DesJarlais, 4th District John Rose, 6th District Mark Green, 7th District David Kustoff, 8th District Governor: Bill Lee Lieutenant Governor: Randy McNally Speaker of the Senate/Lt. Governor: Randy McNally Speaker of the House: Glen Casada Steve Southerland, District 1 Art Swann, District 2 Rusty Crowe, District 3 John Lundberg, District 4 Lt. Gov. Randy McNally, District 5 Becky Duncan Massey, District 6 Richard Briggs, District 7 Frank Niceley, District 8 Mike Bell, District 9 Todd Gardenhire, District 10 Bo Watson, District 11 Ken Yager, District 12 Bill Ketron, District 13 Jim Tracy, District 14 Janice Bowling, District 16 Mark Pody, District 17 Ferrell Haile, District 18 Steven Dickerson, District 20 Rosalind Kurita, District 22 Jack Johnson, District 23 John Stevens, District 24 Kerry Roberts, District 25 Dolores Gresham, District 26 Joey Hensley, District 28 Brian Kelsey, District 31 Jon Lundberg - District 1 Tony Shipley - District 2 Timothy Hill - District 3 David Hawk - District 5 James Van Huss - District 6 Matthew Hill - District 7 Art Swann - District 8 Michael Harrison - District 9 Tilman Goins - District 10 Jeremy Faison - District 11 Dale Carr - District 12 Eddie Smith - District 13 Ryan Haynes - District 14 Bill Dunn - District 16 Andrew Farmer - District 17 Steve Hall - District 18 Harry Brook - District 19 Bob Ramsey - District 20 Jimmy Matlock - District 21 Eric Watson - District 22 John Forgety - District 23 Kevin Brooks - District 24 Cameron Sexton - District 25 Gerald McCormick - District 26 Richard Floyd - District 27 Mike Carter, District 29 Vince Dean - District 30 Ron Travis - District 31 Kent Calfee - District 32 John Ragan - District 33 Rick Womick - District 34 Dennis E. Roach - District 35 Dennis Powers - District 36 Dawn White, District 37 Kelly Keisling - District 38 David Alexander - District 39 Terri Lynn Weaver - District 40 Ryan Williams - District 42 Paul Sherrell - District 43 William Lamberth, District 44 Courtney Rogers - District 45 Mark Pody - District 46 Judd Matheny - District 47 Bryan Terry - District 48 Mike Sparks - District 49 Speaker Beth Harwell - District 56 Susan Lynn - District 57 Charles Michael Sargent - District 61 Pat Marsh - District 62 Glen Casada - District 63 Sheila Butt - District 64 Sam Whitson, District 65 Joshua Evans - District 66 Curtis Johnson - District 68 Michael Curcio - District 69 Barry Doss - District 70 Vance Dennis - District 71 Steve McDaniel - District 72 Jimmy Eldridge - District 73 Jay Reedy - District 74 Tim Wirgau - District 75 Andy Holt - District 76 Bill Sanderson - District 77 Mary Littleton - District 78 Curtis Halford - District 79 Debra Moody, District 81 Mark White - District 83 Roger Kane, District 89 Billy Spivey, District 92 Barrett Rich - District 94 - District 95 Jim Coley - District 97 Ron Lollar - District 99 Here is the structure of the party as of December 2011 State Chairman Vice-Chairman Secretary Treasurer Vice-Treasurer National Committeewoman National Committeeman General Counsel The state executive committee operates as the governing body for the state party.
They establish rules and measures that best promote the success of the Republican Party and broadening of its base
Lobbying, persuasion, or interest representation is the act of attempting to influence the actions, policies, or decisions of officials in their daily life, most legislators or members of regulatory agencies. Lobbying is done by many types of people and organized groups, including individuals in the private sector, fellow legislators or government officials, or advocacy groups. Lobbyists may be among a legislator's constituencies, meaning a voter or bloc of voters within their electoral district. Professional lobbyists are people whose business is trying to influence legislation, regulation, or other government decisions, actions, or policies on behalf of a group or individual who hires them. Individuals and nonprofit organizations can lobby as an act of volunteering or as a small part of their normal job. Governments define and regulate organized group lobbying that has become influential; the ethics and morals involved with lobbying are complicated. Lobbying can, at times, be spoken of with contempt, when the implication is that people with inordinate socioeconomic power are corrupting the law in order to serve their own interests.
