Sam Davis was a Confederate soldier executed by Union forces in Pulaski, Tennessee during the American Civil War. He is popularly known as the Boy Hero of the Confederacy although he was 21 when he died and became a celebrated instance of Confederate memorialisation in the late 1890s and early 1900s eulogised by Middle Tennesseans for his valor and sacrifice. Born October 6, 1842, in Rutherford County, Tennessee, he was the oldest son of Charles Lewis Davis and Jane Davis. At the peak period of the 1850s, records show, he attended local school in Smyrna and was educated at the Western Military Institute—now Montgomery Bell Academy—from 1860–61. While there he came under the influence of headmaster and future Confederate General Bushrod Johnson, he was recruited by Confederate scout forces early in the Civil War. He signed up as a private in the First Tennessee Volunteer Infantry in 1861 and his regiment marched off to war first at Cheat Mountain, next in the Shenandoah Valley at Shiloh and Perryville.
Wounded at Shiloh, Davis suffered a more severe wound at Perryville. After recovering from the wound he took on active service as a courier for Coleman's Scouts, he was captured near Minor Hill, Tennessee, on November 20, 1863, having been detailed for special, hazardous duty within the Union lines of occupation around Nashville. At the time of his arrest by Union secret service agents, Davis had in his possession a miscellany of newspapers and intelligence sources, which included detailed drawings of Union fortifications at Nashville and other towns in Middle Tennessee. Imprisoned in Pulaski, which at that time was a garrisoned Union town under command of General Grenville M. Dodge, Davis faced charges of espionage and steadfastly refused to reveal the names of his informants. After his prisoner was found guilty, General Dodge announced that Davis should be hanged on a hill described by a report from the Cincinnati Daily Commercial as "a pretty eminence, north east of Pulaski, overlooking the town."
When local citizens protested at so visual a display of a gruesome act, Dodge replied, "I want him hung where you all can see him." According to the newspaper account, corroborated by several eyewitness accounts recorded between 1862 and the 1890s, Dodge offered Davis his life in exchange for information about his informants. The condemned man refused all such offers. "Would you betray a friend?" Davis is reported to have said. "I had rather die a thousand deaths." Confederate lore had Davis saying upon climbing the scaffold that "the boys will have to fight the battles without me." Accounts of Davis' martyrdom appeared in accounts written by Union soldiers, who witnessed the execution, by a journalist from the Cincinnati Daily Commercial. Bearing his fate bravely, Davis touched upon the sympathies of all observers, including his captors; the reporter recorded the scene thus: All nature seemed to be in mourning, many warm hearts and true, but more that were not, melted into sympathy. Four companies of the 111th Illinois and two companies of the 7th Iowa were drawn up, forming a hollow square with fixed bayonets, with the gallows in the center of it.
Hundreds and thousands were the spectators. The Provost Marshal took off the prisoner's hat, for his hands were tied behind him, Chaplain Young, of the 81st Ohio, addressed a throne of mercy in behalf of his soul, and that prayer -- it was long and fervently prayed that if a reprieve was not to be given on earth, that a higher, lasting one might be given in Heaven, where wars come not. He implored God's blessing upon our whole country -- that sweet peace might soon return again -- that the time when war should no longer be waged might come speedily. After a white hood was tied over the prisoner's head, the trap door was sprung at 10:30 a.m. Union soldiers turned away as Davis writhed in death agony for three minutes. "He stood it like a man," one Union soldier noted in his diary the following day. "He never paled a bit but stood it like a hero." That night, the Daily Commercial reported, "evergreens were planted, now sigh in the wild wintery winds o'er his grave, while flowers culled by fair hands, were strewn upon it."Davis wrote a letter to his mother before his execution, "Dear mother.
