Nagara Station is a train station of West Japan Railway Company in Tenri, Japan. Although the station is on the Sakurai Line as rail infrastructure, it has been served by the Man-yō Mahoroba Line since 2010 in terms of passenger train services. JR-West U Man-yō Mahoroba Line Ōyamato Shrine Nara Football Center Official website
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Tenrikyo is a Japanese new religion, neither monotheistic nor pantheistic, originating from the teachings of a 19th-century woman named Nakayama Miki, known to her followers as Oyasama. Followers of Tenrikyo believe that God of Origin, God in Truth, known by several names including "Tsukihi," "Tenri-Ō-no-Mikoto" and "Oyagamisama" revealed divine intent through Miki Nakayama as the Shrine of God and to a lesser extent the roles of the Honseki Izo Iburi and other leaders. Tenrikyo's worldly aim is to teach and promote the Joyous Life, cultivated through acts of charity and mindfulness called hinokishin; the primary operations of Tenrikyo today are located at Tenrikyo Church Headquarters, which supports 16,833 locally managed churches in Japan, the construction and maintenance of the oyasato-yakata and various community-focused organisations. It is estimated to have over 2 million worldwide; the ultimate spiritual aim of Tenrikyo is the construction of the Kanrodai, a divinely ordained pillar in an axis mundi called the Jiba, the correct performance of the Kagura ritual around the Kanrodai, which will bring about the salvation of all human beings.
The idea of the Jiba as the origin of earthly creation is called moto-no-ri, or the principle of origin. A pilgrimage to the Jiba is interpreted as a return to one's origin, so the greeting okaeri nasai is seen on many inns in Tenri City. Other key teachings include: Tanno – a constructive attitude towards troubles and difficulties Juzen-no-Shugo – ten principles involved in the creation, which exist in Futatsu Hitotsu and are considered to be applied continuously throughout the universe The Joyous Life in Tenrikyo is defined as charity and abstention from greed, hatred and arrogance. Negative tendencies are not known as sins in Tenrikyo, but rather as "dust" that can be swept away from the mind through hinokishin and ritual. Hinokishin, voluntary effort, is performed not out of a desire to appear selfless, but out of gratitude for kashimono-karimono and shugo; the most basic teaching of Tenrikyo is kashimono-karimono, meaning "a thing lent, a thing borrowed". The thing, lent and borrowed is the human body.
Tenrikyo followers think of their minds as things that are under their own control, but their bodies are not under their control. The sacred name of the single God and creator of the entire universe in Tenrikyo is "Tenri-Ō-no-Mikoto". Tenri-Ō-no-Mikoto created to partake in that joy; the body is a thing borrowed, but the mind alone is one's own, thus it is accepted that Tenri-Ō-no-Mikoto is not omnipotent. Other gods are considered instruments, such as the Divine Providences, were created by Tenri-Ō-no-Mikoto. Tenrikyo's doctrine names four properties of Tenri-O-no-Mikoto: as the God who became revealed in the world, as the creator who created the world and humankind, as the sustainer and protector who gives existence and life to all creation, as the savior whose intention in becoming revealed is to save all humankind. Through her scriptures, Nakayama conveyed the concept of the divine to her followers in steps. Firstly as Kami. Kami was a familiar term for her followers since they referred to the spirits of the ethnic religion of Shinto, which were worshipped and venerated in Japan.
To differentiate this divinity from the Shinto spirits, Oyasama clarified its characteristics with phrases such as "God of Origin" and "God in Truth". Secondly as Tsukihi; the moon and sun could be understood as visual manifestations of the divine. Just as those bodies impartially give the world light and warmth at all times of the day, the workings of the divine are impartial and constant; as Oya. The relationship between the divine and human beings is the mutual feeling of love between a parent and his or her children; the divine does not want to command and punish human beings, but rather to guide and nurture them so that they may live joyfully and cheerfully together. Oya is both paternal and maternal, not one or the other; these steps have been described as an "unfolding in the revelation of God's nature in keeping with the developing capacity of human understanding, from an all-powerful God, to a nourishing God, to an intimate God."Followers use the phrase "God the Parent" to refer to God, the divine name "Tenri-O-no-Mikoto" when praising or worshipping God through prayer or ritual.
