Terracotta, terra cotta or terra-cotta, a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous. Terracotta is the term used for sculpture made in earthenware, for various practical uses including vessels and waste water pipes, roofing tiles and surface embellishment in building construction; the term is used to refer to the natural brownish orange color of most terracotta, which varies considerably. This article covers the senses of terracotta as a medium in sculpture, as in the Terracotta Army and Greek terracotta figurines, architectural decoration. Asian and European sculpture in porcelain is not covered. Glazed architectural terracotta and its unglazed version as exterior surfaces for buildings were used in Asia for some centuries before becoming popular in the West in the 19th century. Architectural terracotta can refer to decorated ceramic elements such as antefixes and revetments, which made a large contribution to the appearance of temples and other buildings in the classical architecture of Europe, as well as in the Ancient Near East.
In archaeology and art history, "terracotta" is used to describe objects such as figurines not made on a potter's wheel. Vessels and other objects that are or might be made on a wheel from the same material are called earthenware pottery. Unglazed pieces, those made for building construction and industry, are more to be referred to as terracotta, whereas tableware and other vessels are called earthenware, or by a more precise term such as faience. An appropriate refined clay is formed to the desired shape. After drying it is placed in a kiln or atop combustible material in a pit, fired; the typical firing temperature is around 1,000 °C, though it may be as low as 600 °C in historic and archaeological examples. The iron content, reacting with oxygen during firing, gives the fired body a reddish color, though the overall color varies across shades of yellow, buff, red, "terracotta", grey or brown. Fired terracotta is not watertight, but surface-burnishing the body before firing can decrease its porousness and a layer of glaze can make it watertight.
It is suitable for use below ground to carry pressurized water, for garden pots or building decoration in many environments, for oil containers, oil lamps, or ovens. Most other uses, such as for tableware, sanitary piping, or building decoration in freezing environments, require the material to be glazed. Terracotta, if uncracked, will ring if struck. Painted terracotta is first covered with a thin coat of gesso painted, it has been widely used but the paint is only suitable for indoor positions and is much less durable than fired colors in or under a ceramic glaze. Terracotta sculpture was rarely left in its "raw" fired state in the West until the 18th century. Terracotta female figurines were uncovered by archaeologists in excavations of Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan. Along with phallus-shaped stones, these suggest some sort of fertility cult; the Burney Relief is an outstanding terracotta plaque from Ancient Mesopotamia of about 1950 BC. In Mesoamerica, the great majority of Olmec figurines were in terracotta.
Many ushabti mortuary statuettes were made of terracotta in Ancient Egypt. The Ancient Greeks' Tanagra figurines were mass-produced mold-cast and fired terracotta figurines, that seem to have been affordable in the Hellenistic period, purely decorative in function, they were part of a wide range of Greek terracotta figurines, which included larger and higher-quality works such as the Aphrodite Heyl. Etruscan art used terracotta in preference to stone for larger statues, such as the near life-size Apollo of Veii and the Sarcophagus of the Spouses. Campana reliefs are Ancient Roman terracotta reliefs mostly used to make friezes for the outside of buildings, as a cheaper substitute for stone. Indian sculpture made heavy use of terracotta from as early as the Indus Valley Civilization, in more sophisticated areas had abandoned modeling for using molds by the 1st century BC; this allows large figures, nearly up to life-size, to be made in the Gupta period and the centuries following it. Several vigorous local popular traditions of terracotta folk sculpture remain active today, such as the Bankura horses.
