Crickets, of the family Gryllidae, are insects related to bush crickets, more distantly, to grasshoppers. The Gryllidae have mainly cylindrical bodies, round heads, and long antennae, behind the head is a smooth, robust pronotum. The abdomen ends in a pair of cerci, females have a long. The hind legs have enlarged femora, providing power for jumping, the front wings are adapted as tough, leathery elytra, and some crickets chirp by rubbing parts of these together. The hind wings are membranous and folded when not in use for flight, many species, the largest members of the family are the bull crickets, which are up to 5 cm long. More than 900 species of crickets are described, the Gryllidae are distributed all around the world except at latitudes 55° or higher and they occur in varied habitats from grassland and forests to marshes and caves. Crickets are mainly nocturnal, and are best known for the loud, chirping song of trying to attract females. The singing species have good hearing, via the tympani on the tibiae of the front legs, Crickets often appear as characters in literature.
The Talking Cricket features in Carlo Collodis 1883 childrens book, The Adventures of Pinocchio, the eponymous insect is central to Charles Dickenss 1845 The Cricket on the Hearth, as is the chirping insect in George Seldens 1960 The Cricket in Times Square. Crickets are celebrated in poems by William Wordsworth, John Keats and they are kept as pets in countries from China to Europe, sometimes for cricket fighting. Crickets are efficient at converting their food into body mass, making them a candidate for food production and they are used as food in Southeast Asia, where they are sold deep-fried in markets as snacks. They are used to feed carnivorous pets and zoo animals, in Brazilian folklore, crickets feature as omens of various events. Crickets are small to medium-sized insects with mostly cylindrical, somewhat flattened bodies. The head is spherical with long slender antennae arising from cone-shaped scapes, on the forehead are three ocelli. The pronotum is trapezoidal in shape and well-sclerotinized and it is smooth and has neither dorsal or lateral keels.
At the tip of the abdomen is a pair of cerci, and in females. The femora of the pair of legs are greatly enlarged for jumping. The tibiae of the legs are armed with a number of moveable spurs
A fish is any member of a group of animals that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a group to the tunicates, together forming the olfactores. Included in this definition are the living hagfish and cartilaginous, tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered obsolete or paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods, because in this manner the term fish is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology. The traditional term pisces is considered a typological, but not a phylogenetic classification, the earliest organisms that can be classified as fish were soft-bodied chordates that first appeared during the Cambrian period. Although they lacked a true spine, they possessed notochords which allowed them to be more agile than their invertebrate counterparts, fish would continue to evolve through the Paleozoic era, diversifying into a wide variety of forms.
Many fish of the Paleozoic developed external armor that protected them from predators, the first fish with jaws appeared in the Silurian period, after which many became formidable marine predators rather than just the prey of arthropods. Fish are abundant in most bodies of water and they can be found in nearly all aquatic environments, from high mountain streams to the abyssal and even hadal depths of the deepest oceans. With 33,100 described species, fish exhibit greater species diversity than any group of vertebrates. Fish are an important resource for humans worldwide, especially as food and subsistence fishers hunt fish in wild fisheries or farm them in ponds or in cages in the ocean. They are caught by fishers, kept as pets, raised by fishkeepers. Fish have had a role in culture through the ages, serving as deities, religious symbols, fish do not represent a monophyletic group, and therefore the evolution of fish is not studied as a single event. Early fish from the record are represented by a group of small, jawless.
Jawless fish lineages are mostly extinct, an extant clade, the lampreys may approximate ancient pre-jawed fish. The first jaws are found in Placodermi fossils, the diversity of jawed vertebrates may indicate the evolutionary advantage of a jawed mouth. It is unclear if the advantage of a hinged jaw is greater biting force, improved respiration, fish may have evolved from a creature similar to a coral-like sea squirt, whose larvae resemble primitive fish in important ways. The first ancestors of fish may have kept the form into adulthood. Fish are a group, that is, any clade containing all fish contains the tetrapods
An arthropod is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton, a segmented body, and jointed appendages. Arthropods form the phylum Arthropoda, which includes the insects, myriapods, arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin, often mineralised with calcium carbonate. The arthropod body plan consists of segments, each with a pair of appendages, the rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting. Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all guilds in most environments. They have over a million described species, making up more than 80% of all described living species, some of which. Arthropods range in size from the microscopic crustacean Stygotantulus up to the Japanese spider crab, arthropods primary internal cavity is a hemocoel, which accommodates their internal organs, and through which their haemolymph – analogue of blood – circulates, they have open circulatory systems. Like their exteriors, the organs of arthropods are generally built of repeated segments.
