A water tower is an elevated structure supporting a water tank constructed at a height sufficient to pressurize a water supply system for the distribution of potable water, to provide emergency storage for fire protection. In some places, the term standpipe is used interchangeably to refer to a water tower. Water towers operate in conjunction with underground or surface service reservoirs, which store treated water close to where it will be used. Other types of water towers may only store raw water for fire protection or industrial purposes, may not be connected to a public water supply. Water towers are able to supply water during power outages, because they rely on hydrostatic pressure produced by elevation of water to push the water into domestic and industrial water distribution systems. A water tower serves as a reservoir to help with water needs during peak usage times; the water level in the tower falls during the peak usage hours of the day, a pump fills it back up during the night. This process keeps the water from freezing in cold weather, since the tower is being drained and refilled.
Although the use of elevated water storage tanks has existed since ancient times in various forms, the modern use of water towers for pressurized public water systems developed during the mid-19th century, as steam-pumping became more common, better pipes that could handle higher pressures were developed. In the United Kingdom, standpipes consisted of tall, exposed, n-shaped pipes, used for pressure relief and to provide a fixed elevation for steam-driven pumping engines which tended to produce a pulsing flow, while the pressurized water distribution system required constant pressure. Standpipes provided a convenient fixed location to measure flow rates. Designers enclosed the riser pipes in decorative masonry or wooden structures. By the late 19th-Century, standpipes grew to include storage tanks to meet the ever-increasing demands of growing cities. Many early water towers are now considered significant and have been included in various heritage listings around the world; some are converted to exclusive penthouses.
In certain areas, such as New York City in the United States, smaller water towers are constructed for individual buildings. In California and some other states, domestic water towers enclosed by siding were once built to supply individual homes. Water towers were used to supply water stops for steam locomotives on railroad lines. Early steam locomotives required water stops every 7 to 10 miles. A variety of materials can be used to construct a typical water tower; the reservoir in the tower may be spherical, cylindrical, or an ellipsoid, with a minimum height of 6 metres and a minimum of 4 m in diameter. A standard water tower has a height of 40 m. Pressurization occurs through the hydrostatic pressure of the elevation of water. 30 m of elevation produces 300 kPa, enough pressure to operate and provide for most domestic water pressure and distribution system requirements. The height of the tower provides the pressure for the water supply system, it may be supplemented with a pump; the volume of the reservoir and diameter of the piping sustain flow rate.
However, relying on a pump to provide pressure is expensive. During periods of low demand, jockey pumps are used to meet these lower water flow requirements; the water tower reduces the need for electrical consumption of cycling pumps and thus the need for an expensive pump control system, as this system would have to be sized sufficiently to give the same pressure at high flow rates. High volumes and flow rates are needed when fighting fires. With a water tower present, pumps can be sized for average demand, not peak demand. Using wireless sensor networks to monitor water levels inside the tower allows municipalities to automatically monitor and control pumps without installing and maintaining expensive data cables. Water towers can be surrounded by ornate coverings including fancy brickwork, a large ivy-covered trellis or they can be painted; some city water towers have the name of the city painted in large letters on the roof, as a navigational aid to aviators and motorists. Sometimes the decoration can be humorous.
An example of this are water towers built side by side, labeled HOT and COLD. Cities in the United States possessing side-by-side water towers labeled HOT and COLD include Granger, Iowa; when a third water tower was built next to the Okemah, Oklahoma set of Hot and Cold towers, the town considered naming it "Running", but decided to use "Home of Woody Guthrie". The House in the Clouds in Thorpeness, located in the English county of Suffolk, was built to resemble a house in order to disguise the eyesore, whilst the lower floors were used for accommodation
The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located in Europe. It has an area of an estimated population of about 513 million; the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency; the EU and European citizenship were established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force in 1993. The EU traces its origins to the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community, established by the 1951 Treaty of Paris and 1957 Treaty of Rome.
The original members of what came to be known as the European Communities were the Inner Six: Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, West Germany. The Communities and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit; the latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the United Kingdom signified the intention to leave after a membership referendum in June 2016 and is negotiating its withdrawal. Covering 7.3% of the world population, the EU in 2017 generated a nominal gross domestic product of 19.670 trillion US dollars, constituting 24.6% of global nominal GDP. Additionally, all 28 EU countries have a high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence.