The concept of "causality" in Tenrikyo is a unique understanding of karmic belief. Although causality resembles karmic beliefs found in religious traditions originating in ancient India, such as Hinduism and Jainism, Tenrikyo's doctrine does not claim to inherit the concept from these traditions and differs from their explanations of karma in a few significant ways. Broadly speaking, karma refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual influence the future of that individual. In other words, a person's good intent and good deed contribute to good karma and future happiness, while bad intent and bad deed contribute to bad karma and future suffering. Causality and karma are interchangeable in this sense. In Tenrikyo, the concept is encapsulated in the farming metaphor, "every seed sown will sprout." Karma is associated with the idea of rebirth, such that one's past deeds in the current life and in
Bauru is a Brazilian municipality in midwestern region of the state of São Paulo. It is the main city of the microregion of Bauru; the population is 366,992 in an area of 667.68 km². Established in 1896, its boundaries are Reginópolis to the north, Arealva to the northeast, Pederneiras to the east and Piratininga to the south and Avaí to the west; the presence of a strong service sector, many college campuses - including the University of São Paulo and Universidade Estadual Paulista - and the city's location at the junction of three railroads and three highways make Bauru a major urban center of the State of São Paulo. It is the hometown of the first Brazilian in space, it is the town where Pelé grew up and learned his football skills. The city is served by two airports: the older Bauru Airport, the newer Bauru-Arealva Airport known as Moussa Nakhl Tobias Airport, located in the adjoining municipality of Arealva. There are various theories intended to explain the origin of the name Bauru. One was proposed by Ismael Marinho Falcão, an engineer who lived for many years with the Kaingang tribe, which used to inhabit the region.
According to him, the region was called ubaurú because of the abundance of a herbaceous plant called ubá, used for hampers and wicker baskets, urú, a ground bird related to the chicken. Others think that the name comes from mbai-yuru, meaning'waterfall' or'river in strong declivity'; the region occupied by Bauru was a disputed territory between two Indigenous groups: the Kaingang and the Guaraní. In the eighteenth century, ethnic Brazilian pioneers attempted to settle in São Paulo region, a crossing point of the monções that went through Mato Grosso and Goiás, but they were prevented by local natives' attacks; the non-Indians only managed to settle in the region in the nineteenth century with the coming of the population coming from São Paulo's coast as well the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. After 1850, in search of new land for occupation and colonization, pioneers from São Paulo and Minas Gerais began to explore the vast region between the Serra de Botucatu, Tietê River, Paranapanema River and Paraná River, until inhabited by Kaingang indigenous groups.
In 1856, Felicissimo Antonio Pereira, coming from Minas Gerais, purchased land and settled, near the current center of Bauru, the Fazenda das Flores. Years in 1884, this farm have spun off part of its area for the training camp of the São Sebastião de Bauru; the district has progressed being subject to attacks of native Kaingang and isolated from the rest of the state and became district of Agudos on 1888. The arrival of migrants from eastern São Paulo and Minas Gerais led to the emancipation of the city on August 1, 1896; the new municipality at first lived from the cultivation of coffee, despite having weaker and infertile lands than the rest of the state. In 1905, Bauru was chosen as the starting point of the Estrada de Ferro Noroeste do Brasil, which linked by rail, Bauru to Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, near the border with Bolivia. During the first half of the twentieth century, Bauru becomes the main economic hub of the region comprised by west São Paulo, northern Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul.
The municipality is home to the professional association football team Esporte Clube Noroeste and Associação Bauru Basketball Team, 2014 Champion of the Liga Sudamericana de Básquetbol and 2015 Champion of the FIBA Americas League. The team plays its home games at the Ginásio Panela de Pressão. Brazilian legend Pelé grew up here. Tenri, since 1970. Sibiu, since 1995. Diltor Opromolla, leprosy researcher Marcos Pontes, astronaut Pelé, footballer Bauru travel guide from Wikivoyage UOL.com.br, History of Bauru - Origin of Bauru. SP.gov.br, Official Website - Prefeitura Municipal de Bauru Embrapa.br, Aerial view of the cityBauru, Site de Bauru
A primary school is a school in which children receive primary or elementary education from the age of about five to eleven, coming after preschool, infant school and before secondary school. In most parts of the world, primary education is the first stage of compulsory education, is available without charge, but may be offered in a fee-paying independent school; the term grade school is sometimes used in the US, although this term may refer to both primary education and secondary education. The term primary school is derived from the French école primaire, first used in 1802. Primary school is the preferred term in the United Kingdom and many Commonwealth nations, in most publications of the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization. Elementary school is preferred in some countries in the United States and Canada. In some parts of the United States, "primary school" refers to a school with grades Kindergarten through second grade or third grade. In these locations, the "elementary school" includes grades four to six.