O how painful it is to write you! I have got to die to-morrow --- to be hanged by the Federals. Mother, do not grieve for me. I must bid you good-bye forevermore. Mother, I do not fear to die. Give my love to all." There was a postscript for his father, too. "Father, you can send. They will be at Tenn.. I will leave some things with the hotel keeper for you." He was hanged by Union forces in Pulaski, Tennessee, on November 27, 1863. As he was trundled along to the hanging site atop his own coffin, Union soldiers alongside the bumpy wagon road shouted out their entreaties for his cooperation, lest they have to watch the grim execution; the officer in charge of the execution was discomfited by Davis' youth and calm demeanor and had trouble carrying out his orders. Davis is alleged to have said to him, "Officer, I did my duty. Now, you do yours." The execution gained some notoriety at the time among soldiers of the Army of Tennessee. Writing in his memoir Co. Aytch, published in the early 1880s, Private Sam Watkins recalled that in 1864 that his regiment had assembled to watch the hanging of two young Yankee spies, eager to see the condemned men suffer because "they had hung
Wrought iron is an iron alloy with a low carbon content in contrast to cast iron. It is a semi-fused mass of iron with fibrous slag inclusions, which gives it a "grain" resembling wood, visible when it is etched or bent to the point of failure. Wrought iron is tough, ductile, corrosion-resistant and welded. Before the development of effective methods of steelmaking and the availability of large quantities of steel, wrought iron was the most common form of malleable iron, it was given the name wrought because it was hammered, rolled or otherwise worked while hot enough to expel molten slag. The modern functional equivalent of wrought iron is low carbon steel. Neither wrought iron nor mild steel contain enough carbon to be hardenable by quenching, it is a refined iron with a small amount of slag forged out into fibres. The chemical analysis of the metal shows as much as 99 percent of iron; the slag characteristic of wrought iron is useful in blacksmithing operations and gives the material its peculiar fibrous structure.
The non-corrosive slag constituent causes wrought iron to be resistant to progressive corrosion. Moreover, the presence of slag produces a structure which diminishes the effect of fatigue caused by shocks and vibrations. A modest amount of wrought iron was refined into steel, used to produce swords, chisels and other edged tools as well as springs and files; the demand for wrought iron reached its peak in the 1860s, being in high demand for ironclad warships and railway use. However, as properties such as brittleness of mild steel improved with better ferrous metallurgy and as steel became less costly to make thanks to the Bessemer process and the Siemens-Martin process, the use of wrought iron declined. Many items, before they came to be made of mild steel, were produced from wrought iron, including rivets, wire, rails, railway couplings and steam pipes, bolts, handrails, wagon tires, straps for timber roof trusses, ornamental ironwork, among many other things. Wrought iron is no longer produced on a commercial scale.
Many products described as wrought iron, such as guard rails, garden furniture and gates, are made of mild steel. They retain that description because they are made to resemble objects which in the past were wrought by hand by a blacksmith; the word "wrought" is an archaic past participle of the verb "to work," and so "wrought iron" means "worked iron". Wrought iron is a general term for the commodity, but is used more for finished iron goods, as manufactured by a blacksmith, it was used in that narrower sense in British Customs records, such manufactured iron was subject to a higher rate of duty than what might be called "unwrought" iron. Cast iron, unlike wrought iron, can not be worked either hot or cold. Cast iron can break. In the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries, wrought iron went by a wide variety of terms according to its form, origin, or quality. While the bloomery process produced wrought iron directly from ore, cast iron or pig iron were the starting materials used in the finery forge and puddling furnace.
Pig iron and cast iron have higher carbon content than wrought iron, but have a lower melting point than iron or steel. Cast and pig iron have excess slag which must be at least removed to produce quality wrought iron. At foundries it was common to blend scrap wrought iron with cast iron to improve the physical properties of castings. For several years after the introduction of Bessemer and open hearth steel, there were different opinions as to what differentiated iron from steel. Fusion became accepted as more important than composition below a given low carbon concentration. Another difference is. Wrought iron was known as "commercially pure iron", however, it no longer qualifies because current standards for commercially pure iron require a carbon content of less than 0.008 wt%. Bar iron is a generic term sometimes used to distinguish it from cast iron, it is the equivalent of an ingot of cast metal, in a convenient form for handling, storage and further working into a finished product. The bars were the usual product of the finery forge, but not made by that process.