The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7 and the G20. Because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. During the centuries following the fall of Rome in 476, several European States viewed themselves as translatio imperii of the defunct Roman Empire: the Frankish Empire and the Holy Roman Empire were thereby attempts to resurrect Rome in the West; this political philosophy of a supra-national rule over the continent, similar to the example of the ancient Roman Empire, resulted in the early Middle Ages in the concept of a renovatio imperii, either in the forms of the Reichsidee or the religiously inspired Imperium Christianum. Medieval Christendom and the political power of the Papacy are cited as conducive to European integration and unity. In the oriental parts of the continent, the Russian Tsardom, the Empire, declared Moscow to be Third Rome and inheritor of the Eastern tradition after the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
The gap between Greek East and Latin West had been widened by the political scission of the Roman Empire in the 4th century and the Great Schism of 1054. Pan-European political thought emerged during the 19th century, inspired by the liberal ideas of the French and American Revolutions after the demise of Napoléon's Empire. In the decades following the outcomes of the Congress of Vienna, ideals of European unity flourished across the continent in the writings of Wojciech Jastrzębowski, Giuseppe Mazzini or Theodore de Korwin Szymanowski; the term United States of Europe was used at that time by Victor Hugo during a speech at the International Peace Congress held in Paris in 1849: A day will come when all nations on our continent will form a European brotherhood... A day will come when we shall see... the United States of America and the United States of Europe face to face, reaching out for each other across the seas. During the interwar period, the consciousness that national markets in Europe were interdependent though confrontational, along with the observation of a larger and growing US market on the other side of the ocean, nourished the urge for the economic integration of the continent.
In 1920, advocating the creation of a European economic union, British economist John Maynard Keynes wrote that "a Free Trade Union should be established... to impose no protectionist tariffs whatever against the produce of other members of the Union." During the same decade, Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, one of the first to imagine of a modern political union of Europe, founded the Pan-Europa Movement. His ideas influenced his contemporaries, among which Prime Minister of France Aristide Briand. In 1929, the latter gave a speech in favour of a European Union before the assembly of the League of Nations, precursor of the United Nations. In a radio address in March 1943, with war still raging, Britain's leader Sir Winston Churchill spoke warmly of "restoring the true greatness of Europe" once victory had been achieved, mused on the post-war creation of a "Council of Europe" which would bring the European nations together to build peace. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the extreme nationalism which had devastated the continent.
In a speech delivered on 19
Hjulsta is a working-class suburb of Stockholm. It is considered being part of Tensta, but with its own subway station, opened in 1975 and is the end station of the blue line; the modern urban area of Hjulsta took its name from an old village known to have been located in the area at least from the 1480s. The station's artwork is created by several artists, among them Sjöfåglar by Christina Rundqvist-Andersson, Sista skörden i norra Botkyrka by Olle Magnusson and Landbyska verken vid Engelbrektsplan år 1890 by Ruth Rydfeldt. Hjulsta metro station
Tensta konsthall is a center for contemporary art in the Stockholm suburb of Tensta, northwest of the city center. The gallery works with artists from both Sweden and abroad in conjunction with local associations and organizations in the area. Artists who have exhibited in the gallery include Tris Vonna-Michell, Iman Issa, Shirin Neshat, International Festival, Marie-Louise Ekman, Diana Thater, Oda Projesi. Tensta konsthall was inaugurated in 1998, the same year that Stockholm was the European Cultural Capital; the gallery is a result of a local grassroots initiative, which coincided with the “Outer Suburb Project,” a Stockholm municipal investment in particular suburbs. The founder of Tensta konsthall was social worker Gregor Wroblewski; as director of the gallery, he was followed by William Easton. Maria Lind has been the director of Tensta konsthall since 2011; the gallery is located at Taxingeplan, in unused storage space underneath Tensta Shopping Mall, encompasses about 700 m². Tensta lies 20 minutes by underground from the Stockholm Central Station and is dominated by a large housing area, built in 1967-72.
Tensta is the largest single housing area in the so-called Million Dwellings Programme. In Tensta, some 6,000 flats share space with Iron Age graves, rune stones, one of the Stockholm region’s oldest churches, a former military training ground from the early 20th century, the nature reserve, Järvafältet. Tensta has a population of around 19,000 people, of whom nearly 90 percent have trans-local backgrounds. Statistically, the average income in Tensta is lower and unemployment higher than in the rest of Sweden,and it is one of the most segregated cities not only in Sweden but in the whole of Europe. In 2012, the annual budget of Tensta konsthall was 8.8 million Swedish kronor, which represents an increase of about 3 million from the previous year. It has been a private foundation since 2000, financed by the municipality of Stockholm and the Swedish state via the Swedish Arts Council. At present, financial support from the municipality and state constitutes around 50-60 percent of the gallery’s proceeds.
The gallery’s visitors come from near and far, in 2012 they numbered more than 20,000. The gallery has free admission. Since 2011, Tensta konsthall has been working towards participating in an international exchange concerning definitions of contemporary art; the gallery’s program is formed and directed by art and artists, with the aim of mediating their activities in a way that can be meaningful and relevant in Tensta itself. This has involved, among other things, opening a café run by a local company, Xpandia Vision, in an area lacking any similar sort of café; the gallery café has become a venue for Tea and Coffee gatherings, organized together with the Women’s Centre of Tensta-Hjulsta. The gallery cooperates with local organizations such as the Ross Tensta Upper Secondary School, the women’s group, the library, the Kurdish Association. Particular focus is directed towards contacts with women of different ages. Tensta konsthall has been following three different lines of inquiry since 2013.
The first concerns questions of articulation – how something is shaped and organized. The second involves art and money and the third relates to the working conditions of artists and other cultural producers. Another line is directed towards archives and collections. Art camps, organized during school holidays, offer different kinds of art education and are led by artists; the five-part seminar series “What does an art institution do?” was the result of collaboration between the gallery and the University College of Arts Crafts and Design. This has been followed up by new seminar series, formulated by questions such as “What does social practice do?” and “What does art theory do?” Recent exhibitions at Tensta konsthall include • “Abstract Possible: The Stockholm Synergies,” with Doug Ashford, Claire Barclay, Goldin+Senneby, Wade Guyton, Mai-Thu Perret, Walid Raad, Haegue Yang, among others • “Kami, Khokha and Ernie: World Heritage” by Hinrich Sachs • “Doing what you want: Marie-Louise Ekman accompanied by Sister Corita Kent, Mladen Stilinović, Martha Wilson” • “The Society without qualities” with Sören Andreasen, Ane Hjort Guttu, Sture Johannesson, Sharon Lockhardt, Palle Nielsen • “Working With…” by Zak Kyes • “We are continuing BBDG” with Bernd Krauss • “Two Archives” by Babak Afrassiabi and Nasrin Tabatabai Other projects at the gallery include “The Bidoun Library,” “Katitzi: A literary figure with roots in reality,” and the one-day performance, “T.451” by Dominique Gonzalez-Foerster and Ari Benjamin Meyers.
Contemporary Art and Its Commercial Markets: Reports on Current Conditions and Future Scenarios. Tensta konsthall collaborates with the network Cluster, composed of eight European art organizations, each situated on the outskirts of large cities. Common to all these organisations is that they participate in their local communities. Inspired by Cluster, the network Klister was started in 2012 for small and mid-sized institutions of contemporary art in Sweden. Klister aims to highlight the role of smaller contemporary institutions in society, institutions which today comprise experimental and discursive platforms of increasing importance. Among the members of Klister are Ma
Rinkeby is a district in the Rinkeby-Kista borough, Sweden. Rinkeby had 19,349 inhabitants in 2016; the neighbourhood was part of the Million Programme. The Stockholm metro station Rinkeby was opened in 1975. Rinkeby is noted for its high concentration of people with immigrant ancestry. 89.1% of the suburb's population had a first- or second-generation immigrant background as of 2007. In 2002, there was a murder at the Metro station, receiving much publicity in local press. A sociolect called, but it's used all over the suburbs in Sweden. The district was a part of the Rinkeby borough until 1 January 2007, when it was merged with Kista borough to form the Rinkeby-Kista borough. In the years preceding 2008, the state Social Insurance Agency, state Public Employment Service and postal services vacated their offices in the area. In 2010, the official figures stated 15,000 people lived in the area, but officials admitted 17,000 were more though uncertainties meant the figure could be higher still. Of those, 90% had a migration background and 40% were from Africa.
In its December 2015 report, Police in Sweden placed the district in the most severe category of urban areas with high crime rates. Rinkeby is inhabited by a diverse array of immigrants; as of 2011, most were from Iraq, Somalia, Finland, Ethiopia, Poland, Syria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, India, Morocco and Lebanon. In the 2011-13 period, about 53% of the population originated outside the EU and the Nordic Countries. According to the Swedish Defence University, since the 1970s, a number of residents of Rinkeby and other local areas have been implicated in providing logistical and financial support to or joining various foreign-based transnational militant groups. Among these organizations are Hezbollah, the PKK, the GIA, the Abu Nidal Organization, the Japanese Red Army, the Red Army Faction, Al-Qaeda, the Islamic State, Al-Shabaab, Ansar al-Sunna and Ansar al-Islam. In June 2010 and again in 2014, the Rinkeby police station was attacked by rioting local youth. In 2016, an Australian news team from 60 Minutes along with Jan Sjunnesson, an editor of the Swedish right-wing publication Avpixlat, had their camera man hit by a car when the team arrived at Rinkeby.
