A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet, composed of silicate rocks or metals. Within the Solar System, the terrestrial planets are the inner planets closest to the Sun, i.e. Mercury, Venus and Mars; the terms "terrestrial planet" and "telluric planet" are derived from Latin words for Earth, as these planets are, in terms of structure, Earth-like. These planets are located between the asteroid belt. Terrestrial planets have a solid planetary surface, making them different from the larger gaseous planets, which are composed of some combination of hydrogen and water existing in various physical states. All terrestrial planets in the Solar System have the same basic type of structure, such as a central metallic core iron, with a surrounding silicate mantle; the Moon has a much smaller iron core. Io and Europa are satellites that have internal structures similar to that of terrestrial planets. Terrestrial planets can have canyons, mountains and other surface structures, depending on the presence of water and tectonic activity.
Terrestrial planets have secondary atmospheres, generated through volcanism or comet impacts, in contrast to the giant planets, whose atmospheres are primary, captured directly from the original solar nebula. The Solar System has four terrestrial planets: Mercury, Venus and Mars. Only one terrestrial planet, Earth, is known to have an active hydrosphere. During the formation of the Solar System, there were many more terrestrial planetesimals, but most merged with or were ejected by the four terrestrial planets. Dwarf planets, such as Ceres and Eris, small Solar System bodies are similar to terrestrial planets in the fact that they do have a solid surface, but are, on average, composed of more icy materials; the Earth's Moon has a density of 3.4 g·cm−3 and Jupiter's satellites, Io, 3.528 and Europa, 3.013 g·cm−3. The uncompressed density of a terrestrial planet is the average density its materials would have at zero pressure. A greater uncompressed density indicates greater metal content. Uncompressed density differs from the true average density because compression within planet cores increases their density.
The uncompressed density of terrestrial planets trends towards lower values as the distance from the Sun increases. The rocky minor planet Vesta orbiting outside of Mars is less dense than Mars still at, 3.4 g·cm−3. Calculations to estimate uncompressed density inherently require a model of the planet's structure. Where there have been landers or multiple orbiting spacecraft, these models are constrained by seismological data and moment of inertia data derived from the spacecraft orbits. Where such data is not available, uncertainties are higher, it is unknown. Most of the planets discovered outside the Solar System are giant planets, because they are more detectable, but since 2005, hundreds of terrestrial extrasolar planets have been found, with several being confirmed as terrestrial. Most of these are i.e. planets with masses between Earth's and Neptune's. During the early 1990s, the first extrasolar planets were discovered orbiting the pulsar PSR B1257+12, with masses of 0.02, 4.3, 3.9 times that of Earth's, by pulsar timing.
When 51 Pegasi b, the first planet found around a star still undergoing fusion, was discovered, many astronomers assumed it to be a gigantic terrestrial, because it was assumed no gas giant could exist as close to its star as 51 Pegasi b did. It was found to be a gas giant. In 2005, the first planets orbiting a main-sequence star and which show signs of being terrestrial planets, were found: Gliese 876 d and OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb. Gliese 876 d orbits the red dwarf Gliese 876, 15 light years from Earth, has a mass seven to nine times that of Earth and an orbital period of just two Earth days. OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb has about 5.5 times the mass of Earth, orbits a star about 21,000 light years away in the constellation Scorpius. From 2007 to 2010, three potential terrestrial planets were found orbiting within the Gliese 581 planetary system; the smallest, Gliese 581e, is only about 1.9 Earth masses, but orbits close to the star. An ideal terrestrial planet would be two Earth masses, with a 25-day orbital period around a red dwarf.
Two others, Gliese 581c and Gliese 581d, as well as a disputed planet, Gliese 581g, are more-massive super-Earths orbiting in or close to the habitable zone of the star, so they could be habitable, with Earth-like temperatures. Another terrestrial planet, HD 85512 b, was discovered in 2011; the radius and composition of all these planets are unknown. The first confirmed terrestrial exoplanet, Kepler-10b, was found in 2011 by the Kepler Mission designed to discover Earth-size planets around other stars using the transit method. In the same year, the Kepler Space Observatory Mission team released a list of 1235 extrasolar planet candidates, including six that are "Earth-size" or "super-Earth-size" and in the habitable zone of their star. Since Kepler has discovered hundreds of planets ranging
Gwendolyn Audrey Foster is an American scholar and filmmaker. Her work has focused on gender, ecofeminism, queer sexuality, eco-theory, class studies. From 1999 through the end of 2014, she was co-editor along with Wheeler Winston Dixon of the Quarterly Review of Film and Video. In 2016, she was named Willa Cather Endowed Professor of English at the University of Nebraska at Lincoln. Foster received a B. A. Degree in English from Douglass College, Rutgers University in 1983, earned a master's degree in 1992 and her doctorate at the University of Nebraska at Lincoln, in 1995. Foster teaches a broad variety of courses that reflect her diverse interests: Experimental Filmmakers, Queer theory and LGBTQ+ film, Apoco-tainment, Eco-Horror and Environmentalism in TV and Film, Italian Postwar Cinema, Challenging and Disruptive Films, Spectators as co-authors, Women Filmmakers in Film History, the films of Luis Buñuel, Chantal Akerman, Lucrecia Martel, Kelly Reichardt and Film Censorship and Marxist Approaches to Film, "Woman's Pictures" and Melodrama, Female Spectatorship, Queer Spectatorship, Race & Post/colonialism in Film, Social Class and Social Mobility in Film, Maids, & Sex Workers – Redefining Female Heroes in Film, Masculinity in Media, Ozu and Dreyer, Japanese and Asian Cinema, Latin American cinema, French Film Directors, Atomic anti-communist hysteria films and many other courses.