Rod iron—cut from flat bar iron in a slitting mill provided the raw material for spikes and nails. Hoop iron—suitable for the hoops of barrels, made by passing rod iron through rolling dies. Plate iron—sheets suitable for use as boiler plate. Blackplate—sheets thinner than plate iron, from the black rolling stage of tinplate production. Voyage iron—narrow flat bar iron, made or cut into bars of a particular weight, a commodity for sale in Africa for the Atlantic slave trade; the number of bars per ton increased from 70 per ton in the 1660s to 75–80 per ton in 1685 and "near 92 to the ton" in 1731. Charcoal iron—until the end of the 18th century, wrought iron was smelted from ore using charcoal, by the bloomery process. Wrought iron was produced from pig iron using a finery forge or in a Lancashire hearth; the resulting metal was variable, both in chemistry and slag content. Puddled iron—the puddling process was the first large-scale process to produce wrought iron. In the puddling process, pig iron is refined in a reverberatory furnace to prevent contamination of the iron from the sulfur in the coal or coke.
In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names. States are divided into counties or county-equivalents, which may be assigned some local governmental authority but are not sovereign. County or county-equivalent structure varies by state, states may create other local governments. State governments are allocated power by the people through their individual constitutions. All are grounded in republican principles, each provides for a government, consisting of three branches, each with separate and independent powers: executive and judicial.
States possess a number of rights under the United States Constitution. States and their residents are represented in the United States Congress, a bicameral legislature consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives; each state is entitled to select a number of electors to vote in the Electoral College, the body that directly elects the President of the United States. Additionally, each state has the opportunity to ratify constitutional amendments, with the consent of Congress, two or more states may enter into interstate compacts with one another; the tasks of local law enforcement, public education, public health, regulating intrastate commerce, local transportation and infrastructure have been considered state responsibilities, although all of these now have significant federal funding and regulation as well. Over time, the Constitution has been amended, the interpretation and application of its provisions have changed; the general tendency has been toward centralization and incorporation, with the federal government playing a much larger role than it once did.
There is a continuing debate over states' rights, which concerns the extent and nature of the states' powers and sovereignty in relation to the federal government and the rights of individuals. The Constitution grants to Congress the authority to admit new states into the Union. Since the establishment of the United States in 1776, the number of states has expanded from the original 13 to 50. Alaska and Hawaii are the most recent states admitted, both in 1959; the Constitution is silent on the question of whether states have the power to secede from the Union. Shortly after the Civil War, the U. S. Supreme Court, in Texas v. White, held; the 50 U. S. states, in alphabetical order, along with each state's flag: As sovereign entities, each of the 50 states reserves the right to organize its individual government in any way deemed appropriate by its people. As a result, while the governments of the various states share many similar features, they vary with regard to form and substance. No two state governments are identical.
The government of each state is structured in accordance with its individual constitution. Many of these documents more elaborate than their federal counterpart; the Constitution of Alabama, for example, contains 310,296 words – more than 40 times as many as the U. S. Constitution. In practice, each state has adopted the three-branch frame of the federal government: executive and judicial. In each state, the chief executive is called the governor, who serves as both head of state and head of government. All governors are chosen by direct election; the governor may approve or veto bills passed by the state legislature, as well as push for the passage of bills supported by their party. In 44 states, governors have line item veto power. Most states have a plural executive, meaning that the governor is not the only government official in the state responsible for its executive branch. In these states, executive power is distributed amongst other officials, elected by the people independently of the governor—such as the lieutenant governor, attorney general, secretary of state, others.