Their nervous system is ladder-like, with paired ventral nerve cords running through all segments and their heads are formed by fusion of varying numbers of segments, and their brains are formed by fusion of the ganglia of these segments and encircle the esophagus. The respiratory and excretory systems of arthropods vary, depending as much on their environment as on the subphylum to which they belong, arthropods have a wide range of chemical and mechanical sensors, mostly based on modifications of the many setae that project through their cuticles. Aquatic species use internal or external fertilization. Almost all arthropods lay eggs, but scorpions give birth to live young after the eggs have hatched inside the mother, arthropod hatchlings vary from miniature adults to grubs and caterpillars that lack jointed limbs and eventually undergo a total metamorphosis to produce the adult form. The level of care for hatchlings varies from nonexistent to the prolonged care provided by scorpions. The evolutionary ancestry of arthropods dates back to the Cambrian period, the group is generally regarded as monophyletic, and many analyses support the placement of arthropods with cycloneuralians in a superphylum Ecdysozoa.
Overall however, the relationships of Metazoa are not yet well resolved. Likewise, the relationships between various groups are still actively debated. Arthropods contribute to the food supply both directly as food, and more importantly indirectly as pollinators of crops. Some species are known to spread disease to humans, livestock. The word arthropod comes from the Greek ἄρθρον árthron, and πούς pous, i. e. foot or leg, arthropods are invertebrates with segmented bodies and jointed limbs
Penguins are a group of aquatic, flightless birds. They live almost exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere, with one species. Highly adapted for life in the water, penguins have countershaded dark and white plumage, most penguins feed on krill, fish and other forms of sealife caught while swimming underwater. They spend about half of their lives on land and half in the oceans, although almost all penguin species are native to the Southern Hemisphere, they are not found only in cold climates, such as Antarctica. In fact, only a few species of penguin live so far south, several species are found in the temperate zone, and one species, the Galápagos penguin, lives near the equator. The largest living species is the penguin, on average adults are about 1.1 m tall. The smallest penguin species is the little penguin, known as the fairy penguin. Among extant penguins, larger penguins inhabit colder regions, while smaller penguins are found in temperate or even tropical climates. Some prehistoric species attained enormous sizes, becoming as tall or as heavy as an adult human, the word penguin first appears in the 16th century as a synonym for great auk.
The etymology of the penguin is still debated. The English word is not apparently of French, Breton or Spanish origin, an alternative etymology links the word to Latin pinguis, which means fat or oil. Support for this etymology can be found in the alternative Germanic word for penguin, fettgans or fat-goose, the number of extant penguin species is debated. Depending on which authority is followed, penguin biodiversity varies between 17 and 20 living species, all in the subfamily Spheniscinae. Some sources consider the white-flippered penguin a separate Eudyptula species, while others treat it as a subspecies of the little penguin, similarly, it is still unclear whether the royal penguin is merely a color morph of the macaroni penguin. The status of the penguins is unclear. Updated after Marples, Acosta Hospitaleche, and Ksepka et al, CADIC P21 Delphinornis – Palaeeudyptinae, new subfamily 1. Marambiornis – Palaeeudyptinae, new subfamily 1, mesetaornis – Palaeeudyptinae, new subfamily 1. Tonniornis Wimanornis Duntroonornis – possibly Spheniscinae Korora Kairuku Platydyptes – possibly not monophyletic, further examination in 1980 resulted in placement as Aves incertae sedis
A habitat is an ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by a particular species of animal, plant, or other type of organism. The term typically refers to the zone in which the organism lives and it is the natural environment in which an organism lives, or the physical environment that surrounds a species population. Every organism has certain habitat needs for the conditions in which it will thrive, habitat types include polar, temperate and tropical. The terrestrial vegetation type may be forest, grassland, the word habitat has been in use since about 1755 and derives from the Latin third-person singular present indicative of habitāre, to inhabit, from habēre, to have or to hold. Habitat can be defined as the environment of an organism. It is similar in meaning to a biotope, an area of environmental conditions associated with a particular community of plants. Generally speaking, animal communities are reliant on specific types of plant communities, some plants and animals are generalists, and their habitat requirements are met in a wide range of locations.