In some places, primary schooling has further been divided between lower primary schools, which were the elementary schools, higher primary schools, which were established to provide a more practical instruction to poorer classes than what was provided in the secondary schools. Blab school Early childhood education Elementary school Elementary school Elementary school Elementary schools in Japan Educational stage Secondary school School Virtual reality in primary education National Center for Education Statistics Elementary Schools with Education and Crime Statistics
Ichinomoto Station is a train station of West Japan Railway Company in Tenri, Japan. Although the station is on the Sakurai Line as rail infrastructure, it has been served by the Man-yō Mahoroba Line since 2010 in terms of passenger train services. JR-West U Man-yō Mahoroba Line Official website
Tenrikyo Church Headquarters
Tenrikyo Church Headquarters is the main headquarters of the Tenrikyo religion, located in Tenri, Japan. This establishment is significant to followers because it is built around the Jiba, the spot where followers believe the god Tenri-O-no-Mikoto conceived humankind; the organization of Tenrikyo Church Headquarters consists of the headquarters proper, grand churches, branch churches, dioceses. Under the management of the main headquarters is a dual organizational structure, such that the grand churches and branch churches minister to adherents genealogically while the dioceses minister to adherents geographically. At the top of the church hierarchy is the Shinbashira, defined as the "spiritual and administrative leader" of Tenrikyo Church Headquarters. Many of the current grand churches were established by missionaries around the turn of the twentieth century, the head ministers of the grand churches are hereditary or adoptive successors of those first missionaries; the head ministers of the grand churches are affiliated with the headquarters and supervise the daughter and granddaughter churches under their pastoral care, called branch churches.
Therefore, the majority of branch churches belong to a grand church, the two form the ecclesiastical equivalent of a parent-child relationship. However, a small group of branch churches happen to be directly affiliated with the headquarters for historical or administrative reasons; the diocese is responsible for supervising the Tenrikyo churches in a given prefecture. The diocese administrator approves church maintenance, fiscal budgets, the hiring and dismissal of church staff; the Main Sanctuary houses the Kanrodai, the stand that marks the Jiba where adherents believe God conceived humankind. The earliest sanctuary was the Tsutome basho, constructed by the carpenter Iburi Izo in 1864. In the Taishō period, a major construction project was undertaken, as a result what is the north section of the Main Sanctuary was completed in December 1913. Another construction project took place during the Shōwa period, which led to the completion of the south section in 1934; the west and east sections were expanded from 1977 to 1984.
The Foundress' Sanctuary is a building dedicated to the foundress of Nakayama Miki. The first sanctuary was a temporary structure constructed in 1895; as part of a major construction effort during the Taishō period, the Foundress’ Sanctuary was completed in April 1914. This building is used as the Memorial Hall. In the Shōwa period, another major construction took place, as a result a larger Foundress' Hall was completed and dedicated on October 25, 1933; the Memorial Hall is a memorial that honors deceased Tenrikyo adherents, located northwest of the Main Sanctuary and connected by a sanctuary corridor. The earliest memorial dedicated to Tenrikyo followers was inside the Tsutome basho, an early worship hall; as part of a major construction effort during the Taisho era, a memorial was built in the middle of the corridor connecting the Main Sanctuary and the Foundress' Sanctuary. The current Memorial Hall structure was built during this time, though it was conceived as the Foundress' Sanctuary.
In 1914, memorial services began to be conducted in the fall of each year. In 1933, the current structure for the Foundress’ Sanctuary was constructed, the previous structure was renamed the Memorial Hall. Inside the Memorial Hall, there are three altars; the middle altar honors deceased members of the Nakayama family, including the late Shinbashiras and their wives, as well as the early disciples Izo Iburi, Naraito Ueda, Chushichi Yamanaka. The right altar honors deceased performers of the Service conducted at Tenrikyo Church Headquarters; the left altar honors deceased church followers. Due to constant persecution from local government authorities and from members of established religions, the followers of Tenrikyo wanted to apply for legal authorization to establish a church. However, Japanese law during the Meiji period stipulated that legal authorization could only be granted if the church were classified under an established tradition, such as Shinto, Buddhism, or Christianity. Though Tenrikyo does not consider itself a Shinto tradition, early followers agreed to file under Shinto in order to obtain the protections from legal authorization.
Several failed attempts were made. Tenrikyo Church Headquarters was established in 1888 as a religious organization belonging to the Shinto Main Bureau; the legal authorization removed the threat of suppression and allowed followers could seek permission to establish branch churches and to gain official recognition for missionary work. The membership rose in the first decade of the Headquarters' existence. In 1892, the number of Tenrikyo followers had reached over one million, a thirty-fold increase in membership in five years. By December 1896, Tenrikyo had 3,137,113 members belonging to 1,078 churches, there were 19,061 ministers; this growth invited negative reactions from Buddhist institutions, which were concerned about losing adherents, from newspapers, who labeled the religion as "anti-social."On April 6, 1896, the Home Ministry issued "Directive No. 12," which ordered strict and secretive surveillance over Tenrikyo Church Headquarters under the pretense of maintaining and strengthening the state polity of Japan.
Issues raised by authorities were the congregation of both men and women together, the obstruction of me