The constitutions of 19 states allow for citizens to remove and replace an elected public official before the end of their term of office through a recall election. Each state follows its own procedures for recall elections, sets its own restrictions on how and how soon after a general election, they may be held. In all states, the legislatures can remove state executive branch officials, including governors, who have committed serious abuses of their power from office; the process of doing so includes impeachment, a trial, in which legislators act as a jury. The primary responsibilities of state legislatures are to enact state laws and appropriate money for the administration of public policy. In all states, if the governor vetoes a bill, it can still become law if the legislature overrides the veto by a two-thirds vote in each chamber. In 49 of the 50 states the legislature consists of two chambers: a lower house (termed the House of Representati
Governor of Tennessee
The Governor of Tennessee is the head of government of the U. S. state of Tennessee. The governor is the only official in Tennessee state government, directly elected by the voters of the entire state; the current governor is Bill Lee, a member of the Republican Party, who took office on January 19, 2019. The Tennessee Constitution provides that the governor must be at least 30 years old and must have lived in the state for at least seven years before being elected to the office; the governor may serve no more than two terms consecutively. There are only two other U. S. states, New Jersey and Hawaii, where the governor is the only state official to be elected statewide. The Tennessee Constitution provides that “The supreme executive power of this state shall be vested in a governor.” Most state department heads and some members of boards and commissions are appointed by the governor. The governor is the commander-in-chief of the state's army and navy and the state militia, except when they have been called up into federal service.
The governor chairs the Tennessee Board of Regents and the University of Tennessee Board of Trustees and holds seats on the State Funding Board, State Building Commission, Board of Equalization, Tennessee Local Development Authority, School Bond Authority, Tennessee Industrial and Agricultural Development Commission. The Tennessee governor can veto laws passed by the Tennessee General Assembly and has line-item veto authority for individual spending items included in bills passed by the legislature. In either situation, the governor's veto can be overridden by a simple majority of both houses of the legislature. If a governor exercises the veto authority after the legislature has adjourned, the veto stands, it is uncommon for Tennessee governors to use their veto power because it is so easy for the General Assembly to override a veto. The state constitution empowers the governor to call the General Assembly into special session, with the subjects to be considered limited to matters specified in the call.
As of 2010, the governor's salary was set at $170,340 per year. This is the ninth highest U. S. gubernatorial salary. Haslam and his predecessor, Phil Bredesen, both were independently wealthy before taking office and refused to accept state salaries for their service as governor. Tennessee does not elect a lieutenant governor. If a vacancy occurs in the office of governor due to the governor's death, removal, or resignation from office, the Tennessee Constitution provides for the Speaker of the Tennessee Senate to become governor; because this has the effect of making the speaker the lieutenant governor, the speaker is referred to by the title "lieutenant governor." And was granted this title by statute in 1951. Following the lieutenant governor/senate speaker in the line of succession are the speaker of the Tennessee House of Representatives, the secretary of state, the comptroller. In the event the governor's office becomes vacant during the first 18 months of his term, a special election for the balance of the term must be held at the time of the next federal general election.
If the vacancy occurs after the first 18 months, whoever ascends to the governorship serves out the balance of the term. In either case, a partial term counts toward the two-term limit. Governor William Blount served from 1790 to 1796, when Tennessee was known as the Southwest Territory, he was replaced by the state's first governor. Other notable governors include Willie Blount, Sam Houston, future U. S Presidents James K. Polk and Andrew Johnson
William Strickland (architect)
William Strickland, was a noted architect and civil engineer in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. A student of Benjamin Latrobe and mentor to Thomas Ustick Walter, Strickland helped establish the Greek Revival movement in the United States. A pioneering engineer, he wrote a seminal book on railroad construction, helped build several early American railroads, designed the first ocean breakwater in the Western Hemisphere. Strickland was born in the Navesink section of Middletown Township, New Jersey and moved with his family to Philadelphia as a child. In his youth, he was a landscape painter, illustrator for periodicals, theatrical scene painter and pioneer aquatintist, his Greek Revival designs drew much inspiration from the plates of The Antiquities of Athens. Strickland and Latrobe competed to design the Second Bank of the United States in Philadelphia, a competition that called for "chaste" Greek style. Strickland, still copying classical prototypes at this point, won with an ambitious design modeled on the iconic Parthenon of Athens.