The small white butterfly for example is found on all the continents of the world apart from Antarctica and its larvae feed on a wide range of Brassicas and various other plant species, and it thrives in any open location with diverse plant associations. Disturbance is important in the creation of biodiverse habitats, in the absence of disturbance, a climax vegetation cover develops that prevents the establishment of other species. Lightning strikes and toppled trees in tropical forests allow species richness to be maintained as pioneering species move in to fill the gaps created. Similarly coastal habitats can become dominated by kelp until the seabed is disturbed by a storm, another cause of disturbance is when an area may be overwhelmed by an invasive introduced species which is not kept under control by natural enemies in its new habitat. Terrestrial habitat types include forests, grasslands and deserts, within these broad biomes are more specific habitats with varying climate types, temperature regimes, soils and vegetation types.
Many of these habitats grade into each other and each one has its own communities of plants. A habitat may suit a particular species well, but its presence or absence at any particular location depends to some extent on chance, on its dispersal abilities, freshwater habitats include rivers, lakes, ponds and bogs. Although some organisms are found across most of these habitats, the majority have more specific requirements, aquatic plants can be floating, semi-submerged, submerged or grow in permanently or temporarily saturated soils besides bodies of water. Marine habitats include brackish water, bays, the sea, the intertidal zone. Further variations include rock pools, sand banks, brackish lagoons and pebbly beaches, the benthic zone or seabed provides a home for both static organisms, anchored to the substrate, and for a large range of organisms crawling on or burrowing into the surface. A desert is not the kind of habitat that favours the presence of amphibians, with their requirement for water to keep their skins moist, some frogs live in deserts, creating moist habitats underground and hibernating while conditions are adverse
True flies are insects of the order Diptera, the name being derived from the Greek di = two, and ptera = wings. Insects of this use only a single pair of wings to fly. Diptera is an order containing an estimated 1,000,000 species including horse-flies, crane flies and others. Flies have a head, with a pair of large compound eyes. Their wing arrangement gives them great manoeuvrability in flight, and claws, Flies undergo complete metamorphosis, the eggs are laid on the larval food-source and the larvae, which lack true limbs, develop in a protected environment, often inside their source of their food. The pupa is a capsule from which the adult emerges when ready to do so. Diptera is one of the insect orders and are of considerable ecological. Flies are important pollinators, second only to the bees and their Hymenopteran relatives, Flies may have been among the evolutionarily earliest pollinators responsible for early plant pollination. Flies can be annoyances especially in parts of the world where they can occur in large numbers.
Larger flies such as flies and screwworms cause significant economic harm to cattle. Blowfly larvae, known as gentles, and other larvae, known more generally as maggots, are used as fishing bait. They are used in medicine in debridement to clean wounds, dipterans are endopterygotes, insects that undergo radical metamorphosis. They belong to the Mecopterida, alongside the Mecoptera, Siphonaptera and Trichoptera, the possession of a single pair of wings distinguishes most true flies from other insects with fly in their names. However, some true flies such as Hippoboscidae have become secondarily wingless and this cladogram represents the current consensus view. The first true dipterans known are from the Middle Triassic, and they became widespread during the Middle, modern flowering plants did not appear until the Cretaceous, so the original dipterans must have had a different source of nutrition other than nectar. The basal clades in the Diptera include the Deuterophlebiidae and the enigmatic Nymphomyiidae, three episodes of evolutionary radiation are thought to have occurred based on the fossil record.
Many new species of lower Diptera developed in the Triassic, about 220 million years ago, many lower Brachycera appeared in the Jurassic, some 180 million years ago. A third radiation took place among the Schizophora at the start of the Paleogene,66 million years ago, the phylogenetic position of Diptera has been controversial
A newt is a salamander in the subfamily Pleurodelinae, called eft during its terrestrial juvenile phase. Unlike other members of the family Salamandridae, newts are semiaquatic, not all aquatic salamanders are considered newts, however. The more than 100 known species of newts are found in North America, North Africa, newts metamorphose through three distinct developmental life stages, aquatic larva, terrestrial juvenile, and adult. Adult newts have lizard-like bodies and return to the every year to breed, otherwise living in humid. Newts are threatened by loss and pollution. Several species are endangered, and at least one species, the Yunnan lake newt, has gone extinct recently, the Old English name of the animal was efte, resulting in Middle English eft, this word was transformed irregularly into euft, evete, or ewt. The initial n was added from the article an by provection by the early 15th century. The form newt appears to have arisen as a variant of eft in Staffordshire. Dialectal English and Scots has the word ask used for both newts and wall lizards, from Old English āþexe, from Proto-Germanic *agiþahsijǭ, literally lizard-badger or distaff-like lizard.
Latin had the name stellio for a type of spotted newt, ancient Greek had the name κορδύλος, presumably for the water newt. German has Molch, from Middle High German mol, olm, newts are known as Tritones in historical literature, and triton remains in use as common name in some Romance languages, in Greek, in Russian and Serbian. The systematic name Tritones was introduced alongside Pleurodelinae by Tschudi in 1838, laurentis Triton was renamed to Triturus by Rafinesque in 1815. Tschudis Pleurodelinae is based on the type genus Pleurodeles named by Michahelles in 1830, newts are found in North America, North Africa and Asia. Eastern Asia, from Eastern India over Indochina to Japan, is home to five genera with more than 40 species, newts are semi-aquatic, spending part of the year in the water for reproduction and the rest of the year on land. While most species prefer stagnant water bodies such as ponds, ditches or flooded meadows for reproduction, the European brook newts and European mountain newts have even adapted to life in cold, oxygen-rich mountain streams.
During their terrestrial phase, newts live in habitats with abundandant cover such as logs, rocks. Newts share many of the characteristics of their kin, including semipermeable glandular skin, four equal-sized limbs. The newts skin, however, is not as smooth as that of other salamanders, aquatic larvae have true teeth on both upper and lower jaws, and external gills
The walrus is a large flippered marine mammal with a discontinuous distribution about the North Pole in the Arctic Ocean and subarctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere. The walrus is the living species in the family Odobenidae. Adult walruses are easily recognized by their prominent tusks, adult males in the Pacific can weigh more than 2,000 kg and, among pinnipeds, are exceeded in size only by the two species of elephant seals. Walruses live mostly in shallow waters above the shelves, spending significant amounts of their lives on the sea ice looking for benthic bivalve mollusks to eat. Walruses are relatively long-lived, social animals, and they are considered to be a species in the Arctic marine regions. The walrus has played a prominent role in the cultures of many indigenous Arctic peoples, who have hunted the walrus for its meat, skin and bone. During the 19th century and the early 20th century, walruses were widely hunted and killed for their blubber, walrus ivory, the population of walruses dropped rapidly all around the Arctic region.
Their population has rebounded somewhat since then, though the populations of Atlantic and Laptev walruses remain fragmented, the origin of the word walrus is thought by J. R. R. Tolkien to derive from a Germanic language, and it has been attributed largely to either the Dutch language or Old Norse and its first part is thought to derive from a word such as Dutch walvis whale. Its second part has hypothesized to come from the Old Norse word for horse. For example, the Old Norse word hrossvalr means horse-whale and is thought to have passed in an inverted form to both Dutch and the dialects of northern Germany as walros and Walross. An alternate theory is that is comes from the Dutch words wal shore, the species name rosmarus is Scandinavian. The Norwegian manuscript Konungsskuggsja, thought to date from around AD1240, refers to the walrus as rosmhvalr in Iceland and rostungr in Greenland. Several place names in Iceland and Norway may originate from sites, Hvalfjord and Hvalsnes to name some.
The archaic English word for walrus—morse—is widely thought to have come from the Slavic languages, compare морж in Russian, mursu in Finnish, morša in Northern Saami, and morse in French. The coincidental similarity between morse and the Latin word morsus supposedly contributed to the reputation as a terrible monster. The compound Odobenus comes from odous and baino, based on observations of walruses using their tusks to pull out of the water. The term divergens in Latin means turning apart, referring to their tusks, the walrus is a mammal in the order Carnivora
The rotifers make up a phylum of microscopic and near-microscopic pseudocoelomate animals. They were first described by Rev. John Harris in 1696, most rotifers are around 0. 1–0.5 mm long, and are common in freshwater environments throughout the world with a few saltwater species, for example, those of genus Synchaeta. Some rotifers are free swimming and truly planktonic, others move by inchworming along a substrate, about 25 species are colonial, either sessile or planktonic. Rotifers are an important part of the zooplankton, being a major foodsource. Most species of the rotifers are cosmopolitan, but there are some endemic species. Recent barcoding evidence, suggests that some species, such as Brachionus plicatilis, B. calyciflorus, Lecane bulla. In some recent treatments, rotifers are placed with acanthocephalans in a clade called Syndermata. In 1702, Anton van Leeuwenhoek gave a description of Rotifer vulgaris and subsequently described Melicerta ringens. He was the first to publish observations of the revivification of certain species after drying, about 2200 species of rotifers have been described.
Their taxonomy is currently in a state of flux, one treatment places them in the phylum Rotifera, with three classes, Seisonidea and Monogononta. The largest group is the Monogononta, with about 1500 species, followed by the Bdelloidea, there are only two known genera with three species of Seisonidea. The Acanthocephala, previously considered to be a phylum, have been demonstrated to be modified rotifers. The exact relationship to members of the phylum has not yet been resolved. One possibility is that the Acanthocephala are closer to the Bdelloidea and Monogononta than to the Seisonidea, the Rotifera, strictly speaking, are confined to the Bdelloidea and the Monogononta. Rotifera and Seisonida make up a clade called Syndermata, the word rotifer is derived from a Latin word meaning wheel-bearer, due to the corona around the mouth that in concerted sequential motion resembles a wheel. Rotifers have bilateral symmetry and a variety of different shapes, the body of a rotifer is divided into a head and foot, and is typically somewhat cylindrical.
Rigid cuticles are often composed of plates, and may bear spines, ridges. Their cuticle is nonchitinous and is formed from sclerotized proteins, the most distinctive feature of rotifers is the presence of a ciliated structure, called the corona, on the head
The molluscs compose the large phylum Mollusca of invertebrate animals. Around 85,000 extant species of molluscs are recognized, molluscs are the largest marine phylum, comprising about 23% of all the named marine organisms. Numerous molluscs live in freshwater and terrestrial habitats and they are highly diverse, not just in size and in anatomical structure, but in behaviour and in habitat. The phylum is divided into 9 or 10 taxonomic classes. The gastropods are by far the most numerous molluscs in terms of classified species, the three most universal features defining modern molluscs are a mantle with a significant cavity used for breathing and excretion, the presence of a radula, and the structure of the nervous system. Other than these things, molluscs express great morphological diversity, so many textbooks base their descriptions on an ancestral mollusc. This has a single, limpet-like shell on top, which is made of proteins and chitin reinforced with calcium carbonate, the underside of the animal consists of a single muscular foot.
Although molluscs are coelomates, the coelom tends to be small, the main body cavity is a hemocoel through which blood circulates, their circulatory systems are mainly open. The generalized mollusc has two paired nerve cords, or three in bivalves, the brain, in species that have one, encircles the esophagus. Most molluscs have eyes, and all have sensors to detect chemicals, the simplest type of molluscan reproductive system relies on external fertilization, but more complex variations occur. All produce eggs, from which may emerge trochophore larvae, more complex veliger larvae, good evidence exists for the appearance of gastropods and bivalves in the Cambrian period 541 to 485.4 million years ago. Molluscs have, for centuries, been the source of important luxury goods, notably pearls, mother of pearl, Tyrian purple dye and their shells have been used as money in some preindustrial societies. Mollusc species can represent hazards or pests for human activities, the bite of the blue-ringed octopus is often fatal, and that of Octopus apollyon causes inflammation that can last for over a month.
Stings from a few species of large tropical cone shells can kill, schistosomiasis is transmitted to humans via water snail hosts, and affects about 200 million people. Snails and slugs can be serious pests, and accidental or deliberate introduction of some snail species into new environments has seriously damaged some ecosystems. The words mollusc and mollusk are both derived from the French mollusque, which originated from the Latin molluscus, from mollis, molluscus was itself an adaptation of Aristotles τα μαλακά, the soft things, which he applied to cuttlefish. The scientific study of molluscs is accordingly called malacology, as it is now known these groups have no relation to molluscs, and very little to one another, the name Molluscoida has been abandoned. The most universal features of the structure of molluscs are a mantle with a significant cavity used for breathing and excretion
The Paleozoic Era is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon, from 541 to 252.17 million years ago. It is the longest of the Phanerozoic eras, and is subdivided into six periods, the Cambrian, Silurian, Carboniferous. The Paleozoic comes after the Neoproterozoic era of the Proterozoic and is followed by the Mesozoic, the Paleozoic was a time of dramatic geological and evolutionary change. The Cambrian witnessed the most rapid and widespread diversification of life in Earths history, known as the Cambrian explosion, arthropods, anapsids, synapsids and diapsids all evolved during the Paleozoic. Life began in the ocean but eventually transitioned onto land, and by the late Paleozoic, Great forests of primitive plants covered the continents, many of which formed the coal beds of Europe and eastern North America. Towards the end of the era, sophisticated diapsids and synapsids were dominant, the Paleozoic Era ended with the largest extinction event in the history of Earth, the Permian–Triassic extinction event.