When people who have a duty to act on behalf of others, such as elected officials with a duty to serve their constituents' interests or more broadly the public good, can benefit by shaping the law to serve the interests of some private parties, a conflict of interest exists. Many critiques of lobbying point to the potential for conflicts of interest to lead to agent misdirection or the intentional failure of an agent with a duty to serve an employer, client, or constituent to perform those duties; the failure of government officials to serve the public interest as a consequence of lobbying by special interests who provide benefits to the official is an example of agent misdirection. In a report carried by the BBC, an OED lexicographer has shown that "lobbying" finds its roots in the gathering of Members of Parliament and peers in the hallways of the UK Houses of Parliament before and after parliamentary debates where members of the public can meet their representatives. One story held that the term originated at the Willard Hotel in Washington, DC, where it was used by President Ulysses S. Grant to describe the political advocates who frequented the hotel's lobby to access Grant—who was there in the evenings to enjoy a cigar and brandy—and would try to buy the president drinks in an attempt to influence his political decisions.
Although the term may have gained more widespread currency in Washington, D. C. by virtue of this practice during the Grant Administration, the OED cites numerous documented uses of the word well before Grant's presidency, including use in Pennsylvania as early as 1808. The term "lobbying" appeared in print as early as 1820: Other letters from Washington affirm, that members of the Senate, when the compromise question was to be taken in the House, were not only "lobbying about the Representatives' Chamber" but active in endeavoring to intimidate certain weak representatives by insulting threats to dissolve the Union. Dictionary definitions:'Lobbying' is a form of advocacy with the intention of influencing decisions made by the government by individuals or more by lobby groups. A'lobbyist' is a person who tries to influence legislation on behalf of a special interest or a member of a lobby. Governments define and regulate organized group lobbying as part of laws to prevent political corruption and by establishing transparency about possible influences by public lobby registers.
Lobby groups may concentrate their efforts on the legislatures, where laws are created, but may use the judicial branch to advance their causes. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, for example, filed suits in state and federal courts in the 1950s to challenge segregation laws, their efforts resulted in the Supreme Court declaring such laws unconstitutional. Lobbyists may use a legal device known as amicus curiae briefs to try to influence court cases. Briefs are written documents filed with a court by parties to a lawsuit. Amici curiae briefs are briefs filed by groups who are not parties to a suit; these briefs are entered into the court records, give additional background on the matter being decided upon. Advocacy groups use these briefs both to promote their positions; the lobbying industry is affected by the revolving door concept, a movement of personnel between roles as legislators and regulators and roles in the industries affected by legislation and regulation, as the main asset for a lobbyist is contacts with and influence on government officials.
This climate is attractive for ex-government officials. It can mean substantial monetary rewards for lobbying firms, government projects and contracts worth in the hundreds of millions for those they represent; the international standards for the regulation of lobbying were introduced at four international organizations and supranational associations: 1) the European Union. In pre-modern political systems, royal courts provided incidental opportunities for gaining the ear of monarchs and their councillors. Nowadays, lobying has taken a more drastic position as big corporations pressure politicians to help them gain more benefit. Lobying has become a big part of the world economy as big companies corrupt regulations. Kellogg School of Manag
East Tennessee comprises the eastern third of the U. S. state of Tennessee, one of the three Grand Divisions of Tennessee defined in state law. East Tennessee consists of 33 counties, 30 located within the Eastern Time Zone and three counties in the Central Time Zone, namely Bledsoe and Marion. East Tennessee is located within the Appalachian Mountains, although the landforms range from densely forested 6,000-foot mountains to broad river valleys; the region contains the major cities of Knoxville and Johnson City, Tennessee's third and ninth largest cities, respectively. East Tennessee is both geographically and culturally part of Appalachia, has been included— along with Western North Carolina, North Georgia, Eastern Kentucky, Southwest Virginia, the state of West Virginia— in every major definition of the Appalachian region since the early 20th century. East Tennessee is home to the nation's most visited national park— the Great Smoky Mountains National Park— and hundreds of smaller recreational areas.