Proud of the building, Strickland had it included in the background of his 1829 portrait by Philadelphia society painter John Neagle. The oldest building designed by W. Strickland, preserved to this day, is the Holy Trinity Romanian Orthodox Church, located at 222-230 Brown Street Philadelphia known as St. John's Episcopalian Church. An anonymous report from its consecration, published on September 21, 1816, in Relf’s Philadelphia Gazette and Daily Advertiser, describes the church as a “neat and elegant edifice” whose “design was given by Mr. William Strickland, of this city,” and whose “execution has done justice to the taste of the Architect.”. Strickland's evolving talent and confidence is seen in the Merchants' Exchange. In Philadelphia, the Merchant Exchange is built on classical example — for example, the cupola is based on the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates — but is a unique building styled to fit the site, it was to be located on a triangular plot at the intersection of two major thoroughfares between the waterfront and the business district.
The elegant, curved east façade faces the waterfront, reflects the carriage and foot traffic that would have been circulating in front of the building. This elevation is unique — Greek Revival, but modern — while a more staid and formal elevation can be found on the west side, facing Third Street. In the same year he designed the Merchants' Exchange, 1832, Strickland entered a project in the competition for Philadelphia's Girard College, which won the second prize. Strickland's 1836 National Mechanic Bank at 22 South 3rd Street, set on a narrow plot between two taller neighbors, has strong, square pilasters to support the portico and ornate stone carving at their tops to defend the building against its taller and bulkier neighbors. One of Strickland's last Philadelphia designs and among his smallest, the building is now occupied by National Mechanics Bar and Restaurant. Strickland executed works in other styles, including early American work in the Gothic Revival style, including his Masonic Hall and his Saint Stephen's Church, both in Philadelphia.
He made use of Egyptian and Italianate styles. He moved to Nashville, where his Egyptian-influenced design of the First Presbyterian Church was controversial but today is recognized as a masterpiece and an important evocation of the Egyptian Revival style. Strickland was a civil engineer and one of the first to advocate the use of steam locomotives on railways; some argue that Strickland's observations made during visits to England in the 1820s were influential in the transfer of railway technology to the United States: "William Strickland's Reports are the starting point of American railway engineering, represent the state of knowledge as the first railways were planned in that country." In 1835, the Wilmington and Susquehanna Railroad hired him to survey a route from Wilmington, Delaware, to Charlestown, Maryland. That year, he was named chief engineer of the Delaware and Maryland Railroad. Strickland designed and built the Delaware Breakwater, the first breakwater in the Americas and the third in the world.
Several architects and engineers of note began or developed their careers in Strickland's employ, including Thomas Ustick Walter, Gideon Shryock and John Trautwine. Strickland died in Nashville and is buried within the walls of his final, arguably greatest work, the Tennessee State Capitol. Masonic Hall, Philadelphia. Holy Trinity Romanian Orthodox Church, Philadelphia known as the former St. John's Episcopal Church. Second Bank of the United States, Philadelphia. St. Stephen's Philadelphia. Second Chestnut Street Theatre - 1822 - 1856 Musical Fund Hall, The Musical Fund Society, Philadelphia - 1824. Wyck House - 1824 Triumphal Arches for Lafayette's visit - 1824 Second Congregation Mikveh Israel Synagogue, Philadelphia - 1825. United States Naval Asylum, Philadelphia - 1826–33. Restoration of the tower of Independence Hall, Philadelphia - 1828. First Unitarian Church of Philadelphia, - 1828 University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia - 1829 Arch St. Theater - 1829 Second Philadelphia Mint, Philadelphia - 1829–33.