After making journalistic contact with inhabitants, "the team gets surrounded by young, ill-tempered men. The police is present but disappear for unclear reasons prior to the attack" that followed, which included hits and kicks. In May of the same year, an interview team of the Norwegian public broadcaster NRK along with Swedish police and economist Tino Sanandaji were attacked. Riots broke out among immigrant youth in Rinkeby in 2010, 2013 and 2017. In 2017, fires were started by rioters, at least seven cars were burned. Rioters threw rocks at police, who responded with warning shots, with "shots for effect" intended to hit their target. In 2017, the construction of a new more robust police station in the area was delayed due to construction companies being unwilling to tender for the contract over security concerns over attacks on equipment or threats towards employees. Due to the threat level and that people in the area were resisting the building of a police station, the construction site received security guards.
In August 2018 the construction site for the new police station was attacked by unidentified assailants. They threw rocks and bangers at security guards; the vehicle used to forced. Giza, Egypt
The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most known as Norden. The term includes Denmark, Iceland and Sweden, as well as Greenland and the Faroe Islands—which are both part of the Kingdom of Denmark—and the Åland Islands and Svalbard and Jan Mayen archipelagos that belong to Finland and Norway whereas the Norwegian Antarctic territories are not considered a part of the Nordic countries, due to their geographical location. Scandinavians, who comprise over three quarters of the region's population, are the largest group, followed by Finns, who comprise the majority in Finland; the native languages Swedish, Norwegian and Faroese are all North Germanic languages rooted in Old Norse. Native non-Germanic languages are Finnish and several Sami languages; the main religion is Lutheran Christianity. The Nordic countries have much in common in their way of life, religion, their use of Scandinavian languages and social structure.
The Nordic countries have a long history of political unions and other close relations, but do not form a separate entity today. The Scandinavist movement sought to unite Denmark and Sweden into one country in the 19th century, with the indepedence of Finland in the early 20th century, Iceland in the mid 20th century, this movement expanded into the modern organised Nordic cooperation which includes the Nordic Council and the Nordic Council of Ministers. In English, Scandinavia is sometimes used as a synonym for the Nordic countries, but that term more properly refers to the three monarchies of Denmark and Sweden. Geologically, the Scandinavian Peninsula comprises the mainland of Norway and Sweden as well as the northernmost part of Finland; the combined area of the Nordic countries is 3,425,804 square kilometres. Uninhabitable icecaps and glaciers comprise about half of this area in Greenland. In January 2013, the region had a population of around 26 million people; the Nordic countries cluster near the top in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life and human development.
With only four language groups, the common linguistic heterogeneous heritage is one of the factors making up the Nordic identity. The languages of Danish, Swedish and Faroese are all rooted in Old Norse and Danish and Swedish are considered mutually intelligible; these three dominating languages are taught in schools throughout the Nordic region. For example, Swedish is a mandatory subject in Finnish schools, since Finland by law is a bilingual country. Danish is mandatory in Faroese and Greenlandic schools, as these insular states are a part of the Danish Realm. Iceland teaches Danish, since Iceland too was a part of the Danish Realm until 1918. Beside these and the insular Scandinavian languages Faroese and Icelandic, which are North Germanic languages, there are the Finnic and Sami branches of the Uralic languages, spoken in Finland and in northern Norway and Finland, respectively. All the Nordic countries have a North Germanic official language called a Nordic language in the Nordic countries.
The working languages of the Nordic region's two political bodies are Danish and Swedish. Each of the Nordic countries has its own economic and social models, sometimes with large differences from its neighbours, but to varying degrees the Nordic countries share the Nordic model of economy and social structure: a market economy is combined with strong labour unions and a universalist welfare sector financed by heavy taxes. There is a high degree of income redistribution and little social unrest and these include support for said "universalist" welfare state aimed at enhancing individual autonomy and promoting social mobility; the Nordic countries consists of historical territories of the Scandinavian countries, areas that share a common history and culture with Scandinavia. It is meant to refer to this larger group, since the term Scandinavia is narrower and sometimes ambiguous; the Nordic countries are considered to refer to Denmark, Iceland and Sweden, including their associated territories.