East Tennessee is called the birthplace of country music, due to the 1927 Victor recording sessions in Bristol, throughout the 20th and 21st centuries has produced a steady stream of musicians of national and international fame. Oak Ridge was the site of the world's first successful uranium enrichment operations which paved the way for the atomic age; the Tennessee Valley Authority, created to spur economic development and help modernize the region's economy and society, has its administrative operations headquartered in Knoxville and its power operations headquartered in Chattanooga. Unlike the geographic designations of regions of most U. S. states, the term East Tennessee has legal as well as socioeconomic meaning. East Tennessee, along with Middle Tennessee and West Tennessee, comprises one of the state's three Grand Divisions. According to the Tennessee State Constitution, no more than two of the Tennessee Supreme Court's five justices can come from any one Grand Division; the Supreme Court rotates meeting in courthouses in each of the three divisions.
The Supreme Court building for East Tennessee is in Knoxville. A similar rule applies to certain other commissions and boards as well, to prevent them from showing a geographic bias. East Tennessee includes parts of three major geological divisions— the Blue Ridge on the border with North Carolina in the east, the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians in the center, the Cumberland Plateau in the west, bordering Middle Tennessee; the Blue Ridge section comprises the western section of the Blue Ridge Province, the crest of which forms most of the Tennessee-North Carolina border and consists of the highest parts of the state. The Blue Ridge is subdivided into several subranges— the Iron Mountains, Roan Highlands, Bald Mountains in the north, the Great Smoky Mountains in the center, the Unicoi Mountains and Little Frog and Big Frog Mountain areas in the south. Most of the Blue Ridge section is forested and protected by various state and federal entities, the largest of which include the Great Smoky Mountains National Park and the Cherokee National Forest.
The Ridge-and-Valley section called the Tennessee Valley or "Great Valley," is the region's largest and most populous section. It consists of a series of alternating elongate ridges and broad river valleys oriented northeast-to-southwest; this section's most notable feature, the Tennessee River, forms at the confluence of the Holston and French Broad rivers in Knoxville, flows southwestward to Chattanooga, where it enters the Tennessee River Gorge. Other notable rivers in the upper Tennessee watershed include the Clinch, Watauga, Little Tennessee, Hiwassee and Ocoee rivers. Notable "ridges" in the Ridge-and-Valley range include Clinch Mountain, Bays Mountain, Powell Mountain; the Cumberland Plateau rises nearly 1,000 feet above the Tennessee Valley, stretching from Cumberland Gap at the Tennessee-Kentucky-Virginia border southwestward to the Alabama border. The "Tennessee Divide" runs along the western part of the plateau, separates the watersheds of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers. Plateau counties east of this divide— i.e. Cumberland and Scott— are grouped with East Tennessee, whereas plateau counties west of this divide are considered part of Middle Tennessee.
Three counties— Bledsoe and Marion— are located in the Sequatchie Valley, a long narrow valley in the southern part of the Cumberland Plateau. These three counties were traditionally part of East Tennessee; however and Marion counties were reassigned to the Middle Tennessee grand division circa 1932. Marion County was returned to East Tennessee, but Sequatchie County remains part of Middle Tennessee. One notable detached section of the Plateau is Lookout Mountain; the Official Tourism Website of Tennessee has a definition of East Tennessee different from the legal definition.: The website excludes Cumberland County while including Grundy and Sequatchie Counties. The major cities of East Tennessee are Knoxville and the "Tri-Cities" of Bristol, Johnson City, Kingsport located in the extreme northeasternmost part of the state; the Blue Ridge section of the state is much more sparsely populated, its main cities being Elizabethton and Tellico Plains. Crossville and Jasper are prominent cities in the Plateau region.
Cities and towns with 10,000+ population (2016 estim
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif