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United States Bill of Rights

The United States Bill of Rights comprises the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. Proposed following the bitter 1787–88 debate over the ratification of the Constitution, written to address the objections raised by Anti-Federalists, the Bill of Rights amendments add to the Constitution specific guarantees of personal freedoms and rights, clear limitations on the government's power in judicial and other proceedings, explicit declarations that all powers not granted to the U. S. Congress by the Constitution are reserved for the people; the concepts codified in these amendments are built upon those found in earlier documents the Virginia Declaration of Rights, as well as the English Bill of Rights and the Magna Carta. Due to the efforts of Representative James Madison, who studied the deficiencies of the Constitution pointed out by anti-federalists and crafted a series of corrective proposals, Congress approved twelve articles of amendment on September 25, 1789, submitted them to the states for ratification.

Contrary to Madison's proposal that the proposed amendments be incorporated into the main body of the Constitution, they were proposed as supplemental additions to it. Articles Three through Twelve were ratified as additions to the Constitution on December 15, 1791, became Amendments One through Ten of the Constitution. Article Two became part of the Constitution on May 1992, as the Twenty-seventh Amendment. Article One is still pending before the states. Although Madison's proposed amendments included a provision to extend the protection of some of the Bill of Rights to the states, the amendments that were submitted for ratification applied only to the federal government; the door for their application upon state governments was opened in the 1860s, following ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment. Since the early 20th century both federal and state courts have used the Fourteenth Amendment to apply portions of the Bill of Rights to state and local governments; the process is known as incorporation.

There are several original engrossed copies of the Bill of Rights still in existence. One of these is on permanent public display at the National Archives in Washington, D. C. Prior to the ratification and implementation of the United States Constitution, the thirteen sovereign states followed the Articles of Confederation, created by the Second Continental Congress and ratified in 1781. However, the national government that operated under the Articles of Confederation was too weak to adequately regulate the various conflicts that arose between the states; the Philadelphia Convention set out to correct weaknesses of the Articles, apparent before the American Revolutionary War had been concluded. The convention took place from May 14 to September 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Although the Convention was purportedly intended only to revise the Articles, the intention of many of its proponents, chief among them James Madison of Virginia and Alexander Hamilton of New York, was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one.

The convention convened in the Pennsylvania State House, George Washington of Virginia was unanimously elected as president of the convention. The 55 delegates who drafted the Constitution are among the men known as the Founding Fathers of the new nation. Thomas Jefferson, Minister to France during the convention, characterized the delegates as an assembly of "demi-gods." Rhode Island refused to send delegates to the convention. On September 12, George Mason of Virginia suggested the addition of a Bill of Rights to the Constitution modeled on previous state declarations, Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts made it a formal motion. However, after only a brief discussion where Roger Sherman pointed out that State Bills of Rights were not repealed by the new Constitution, the motion was defeated by a unanimous vote of the state delegations. Madison an opponent of a Bill of Rights explained the vote by calling the state bills of rights "parchment barriers" that offered only an illusion of protection against tyranny.

Another delegate, James Wilson of Pennsylvania argued that the act of enumerating the rights of the people would have been dangerous, because it would imply that rights not explicitly mentioned did not exist. 84. Because Mason and Gerry had emerged as opponents of the proposed new Constitution, their motion—introduced five days before the end of the convention—may have been seen by other delegates as a delaying tactic; the quick rejection of this motion, however endangered the entire ratification process. Author David O. Stewart characterizes the omission of a Bill of Rights in the original Constitution as "a political blunder of the first magnitude" while historian Jack N. Rakove calls it "the one serious miscalculation the framers made as they looked ahead to the struggle over ratification". Thirty-nine delegates signed the finalized Constitution. Thirteen delegates left before it was completed, three who remained at the convention until the end refused to sign it: Mason and Edmund Randolph of Virginia.

Afterward, the Constitution was presented to the Articles of Confederation Congress with the request that it afterwards be submitted to a convention of delegates, chosen in each State by the people, for their assent and ratification. Following the Philadelphia Convention, some leading revolutionary figures such as Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams, Richard Henry Lee publicly opposed the new frame of government, a position known as "Anti-Federalism". Elbridge Gerry wrote the most popular Anti-Federalist tract, "Hon. Mr. Gerry's Obje

Overseas Trust Bank

Overseas Trust Bank Limited was a bank in Hong Kong. It was established in 1955 by Chang Ming Thien, a Malaysian businessman and it was listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange in 1972, it was the fourth largest bank in Hong Kong before acquisition. On June 6, 1985, OTB announced that it was on the brink of collapse, due to its severe cash flow and bad debt problems. Bad debts held by the bank reached US$89.5 million. To recover the confidence of the public and investors of the Hong Kong banking system, the Hong Kong Government stepped in and took over OTB in the following day. From 1985 to 1986, the government ordered the Royal Hong Kong Police and ICAC to investigate the causes of OTB downfall. In May 1986, the former chairman of OTB, Patrick C. T. Chang, was arrested at the Hong Kong International Airport with a large amount of cash and jewellery. In 1987, Chang and OTB's former senior management were sentenced to jail by Hong Kong Law Court. In 1993, the government sold OTB to Malaysian-owned Guoco Group for US$571 million.

OTB became the subsidiary of Dao Heng Bank. In 2001, Singaporean DBS Bank acquired and privatized Dao Heng Bank, together with OTB, from Guoco Group. In 2003, DBS Bank merged DBS Kwong on Bank, Dao Heng Bank and Overseas Trust Bank to form DBS Bank Limited. DBS Bank Dao Heng Bank Kwong on Bank TV Ads of Overseas Trust Bank in 1987

Amapá National Forest

The Amapá National Forest is a national forest in the state of Amapá, Brazil. The Amapá National Forest is divided between the municipalities of Pracuúba, Ferreira Gomes and Amapá in the state of Amapá, it has an area of 460,352.61 hectares. The forest is bounded to the north by the big Mutum River, to the east by the Falsino River, to the west by the Araguari River, to the south by the confluence of the Falsino and Araguari. In the extreme north there are chains of mountains of significant height, thought to belong to the Tumucumaque complex. To the east it adjoins the 2,369,400 hectares Amapá State Forest, a sustainable use environmental unit created in 2006. To the northwest it adjoins; the Amapá National Forest is in the Amazon biome. It contains a large area of humid tropical forest terra firma, it is accessible only by the Araguari, from the municipality of Porto Grande. Vegetation includes imposing Amazon species such as Dinizia excelsa, Manilkara huberi, Vouacapoua americana and Caryocar villosum.

Common palms are Iriartea exorrhiza. The Amapá National Forest was created by presidential decree 97.630 of 10 April 1989. It is administered by Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation, it is classed as IUCN protected area category VI. The objective is to support sustainable multiple use of forest resources and scientific research, with emphasis on methods for sustainable exploitation of native forests, it is part of the Amapá Biodiversity Corridor, created in 2003. The advisory council was established by ordnance 100 on 12 December 2008; the management plan was approved on 9 January 2014