Precolonial West African sculpture made extensive use of terracotta. The regions most recognized for producing terracotta art in that part of the world include the Nok culture of central and north-central Nigeria, the Ife/Benin cultural axis in western and southern Nigeria, the Igbo culture area of eastern Nigeria, which excelled in terracotta pottery; these related, but separate, traditions gave birth to elaborate schools of bronze and brass sculpture in the area. Chinese sculpture made great use of terracotta and without glazing and colour, from a early date; the famous Terracotta Army of Emperor Qin Shi Huang, 209–210 BC, was somewhat untypical, two thousand years ago reliefs were more common, in tombs and elsewhere. Buddhist figures were made in painted and glazed terracotta, with the Yixian glazed pottery luohans of 1150–1250, now in various Western museums, among the finest examples. Brick-built tombs from
Richard of Cirencester was a cleric and minor historian of the Benedictine abbey at Westminster. He was famed in the 18th and 19th century as the author of The Description of Britain before it was proved to have been a forgery in 1846, his name first appears on the chamberlain's list of the monks of that foundation drawn up in the year 1355. In 1391, he obtained a licence from the abbot to go to Rome and in this the abbot gave his testimony to Richard's perfect and sincere observance of religion for upwards of thirty years. In 1400 Richard spent nine nights of the infirmary of the abbey, died that January, his only known extant work are the four books of the Historial Mirror of the Deeds of the Kings of England, covering the years from 447 to 1066. The manuscript of this is in the university library at Cambridge and was edited in two volumes for the Rolls Series by John Mayor. At the conclusion of the fourth book Richard expresses his intention of continuing his narrative from the accession of William I, incorporating a sketch of the Conqueror's career from his birth.
This design he does not, appear to have carried into effect. The value of the Historial Mirror as a contribution to our historical knowledge is but slight, for it is a compilation from other writers and in transcribing these the compiler is guilty of great carelessness, he gives, numerous charters relating to Westminster Abbey and a complete account of the saints whose tombs were in the abbey church concerning Edward the Confessor. The work was, however used by historians and antiquaries until, with the rise of a more critical spirit, its value became more estimated. Besides the Historial Mirror Richard wrote, according to a 1396 letter from William of Woodford to Archbishop Thomas of Canterbury, a treatise on the offices and there was in the cathedral library at Peterborough another tract ascribed to him entitled Super Symbolum. Of neither of these works, does any known copy now exist. Richard is best known for the historical forgery perpetrated by Charles Bertram known as The Description of Britain.
Bertram's original manuscript ascribed this to "Richard the Westminsterian monk", but a British academic looking to verify its authenticity discovered that Richard of Cirencester had been at Westminster around the time of the work's supposed composition. It was published under a variant of his name and the conflation was universally accepted, to the point where Richard's name is more associated with the discredited forgery than with his own works. Speculum Historiale de Gestis regum Angliæ Tractatus super Symbolum Majus at Minus Liber de Officiis Ecclesiasticis Bertram, The Description of Britain, Translated from Richard of Cirencester: with the Original Treatise De Situ Britanniæ. Bertramus, Carolus, "Ricardi Corinensis Monachi Westmonasteriensis De Situ Britanniæ Libri Duo", Britannicarum Gentium Historiæ Antiquæ Scriptores Tres: Ricardus Corinensis, Gildas Badonicus, Nennius Banchorensis, Copenhagen: Ludolph Henrich Lillie for the author, pp. 1–60CS1 maint: extra punctuation Harvey, Barbara F. "Cirencester, Richard", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/5422 The first edition of this text is available at Wikisource: Hunt, William.
"Cirencester, Richard of". Dictionary of National Biography. 10. Pp. 365–366. Ricardus de Cirencestria, John E. B. "Speculum Historiale de Gestis Regum Angliæ ", Rolls Series №30, London: Longman and Company, Volumes I & IICS1 maint: extra punctuation Wilhelmus Wodfordus, "Contra Johannem Wiclefum, sacræ fidei pestem & hæresiarcham, doctissimæ ac planè catholicæ decertationes, quibus miserum hunc hominem ita consutat, eviscerat ac in omnibus vincit, ut ex illis ipsis omnes fermè nostri temporis hæreticos mutos effeceris ", in Edwardus Brown, Fasciculus Rerum Expetendarum & Fugiendarum, I, London: Richard Chiswell, pp. 190–265CS1 maint: extra punctuation. Attribution: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Mullinger, James Bass, "Richard of Cirencester", in Chisholm, Encyclopædia Britannica, 23, Cambridge University Press, pp. 297–298
Suzanne Lacy is an American artist and writer, professor at the USC Roski School of Art and Design. She has worked in a variety of media, including installation, performance, public art and art books, in which she focuses on "social themes and urban issues." She served in the education cabinet of Jerry Brown mayor of Oakland, as arts commissioner for the city. She designed multiple educational programs beginning with her role as performance faculty at The Feminist Studio Workshop at The Woman's Building in Los Angeles. Lacy has been involved with feminism since the late 1960s, she attended California State University located in Fresno in 1969, taking up graduate studies in psychology. At this university and fellow graduate student Faith Wilding established the first feminist consciousness-raising group on campus; this lead up to her attendance in Judy Chicago's Feminist Art Program during the Fall of 1970. The 1970s became a period where Suzanne Lacy continued to explore identities, women's bodies, social conditions.
