The Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, part of the Bill of Rights, was ratified on December 15, 1791. It expresses the principle of federalism and states' rights, which supports the entire plan of the original Constitution for the United States of America, by stating that the federal government possesses only those powers delegated to it by the United States Constitution. All remaining powers are reserved for the people; the amendment was proposed by the 1st United States Congress in 1789 during its first term following the adoption of the Constitution. It was considered by many members as a prerequisite to many state ratifications of the Constitution and to satisfy demands of Anti-Federalists who opposed the creation of a stronger federal government; the drafters of this amendment had two purposes in mind: first, as a necessary rule of construction. The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States or to the people.
The Tenth Amendment is similar to an earlier provision of the Articles of Confederation:Each state retains its sovereignty and independence, every power and right, not by this Confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled. After the Constitution was ratified, South Carolina Representative Thomas Tudor Tucker and Massachusetts Representative Elbridge Gerry separately proposed similar amendments limiting the federal government to powers "expressly" delegated, which would have denied implied powers. James Madison opposed the amendments, stating that "it was impossible to confine a Government to the exercise of express powers; when a vote on this version of the amendment with "expressly delegated" was defeated, Connecticut Representative Roger Sherman drafted the Tenth Amendment in its ratified form, omitting "expressly". Sherman's language allowed for an expansive reading of the powers implied by the Necessary and Proper Clause; when he introduced the Tenth Amendment in Congress, James Madison explained that many states were eager to ratify this amendment, despite critics who deemed the amendment superfluous or unnecessary: I find, from looking into the amendments proposed by the State conventions, that several are anxious that it should be declared in the Constitution, that the powers not therein delegated should be reserved to the several States.
Words which may define this more than the whole of the instrument now does, may be considered as superfluous. I admit they may be deemed unnecessary: but there can be no harm in making such a declaration, if gentlemen will allow that the fact is as stated. I am sure I understand it so, do therefore propose it; the states ratified the Tenth Amendment, declining to signal that there are unenumerated powers in addition to unenumerated rights. The amendment rendered unambiguous what had been at most a mere suggestion or implication; the phrase "... or to the people." Was appended in handwriting by the clerk of the Senate as the Bill of Rights circulated between the two Houses of Congress. The Tenth Amendment, which makes explicit the idea that the federal government is limited to only the powers granted in the Constitution, has been declared to be a truism by the Supreme Court. In United States v. Sprague the Supreme Court asserted that the amendment "added nothing to the as ratified."States and local governments have attempted to assert exemption from various federal regulations in the areas of labor and environmental controls, using the Tenth Amendment as a basis for their claim.
An often-repeated quote, from United States v. Darby Lumber Co. reads as follows: The amendment states but a truism that all is retained which has not been surrendered. There is nothing in the history of its adoption to suggest that it was more than declaratory of the relationship between the national and state governments as it had been established by the Constitution before the amendment or that its purpose was other than to allay fears that the new national government might seek to exercise powers not granted, that the states might not be able to exercise their reserved powers. In Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority, the Court overruled National League of Cities v. Usery. Under National League of Cities, the determination of whether there was state immunity from federal regulation turned on whether the state activity was "traditional" for or "integral" to the state government. In Garcia, the Court noted that this analysis was "unsound in principle and unworkable in practice", concluded that the framers believed that state sovereignty could be maintained by the political system established by the Constitution.
Noting that the same Congress that extended the Fair Labor Standards Act to cover government-run mass transit systems provided substantial funding for those systems, the Court concluded that the structure created by the framers had indeed protected the states from overreaching by the federal government. In South Carolina v. Baker, the Court said in dicta that an exception to Garcia would be when a state lacked "any right to participate" in the federal political process or was left "politically isolated and powerless" by a federal law. Since 1992, the Supreme Court has declared laws unconstitutional for violating the Tenth Amendment when the federal government compelled the states to enforce federal statutes. In New York v. United States, the Supreme Court invalidated a portion
King Alfred is an epic poem by John Fitchett and completed by Robert Roscoe, published in 1841 and 1842. The poem narrates—in dramatic terms—King Alfred's ongoing battles against the Danes. Supernatural powers intervene to aid both sides: the Archangel Michael and his hosts—on behalf of the English—and Lucifer and his hosts—on behalf of the Danes. Can King Alfred—although beaten—engineer a successful military comeback against overwhelming odds? Will the remaining Danes—inured to warfare from their youth—ever be able to peaceably co-exist with other races upon English soil? The great work of John Fitchett's life was one which occupied his leisure hours for forty years, in the composition of which he bestowed unwearied industry and acute research, it was printed at Warrington for private circulation at intervals between 1808 and 1834, in five quarto volumes. It was cast in the form of a romantic epic poem, the subject being the life and times of King Alfred, including, in addition to a biography of Alfred, an epitome of the antiquities, topography and civil and religious condition of the country.