The effects of this catastrophe were so devastating that it took life on land 30 million years into the Mesozoic Era to recover, recovery of life in the sea may have been much faster. The Paleozoic era began and ended with supercontinents and in between were the rise of mountains along the margins, and flooding and draining of shallow seas between. At its start, the supercontinent Pannotia broke up, paleoclimatic studies and evidence of glaciers indicate that central Africa was most likely in the polar regions during the early Paleozoic. During the early Paleozoic, the huge continent Gondwana formed or was forming, by mid-Paleozoic, the collision of North America and Europe produced the Acadian-Caledonian uplifts, and a subduction plate uplifted eastern Australia. There are six periods in the Paleozoic Era, Ordovician, Devonian, the Cambrian spans from 541 million years to 485 million years and is the first period of the Paleozoic era of the Phanerozoic. The Cambrian marked a boom in evolution in an event known as the Cambrian explosion in which the largest number of creatures evolved in any period of the history of the Earth.
Creatures like algae evolved, but the most ubiquitous of that period were the armored arthropods, almost all marine phyla evolved in this period. During this time, the supercontinent Pannotia begins to break up, the Ordovician spanned from 485 million years to 443 million years ago. The Ordovician is a time in Earths history in many of the biological classes still prevalent today evolved, such as primitive fish, cephalopods. The most common forms of life, were trilobites, more importantly, the first arthropods went ashore to colonize the empty continent of Gondwana. By the end of the Ordovican, Gondwana was at the pole, early North America had collided with Europe. Glaciation of Africa resulted in a drop in sea level
Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae. Females of most species are ectoparasites, whose tube-like mouthparts pierce the skin to consume blood. The word mosquito is Spanish for little fly, thousands of species feed on the blood of various kinds of hosts, mainly vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles and even some kinds of fish. Some mosquitoes attack invertebrates, mainly other arthropods, though the loss of blood is seldom of any importance to the victim, the saliva of the mosquito often causes an irritating rash that is a serious nuisance. Much more serious though, are the roles of species of mosquitoes as vectors of diseases. The oldest known mosquito with a similar to modern species was found in 79-million-year-old Canadian amber from the Cretaceous. An older sister species with more primitive features was found in Burmese amber that is 90 to 100 million years old, two mosquito fossils have been found that show very little morphological change in modern mosquitoes against their counterpart from 46 million years ago.
These fossils are the oldest ever found to have blood preserved within their abdomens, the Old and New World Anopheles species are believed to have subsequently diverged about 95 million years ago. The mosquito Anopheles gambiae is currently undergoing speciation into the M and S molecular forms, some pesticides that work on the M form no longer work on the S form. Over 3,500 species of the Culicidae have already been described and they are generally divided into two subfamilies which in turn comprise some 43 genera. These figures are subject to change, as more species are discovered. The two main subfamilies are the Anophelinae and Culicinae, with their genera as shown in the subsection below, the distinction is of great practical importance because the two subfamilies tend to differ in their significance as vectors of different classes of diseases. Roughly speaking, arboviral diseases such as fever and dengue fever tend to be transmitted by Culicine species. Some transmit various species of malaria, but it is not clear that they ever transmit any form of human malaria.
Some species do however transmit various forms of filariasis, much as many Simuliidae do, Anopheline mosquitoes, again not necessarily in the genus Anopheles, sometimes bear pathogenic arboviruses, but it is not yet clear that they ever transmit them as effective vectors. However, all the most important vectors of malaria are Anopheline. Anophelinae Culicinae Mosquitoes are members of a family of nematocerid flies, mosquitoes resemble crane flies and chironomid flies. In particular, the females of species of mosquitoes are blood-eating pests and dangerous vectors of diseases