Tenor saxophone

The tenor saxophone is a medium-sized member of the saxophone family, a group of instruments invented by Adolphe Sax in the 1840s. The tenor and the alto are the two most used saxophones; the tenor is pitched in the key of B♭, written as a transposing instrument in the treble clef, sounding an octave and a major second lower than the written pitch. Modern tenor saxophones which have a high F♯ key have a range from A♭2 to E5 and are therefore pitched one octave below the soprano saxophone. People who play the tenor saxophone are known as "tenor saxophonists", "tenor sax players", or "saxophonists"; the tenor saxophone uses a larger mouthpiece and ligature than the alto and soprano saxophones. Visually, it is distinguished by the curve in its neck, or its crook, near the mouthpiece; the alto saxophone lacks its neck goes straight to the mouthpiece. The tenor saxophone is most recognized for its ability to blend well with the soprano and baritone saxophones, with its "husky" yet "bright" tone. Tenor sax has been an important solo instrument in jazz music.

Famous and influential players include Coleman Hawkins, Lester Young, Ben Webster, Dexter Gordon, Wardell Gray, Stan Getz, Sonny Rollins, John Coltrane and Wayne Shorter. The work of younger players such as Michael Brecker and Chris Potter has been an important influence in more recent jazz; the tenor saxophone is one of a family of fourteen instruments designed and constructed in 1846 by Adolphe Sax, a Belgian-born instrument maker and clarinetist. Based on an amalgam of ideas drawn from the clarinet, flute and ophicleide, the saxophone was intended to form a tonal link between the woodwinds and brass instruments found in military bands, an area that Sax considered sorely lacking. Sax's patent, granted on 28 June 1846, divided the family into two groups of seven instruments, each ranging from alto down to contrabass. One family, pitched alternatively in B♭ and E♭, was designed to integrate with the other instruments common in military bands; the tenor saxophone, pitched in B♭, is the fourth member of this family.

The tenor saxophone, like all saxophones, consists of an conical tube of thin brass, a type of metal. The wider end of the tube is flared to form a bell, while the narrower end is connected to a single reed mouthpiece similar to that of the clarinet. At intervals down the bore are placed between 23 tone holes. There are two small speaker holes which, when opened, disrupt the lower harmonics of the instrument and cause it to overblow into an upper register; the pads are controlled by pressing a number of keys with the fingers of the left and right hands. The original design of tenor saxophone had a separate octave key for each speaker hole, in the manner of the bassoon. Although a handful of novelty tenors have been constructed'straight', like the smaller members of the saxophone family, the unwieldy length of the straight configuration means that all tenor saxophones feature a'U-bend' above the third-lowest tone hole, characteristic of the saxophone family; the tenor saxophone is curved at the top, above the highest tone-hole but below the highest speaker hole.

While the alto is bent only through 80–90° to make the mouthpiece fit more in the mouth, the tenor is bent a little more in this section, incorporating a slight S-bend. The mouthpiece of the tenor saxophone is similar to that of the clarinet, an wedge-shaped tube, open along one face and covered in use by a thin strip of material prepared from the stem of the giant cane known as a reed; the reed is shaved to come to an thin point, is clamped over the mouthpiece by the use of a ligature. When air is blown through the mouthpiece, the reed vibrates and generates the acoustic resonances required to produce a sound from the instrument; the mouthpiece is the area of the saxophone with the greatest flexibility in shape and style, so the timbre of the instrument is determined by the dimensions of its mouthpiece. The design of the mouthpiece and reed play a big role in. Classical mouthpieces help produce a warmer and rounder tone, while jazz mouthpieces help produce a brighter and edgier tone. Materials used in mouthpiece construction include plastic and various metals e.g. bronze and stainless steel.

The mouthpiece of the tenor saxophone is proportionally larger than that of the alto, necessitating a larger reed. The increased stiffness of the reed and the greater airflow required to establish resonance in the larger body means the tenor sax requires greater lung power but a looser embouchure than the higher-pitched members of the saxophone family; the tenor sax reed is similar in size to that used in the bass clarinet, so the two can be substituted. The tenor saxophone first gained popularity in one of its original intended roles: the military band. Soon after its invention and Belgian military bands began to take full advantage of the instrument which Sax had designed for them. Modern military bands incorporate a quartet of saxophone players playing the E♭ baritone, tenor, E♭ alto and B♭ soprano. British military bands customarily make use only of the tenor and alto saxes, with two or more musicians on each instrument; the tenor is us

Solitary (TV series)

Solitary is a reality show on the Fox Reality Channel whose contestants were kept in round-the-clock solitary confinement for a number of weeks with the goal of being the last contestant remaining in solitary, for a $50,000 prize. It was the channel's first original series commission with its debut on May 29, 2006; the last season, Solitary 4.0, ended on March 20, 2010. A German version is broadcast on German TV channel ProSieben, a Brazilian version was broadcast on SBT between 2010 and 2011. Solitary 3.0 broadcast in Singapore. The show calls itself a "social experiment" in determining the physical and mental endurance of the competitors; the show's theme is based on solitary confinement. In reality, Val's voice is a computer-modified human voice. In Season 1, Val was voiced by a male, whose voice was altered. In Season 2, Val is voiced with little computer modification. However, some "corruption" can be heard in the voice pattern where Val speaks a word or two in a similar voice to Season 1. In the recent rebroadcast of the Season 1 episodes, the producers have replaced the computer-sounding voice with the more feminine voice, used in Season 2.