The term "Nordic countries" found mainstream use after the advent of Foreningen Norden. The term is derived indirectly from the local term Norden, used in the Scandinavian languages, which means "The North". Unlike "the Nordic countries", the term Norden is in the singular; the demonym is nordbo meaning "northern dweller". Scandinavia refers to either the cultural and linguistic group formed by the three monarchies Denmark and Sweden, or the Scandinavian peninsula, formed by mainland Norway and Sweden as well as the northwesternmost part of Finland. Outside of the Nordic region the term Scandinavia is used incorrectly as a synonym for the Nordic countries. First recorded use of the name by Pliny the Elder about a "large, fertile island in the North". Fennoscandia refers to the area that includes the Scandinavian peninsula, Kola Peninsula and Karelia; this term is
Swedish Police Authority
The Swedish Police Authority is the central administrative authority for the police in Sweden, responsible for law enforcement, general social order and public safety within the country. The agency is headed by the National Police Commissioner, appointed by the Government and has the sole responsibility for all activities of the police. Although formally organised under the Ministry of Justice, the Swedish police is—similar to other authorities in Sweden—essentially autonomous, in accordance with the constitution; the agency is governed by general policy instruments and is subject to a number of sanctions and oversight functions, to ensure that the exercise of public authority is in compliance with regulations. Police officers wear a dark-blue uniform consisting of combat style trousers with a police duty belt, a polo shirt or a long sleeve button shirt, a side-cap embellished with a metal cap badge; the standard equipment includes pepper spray and an extendable baton. The first modern police force in Sweden was established in the mid-19th century, the police remained in effect under local government control up until 1965, when it was nationalized and became centralized, to organize under one authority January 1, 2015.
Concurrent with this change, the Swedish Security Service formed its own agency. The new authority was created to address shortcomings in the division of duties and responsibilities, to make it easier for the Government to demand greater accountability; the agency is organized into eight national departments. It is one of the largest government agencies in Sweden, with more than 28,500 employees, of which police officers accounted for 75 percent of the personnel in 2014, it takes two and a half years to become a police officer in Sweden, including six months of paid workplace practice. A third of all police students are women, in 2011 women accounted for 40 percent of all employees; the first modern police force in Sweden was established in the mid-1800s. Prior to that, police work wasn't carried out by a law enforcement agency in the modern sense. In rural areas, the king's bailiffs were responsible for law and order until the establishment of counties in the 1630s. In the cities, local governments were made responsible for law and order, by way of a royal decree issued by Magnus III in the 13th century.
The cities organized various watchmen, who patrolled the streets. In the late 1500s in Stockholm the paroling duties were in large part taken over by a special corps of salaried city guards; the city guard was organized and armed like a military unit. These guards were assisted by the military, fire patrolmen, a civilian unit that didn't wear a uniform, but instead wore a small badge around their neck; the civilian unit monitored compliance with city ordinances relating to—for example—sanitation issues and taxes. In 1776, Gustav III ushered in a fundamental change in how police work was organized in Stockholm, modelled after how law enforcement was organized in Paris at the time; the office of Police Commissioner was created, with the first title holder being Nils Henric Liljensparre, given command of the civilian unit responsible for law and order in the city, now financed by the State. The reform was considered a success. However, the system of fire patrolmen and the city guard was still kept intact and administered separately.
In the mid-1800s, during a time of widespread social unrest, it became clear that law enforcement didn't function properly. In 1848, the March Unrest, broke out on the streets of Stockholm, inspired by a wave of revolutions in Europe. Large crowds vandalized the city, shouting slogans of reform and calling for the abolition of monarchy. King Oscar I responded with military force. In the rural areas, local county administrators was in charge of law and order, reporting to the county governors; the office was a mixture of police chief, tax official and lower-level prosecutor, who in turn was assisted by a number of part-time police officers. Their time was spent on tax matters, instead of doing actual police work. More police officers were duly employed, some dubbed "extra police", devoted much more to police work. In 1850, a new type of organization was launched in Stockholm, where the entire police force was placed under one agency; the title of Police Constable was used for the first time in Sweden, the police were given their own uniforms and was armed with batons and sabers.
The police began to specialize. In 1853, for example, four constables were put in charge of criminal investigations, thus creating the first detective bureau in Sweden. In the early 1900s, the Swedish police had yet to uniformly organize or become regulated in legislation; the system of "extra police" did not work well because it was a temporary position lacking job security, making it difficult to recruit and retain skilled personnel. Subsequently, the Riksdag adopted the first Police Act in 1925; the act codified structures in place, but introduced a more unified police and better working conditions for the police officers. Officers began wearing the same dark-blue uniforms nationwide, with the same helmets. Local ties remained strong, with 554 small districts that had great freedom to organize police work as before though the State now had the power to issue a number of regulations about everything from the leadership to the duties of the