She has written about film-related topics such as eco-feminism, underground film, avant garde film, cultural studies and Marxist critical theory, women directors. Foster has made films including the 1991 documentary Women Who Made the Movies as well as the 1994 feature film Squatters, more a number of short films including the Gaia Triptych a series of short eco-horror and eco-feminist experimental films including Waste and Want Not. Foster's other short films include such Earth TV, Echo and Narcissus, Tenderness and Psyche, Pre-Raphaelite Falls, The Passenger, Pop. 1280 For Jim Thompson, Mirror and many other titles. Foster publishes in many journals such as Choice, Senses of Cinema, Film International, Quarterly Review of Film and Video, she writes and publishes extensively on film studies and cultural studies, along with her filmmaking and installation art projects. Foster and Wheeler Winston Dixon are coauthors of the popular film history textbook, A Short History of Film, they are Series Editors of "Quick Takes: Movies and Popular Culture," a series of books offering fresh perspectives on film and popular culture published by Rutgers University Press.
Her films have been screened at Outfest LA, Bi Arts Festival, The Nederlands Filmmuseum, Rice Museum, Collective for Living Cinema, Swedish Cinemateket, National Museum of Women in the Arts, DC, International Film Festival of Kerala, Films de Femmes, Créteil, Women's Film Festival of Madrid, Kyobo Center, Santa Barbara Museum of Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Université Laval, Forum Yokohama, Anthology Film Archives, Amos Eno Gallery, NY, SLA 307 Art Space, NY, Maryland Institute College of Art, NETV, Studio 44 Stockholm, X-12 Festival, UK, other museums and festivals around the world. In March and April 2018, the BWA Contemporary Art Gallery in Katowice, presented a month long retrospective of Foster's new video work. In May 2018, she presented a screening of her videos, along with the work of Bill Domonkos and Wheeler Winston Dixon at The Museum of Human Achievement in Austin, Texas. In the summer of 2018, she had a one woman show at Filmhuis Cavia in Amsterdam, her film Self Portrait was screened as part of NewFilmmakers at Anthology Film Archives on September 11, 2018.
Her one woman show, Queer Experimental Films was screened July/August 2018 on Salto Netherlands International TV, she had a one woman show at The Museum of The Future in Berlin, Germany on October 28, 2017. Foster's life partner is Wheeler Winston Dixon. Disruptive Feminisms: Raced and Classed Bodies in Film Hoarders, Doomsday Preppers, the Culture of Apocalypse 21st Century Hollywood: Movies in the Era of Transformation, co-written with Wheeler Winston Dixon, Rutgers University Press, 2011 A Short History of Film co-written with Wheeler Winston Dixon 3rd Edition, March, 2018. Class-Passing: Performing Social Mobility in Film and Popular Culture Performing Whiteness: Postmodern Re/Constructions Experimental Cinema: the Film Reader, co-edited with Wheeler Winston Dixon, London: Routledge, 2002 Troping the Body: Etiquette and Dialogic Performance Captive Bodies: Postcolonialism in the Cinema Women Filmmakers of the African and Asian Diaspora: Decolonizing the Gaze, Locating Subjectivity" Women Film Directors: An International Bio-Critical Dictionary.
Westport: Greenwood Press, 1995 Identity and Memory: The Films of Chantal Akerman Official website Gwendolyn Audrey Foster on IMDb Gwendolyn Audrey Foster at Vimeo Gwendolyn Audrey Foster at The Pythians Gwendolyn Audrey Foster at University of Nebraska–Lincoln
Lakeview is a census-designated place in Nassau County, New York, United States. The population was 5,615 at the 2010 census. Lakeview is located at west of Hempstead Lake State Park. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 1.2 square miles, of which, 1.0 square mile of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,607 people, 1,525 households, 1,287 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 5,850.2 per square mile. There were 1,569 housing units at an average density of 1,637.1/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 6.90% White, 84.95% African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.48% Asian, 3.44% from other races, 3.91% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.94% of the population. There were 1,525 households out of which 37.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.6% were married couples living together, 26.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 15.6% were non-families.
11.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.59 and the average family size was 3.81. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 28.3% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, 13.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 75.6 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $98,036; the per capita income for the CDP was $28,575. About 4.9% of families and 6.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.4% of those under age 18 and 7.7% of those age 65 or over