In the Season 3 episode "Rest In Pieces," Val's "eye" turns red and its voice takes a deep, distorted tone, similar to that of Jigsaw in Saw, while giving instructions for the episode's test. Val is a reference to HAL, the demented computer who takes over the spaceship in 2001: A Space Odyssey; the AI and main antagonist GLaDOS from the video game Portal bears a slight resemblance in tone and voice to Val. Val often makes references to the fact that she is a computer. No contact with the outside world – or other competitors – is permitted, with the following exceptions: At the beginning, a final two-minute phone call is permitted; the guests had a chance to send a letter to their loved one. In Season 1, on two occasions, the guests were allowed to speak to each other, but only through Val. In Season 2, another phone call was auctioned off in the fourth episode, the last two contestants in the final were allowed to taunt each other via Val. In Season 3, contestants were randomly paired in pods for the first challenge in the first episode, the last two contestants were again allowed to taunt each other via Val in the final.

In Season 4, guests were given the opportunity to send a message via Val to number 6, as he was considering sharing his reward of beer and peanuts. Beyond the social isolation, there is isolation from time, with no clocks, watches, or other timepieces available to contestants. There are no environmental time cues; the environment is controlled, from temperature, access to a restroom, etc. In addition, the room is octagonal, adding another disorienting aspect. Players are only referred to by their number, not their name; this is an additional separation from the world. However, Val did call one contestant by name at the termination of his second stint in Solitary out of respect: Val said, "Goodbye Number – Tyler." A season 1 episode stated. However, one guest received a plate of cheese and a glass of wine as a prize in season 3 and another won beer and peanuts in season 4; each series starts with the players finding themselves in their "pods", small octagonal cells 10 feet across, identified by Val by the number of their pod.

The pods include a "meal slot" where food and other items may be given to the players as part of the "treatment". Most the pods each contain a flat-screen television representing Val and red and green push buttons below it; the environment of the pods is under control of Val, including the lighting, the temperature, other features such as a retractable bed that may be offered at times. While players are given sufficient water, their meals are rationed consisting of either a tasteless "nutrition bar" or a small portion of a food item, e.g. a single grape or almond. However, as either a reward or part of a challenge, players are sometimes given larger amounts of more nourishing food items. Furthermore, while each pod is equipped with a proper bed, Val will limit the amount of sleep the players get by making sure they stay awake, though the players are granted short sleep periods at times. Players only communicate with Val during the game, with Val being their proxy should they be allowed to "communicate" to another player.

Once in the game, players are required to perform actions. Players must press the green button to request permission to use the bathroom or make other similar requests. Outside of the "Treatment" phase, the player may hit the red button at any time to indicate they wish to quit the game; the game cycles between "Tests" and "Treatments", along with other less strenuous activities that may be conducted by Val. During a "Test", players will compete against each other in completing a task set by Val; these tasks are physically and mentally grueling, taking several hours to complete. For example, players may have to use a piece of exercise equipment a certain number of times to gain a portion of a brain teaser to be solved. T

Colletta di Castelbianco

Colletta di Castelbianco is an ancient village in the Maritime Alps and near the Italian Riviera in the province of Savona in Liguria, Italy. The village is built of stone and was established as a defense against the Saracens in the 13th century. Abandoned in the 1950s, Colletta has been the subject, in the late 1990s, of a restoration project operating on two levels. On one level, has been made a general restoration of the ancient settlement, respecting the original materials and building techniques. In this way, they are able to enjoy the peace and isolation offered by the village while staying in touch with the work environment and, more with the information resources available all over the world, thus it is possible for people to have the chance to "telecommute", to spend long periods in Colletta. In 2005, the village had its first olive harvest in 30 years and is now producing small quantities of high-grade olive oil from the local taggiasca olives. Http:// "Colletta di Castelbianco" Project: Rediscovering Sense of Place in the Era of the Global Village, by Valerio Saggini.

Zurück in die Zukunft. Die Zeit, 1999.08.26. Back to the Future. Baglioni, 1998.12.01. Vivere l'età della sostenibilità: l'approccio ecologico all'abitare tra domotica e tecnologie appropriate. By Mauro Bertagnin and Clelia Mungiguerra. "The Living Building in Europe Toward the Third Millennium", International Symposium Proceedings, October 10–11, 1997, Clean Edizioni, Napoli, 1997