The 1976 renovation of the Biltmore Hotel in Los Angeles, California sparked Lacy's performance art piece, Inevitable Associations. The marketing surrounding the old hotel's renovations paralleled the hotel to an old woman. Photographs showing the hotels' original structure stating "There May Be Life in the Old Girl Yet" forced Lacy to question the ways in which our society views older women. Throughout her career one can See Lacy's awareness and desire to rebuttal the invisibility of aging women (see performances Whisper, the Waves, the Wind and Crystal Quilt; the performance of Inevitable Associations took place over a span of two days in the lobby of the Biltmore Hotel. The first day of the performance featured a public makeover of Lacy, it took nearly three hours for a makeup artist to publicly turn Lacy into an old woman. As the makeover was occurring, collaborators passed out flyers and literature on the hotel renovation as well as information about cosmetic surgery. Throughout the performance old women dressed in all black began to enter the lobby and take seats on the opposite side of Lacy.
This went nearly unnoticed until the number of elderly women had grown so large that their presence became undeniable to all of those in the lobby. Once Lacy's makeover was complete the mass of older women silently dressed Lacy in black clothes; the second day of the performance featured three elderly women participants who sat in red chairs in the lobby and told stories about their lives after the age of 60 and the effects of aging to passerby's and any audience that formed. Lacy's goal throughout the performance was to bring awareness to the invisibility women must struggle with as they age and no longer fit into society's standards of beauty. Inevitable Associations was a crucial point in Lacy's career as it was the first time in which Lacy took her performance to the public streets. In 1977, Lacy and collaborator Leslie Labowitz combined performance art with activism in Three Weeks in May; the event included a performance piece on the steps of Los Angeles City Hall and self-defense classes for women in an attempt to highlight and curb sexual violence against women.
The artists updated a map with reports from the Los Angeles Police Department, printing the word "rape" on spots on a map of the greater Los Angeles Area. Lacy and Labowitz teamed up with Bia Lowe, other artists, in 1977 to create, In Mourning and In Rage, a large-scale public protest performance, it had been designed to challenge media coverage that sensationalized a rash of murders of women by the so-called Hillside Strangler. The performance began when a group of exceptionally tall women, made taller by towering black headpieces, arrived at City Hall in a hearse, followed by a caravan of cars filled with women in black; the Performers debarked and formed a circle in front of the steps of City Hall, beneath a banner that read, ”In memory of our sisters, women fight back.” The artist's designed the performance and imagery to captivate the interest of television news. Participants from the Woman’s Building, the Rape Hotline Alliance, City Council joined with the feminist community and families of the victims in creating a public ritual of rage as well as grief.
Lacy and Labowitz founded ARIADNE: A Social Art Network, a collaborative group to create community-based artwork and educational opportunities. In the mid-seventies, Lacy curated the first exhibition of women's performance art at Womanspace Gallery at The Woman's Building. In 1981, she collaborated with Susan Hiller to curate the exhibition We'll Think of a Title When We Meet: Women Performance Artists from London and Los Angeles at Franklin Furnace, a well-known alternative arts venue founded in 1976 by Martha Wilson. Lacy produced many performances in various sites around the world focusing on race and gender equity. During the first two decades of the 2000s, she reworked earlier performances, including WACK! Art and the Feminist Revolution, based upon the objectives. In 2012, she re-created the 1977 performance for the Getty Pacific Standard Time Performance Festival. Three Weeks in January, was an anti-rape performance based on her landmark 1977 project. Whisper, the Waves, the Wind, created with Sharon Allen in 1984, was the culmination of the Whisper Project, a yearlong series of events that highlighte