He did not live to finish it. He left money for printing a new edition, the work of supervising it was undertaken by his pupil and friend, Robert Roscoe, who completed the task by adding 2,585 lines, the entire work containing more than 131,000 lines; this prodigious monument was published by Pickering in 1841–2, in six volumes, 8vo, with the title of'King Alfred, a Poem.' Full text hosted by Google Books in six volumes:. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Fitchett, John". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900
Fredrick M. "Fred" Stewart is an American bridge player from Bloomington, New York. Stewart has won the Cavendish Invitational Pairs three times and has won 8 North American Bridge Championships. Cavendish Invitational Pairs 1993, 1996, 2011 North American Bridge Championships von Zedtwitz Life Master Pairs 1981 Wernher Open Pairs 1995 Blue Ribbon Pairs 1987 Jacoby Open Swiss Teams 1992, 2012 Senior Knockout Teams 2012 Mitchell Board-a-Match Teams 1995 Reisinger 1984 Cavendish Invitational Pairs 1986 North American Bridge Championships Wernher Open Pairs 2004 Blue Ribbon Pairs 1994, 2002 Grand National Teams 1991 Vanderbilt 1999 Senior Knockout Teams 2010 Reisinger 1995
Martin Motors was an Italian company headquartered in the Quinto Stampi district of Milan. It was established by Giuseppe Martinelli to manufacture automobiles and commercial vehicles; the manufacturer's assembly plant was located in Tunisia. Martin Motors gained fame in the mid-1990s for their Allestimenti Linea and Allestimenti Turismo coaches; these had proven popular with travel agencies. Martin Motors extended the bus range in 1997 by adding the Pulmann Urbani. With a minibus, the MiniBus, the manufacturer tried to establish itself on the market of the small group buses. Bus production was 30,000 units per the largest source of revenue of the manufacturer; the production line was 7,500 units per year. Martin Motors' first attempt to establish itself in the passenger car market took place in 2006 with the Shuanghuan Noble small car, which they rebadged as the Bubble. “We want everyone to see in real life how a four-seat front-engine front-wheel drive minicar differs from a rear-engine rear-wheel drive two-seater,” said Martin Motors spokesperson Viviana Martinelli.
The following year, Martin marketed a sports utility vehicle called the Shuanghuan CEO, according to BMW, was a copy of the BMW E53. The CEO was the first model of the brand, sold throughout Europe. In order to gain a foothold in other areas, Martin Motors's 2009 model initiative began with the MM520 series one, a vehicle in the compact class; as a manufacturer of microcars, the company built the Changhe Ideal 1000 under license. Furthermore, Martin Motors brought the minivan Changhe CoolCar and the self-developed Pickup Cab Freedom in order to test the commercial vehicle waters. Martin Motors produced 10 different types of motorcycles with four-stroke engines have a displacement 50–205 cm³, met the Euro II emission standard. In motorcycle manufacturing, Martin Motors produced 80,000 units annually, served a variety of engines and automobile manufacturers. 2012, the company added the MM620 to its line-up. Bubble CEO CoolCar MM520 MM620 Freedom Cab Duo Freedom Cab Mono Freedom Cargo Freedom Tri Allestimenti Linea Allestimenti Turismo MiniBus Pulmann Urbani Ideal 1000 Noble Martin Motors official page Martin Motors official page
The Medal "For Life Saving" is a state decoration of the Russian Federation. The Medal "For Life Saving" was established on March 2, 1994 by Presidential Decree № 442, its statute was amended three times, first on January 6, 1999 by presidential decree № 19, again on June 1, 1995 by presidential decree № 554 and lastly by the all encompassing presidential decree № 1099 of September 7, 2010 which amended the entire Russian awards system away from the distinctions of the Soviet Era. The Medal "For Life Saving" is awarded to citizens for rescuing people during natural disasters, on water, under ground, in fire-fighting and other circumstances involving a risk to life; the medal may be awarded posthumously. The order of precedence of the Russian Federation states that the Medal "For Life Saving" is to be worn on the left breast with other medals and placed after the Medal "For Distinction in Protection of the State Borders"; the Medal "For Life Saving" is a circular 32mm diameter silver medal with raised rims on both the obverse and reverse.
The obverse bears the relief image of the Order of Courage. On the reverse lower center and left half, intertwined branches of palm and oak. In the right half of the reverse, the relief inscription "FOR LIFE SAVING". In the lower portion of the reverse, below the branches just above the lower rim of the medal, a relief letter "N" with a line reserved for the award serial number; the medal is suspended to a standard Russian pentagonal mount with a ring through the medal's suspension loop. The mount is covered by an overlapping 24mm wide white silk moiré ribbon with 2mm red edge stripes. Medals awarded to date: Awards and decorations of the Russian Federation The Commission on State Awards to the President of the Russian Federation
Belair Road is a demolished station on the abandoned South Beach Branch of the Staten Island Railway. It had two side platforms and two tracks, was located at Vermont Avenue, between Belair Road & St. Johns Avenue; this station served the US Quarantine station, one block to the east. The Belair Road station was built out of wood, could only platform two cars. There was a shelter on one of the platforms; the station was rebuilt in 1936 with concrete. It was rebuilt with an underground access walkway on both sides of the station. North of the station, there was a trestle built at Saint John's Avenue in 1936 to allow the road to pass over the right-of-way. Today, all, left of the trestle is a stanchion, morphed into part of someone's backyard, with a pool on top; this station was abandoned when the SIRT discontinued passenger service on the South Beach Branch to Wentworth Avenue at midnight on March 31, 1953 because of city-operated bus competition