Blockley Almshouse - 1835 Merchants' Exchange, Philadelphia 1832–34. Mechanics National Bank - 1837 Immanuel Episcopal Church on the Green, N
Penal labour is a generic term for various kinds of unfree labour which prisoners are required to perform manual labour. The work may be hard, depending on the context. Forms of sentence involving penal labour have included involuntary servitude, penal servitude and imprisonment with hard labour; the term may refer to several related scenarios: labour as a form of punishment, the prison system used as a means to secure labour, labour as providing occupation for convicts. These scenarios can be applied to those imprisoned for political, war, or other reasons as well as to criminal convicts. Large-scale implementations of penal labour include labour camps, prison farms, penal colonies, penal military units, penal transportation, or aboard prison ships. Punitive labour known as convict labour, prison labour, or hard labour, is a form of forced labour used in both past and present as an additional form of punishment beyond imprisonment alone. Punitive labour encompasses two types: productive labour, such as industrial work.
Sometimes authorities turn prison labour into an industry, as on a prison farm or in a prison workshop. In such cases, the pursuit of income from their productive labour may overtake the preoccupation with punishment and/or reeducation as such of the prisoners, who are at risk of being exploited as slave-like cheap labour. On the other hand, for example in Victorian prisons, inmates were made to work the treadmill: in some cases, this was productive labour to grind grain. Similar punishments included carrying cannonballs. Semi-punitive labour included oakum-picking: teasing apart old tarry rope to make caulking material for sailing vessels. Imprisonment with hard labour was first introduced into English law with the Criminal Law Act 1776 known as the "Hulks Act", which authorized prisoners being put to work on improving the navigation of the River Thames in lieu of transportation to the North American colonies, which had become impossible due to the American Revolutionary War; the Penal Servitude Act 1853 substituted penal servitude for transportation to a distant British colony, except in cases where a person could be sentenced to transportation for life or for a term not less than fourteen years.
Section 2 of the Penal Servitude Act 1853 abolished the sentence of transportation in all cases and provided that in all cases a person who would otherwise have been liable to transportation would be liable to penal servitude instead. Section 1 of the Penal Servitude Act 1853 makes provision for enactments which authorise a sentence of penal servitude but do not specify a maximum duration, it must now be read subject to section 1 of the Criminal Justice Act 1948. Sentences of penal servitude were served in convict prisons and were controlled by the Home Office and the Prison Commissioners. After sentencing, convicts would be classified according to the seriousness of the offence of which they were convicted and their criminal record. First time offenders would be classified in the Star class. Habitual offenders would be classified in the Recidivist class. Care was taken to ensure. Penal servitude included hard labour as a standard feature. Although it was prescribed for severe crimes it was widely applied in cases of minor crime, such as petty theft and vagrancy, as well as victimless behaviour deemed harmful to the fabric of society.
Notable recipients of hard labour under British law include the prolific writer Oscar Wilde, imprisoned in Reading Gaol. Labour was sometimes useful. In Inveraray Jail from 1839 prisoners worked up to ten hours a day. Most male prisoners picked oakum. Female prisoners knitted stockings or sewed. Forms of labour for punishment included the treadmill, shot drill, the crank machine. Treadmills for punishment were used in prisons in Britain from 1818 until the second half of the 19th century. Prisoners had to work six or more hours a day, climbing the equivalent of 5,000 to 14,000 vertical feet. While the purpose was punitive, the mills could have been used to grind grain, pump water, or operate a ventilation system. Shot drill involved stooping without bending the knees, lifting a heavy cannonball to chest height, taking three steps to the right, replacing it on the ground, stepping back three paces, repeating, moving cannonballs from one pile to another; the crank machine was a device which turned a crank by hand which in turn forced four large cups or ladles through sand inside a drum, doing nothing useful.
Male prisoners had to turn the handle 6,000–14,400 times over the period of six hours a day, as registered on a dial. The warder could make the task harder by tightening an adjusting screw, hence the slang term "screw" for prison warder; the British penal colonies in Australia between 1788 and 1868 provide a major historical example of convict labour, as described above: during that period, Australia received thousands of transported c