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Territorial Force

The Territorial Force was a part-time volunteer component of the British Army, created in 1908 to augment British land forces without resorting to conscription. The new organisation consolidated the 19th-century Volunteer Force and yeomanry into a unified auxiliary, commanded by the War Office and administered by local County Territorial Associations; the Territorial Force was designed to reinforce the regular army in expeditionary operations abroad, but because of political opposition it was assigned to home defence. Members could not be compelled to serve overseas. In the first two months of the First World War, territorials volunteered for foreign service in significant numbers, allowing territorial units to be deployed abroad, they saw their first action on the Western Front during the initial German offensive of 1914, the force filled the gap between the near destruction of the regular army that year and the arrival of the New Army in 1915. Territorial units were deployed to Gallipoli in 1915 and, following the failure of that campaign, provided the bulk of the British contribution to allied forces in the Sinai and Palestine Campaign.

By the war's end, the Territorial Force had fielded twenty-three infantry divisions and two mounted divisions on foreign soil. It was reconstituted in 1921 as the Territorial Army; the force experienced problems throughout its existence. On establishment, fewer than 40 per cent of the men in the previous auxiliary institutions transferred into it, it was under strength until the outbreak of the First World War, it was not considered to be an effective military force by the regular army and was denigrated by the proponents of conscription. Lord Kitchener chose to concentrate the Territorial Force on home defence and raise the New Army to reinforce the British Expeditionary Force in France, a decision which disappointed the territorials; the need to replace heavy losses suffered by the BEF before the New Army was ready forced Kitchener to deploy territorial units overseas, compromising the force's ability to defend the homeland. To replace foreign-service units, the Territorial Force was doubled in size by creating a second line which mirrored the organisation of the original, first-line units.

Second-line units assumed responsibility for home defence and provided replacement drafts to the first line. The second line was poorly equipped and armed; the provision of replacements to the first line compromised the second line's home defence capabilities until a third line was raised to take over responsibility for territorial recruitment and training. The second line's duties were further complicated by the expectation confirmed, that it too would be deployed overseas. Territorial units were deployed overseas to free up regular units from non-combat duties. On the Western Front, individual battalions were attached to regular army formations and sent into action, the territorials were credited with playing a key role in stopping the German offensive; the first complete territorial division to be deployed to a combat zone arrived in France in March 1915. Territorial divisions began participating in offensive operations on the Western Front from June 1915 and at Gallipoli that year; because of the way it was constituted and recruited, the Territorial Force possessed an identity, distinct from the regular army and the New Army.

This became diluted as heavy casualties were replaced with conscripted recruits following the introduction of compulsory service in early 1916. The Territorial Force was further eroded as a separate institution when County Territorial Associations were relieved of most of their administrative responsibilities. By the war's end, there was little to distinguish between regular and New Army formations; the British Army of the late 19th century was a small, professional organisation designed to garrison the empire and maintain order at home, with no capacity to provide an expeditionary force in a major war. It was augmented in its home duties by three part-time volunteer institutions, the militia, the Volunteer Force and the yeomanry. Battalions of the militia and Volunteer Force had been linked with regular army regiments since 1872, the militia was used as a source of recruitment into the regular army; the terms of service for all three auxiliaries made service overseas voluntary. The Second Boer War exposed weaknesses in the ability of the regular army to counter guerrilla warfare which required additional manpower to overcome.

The only reinforcements available were the auxiliaries – nearly 46,000 militiamen served in South Africa and another 74,000 were enlisted into the regular army. The war placed a significant strain on the regular forces. Against a background of invasion scares in the press, George Wyndham, Under-Secretary of State for War, conceded in Parliament in February 1900 that instead of augmenting the regular army's defence of the British coast, the auxiliary forces were the main defence; the questionable performance of the volunteers, caused by poor standards of efficiency and training, led to doubts in both government and the regular army about the auxiliary's ability to meet such a challenge. The war exposed the difficulty in relying on auxiliary forces which were not liable for service overseas as a source of reinforcements for the regular army in times of crisis. In 1903, the Director of General Mobilisation and Military Intelligence reported an excess of home defence forces which could not be relied up

Nquma rousi

Nquma rousi is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Horaiclavidae. The length of the shell attains 17 mm; the shell is broadly fusiform. The posterior two-fifths of the whorls between the sutures shows a excavated channel; the anterior three-fifths are marked by 10-12 prominent, low, somewhat protractive axial ribs which are truncated posteriorly by the channel, their terminations forming cusps. The intercostal spaces are about twice as wide as the ribs; the ribbed portions of the whorls on the spire are covered by five and spaced, spiral lines. The summit of the whorls are appressed; the base of the body whorl is moderately long, marked by the feeble continuations of the axial ribs and on the posterior half by five incised spiral lines equaling those on the spire in strength and spacing and forming a continuous series with them. The anterior portion of the base shows about seven ill-defined spiral lirations; the aperture is narrowly elongate pyriform. The sinus is shallow below the sutures.

The outer lip is somewhat sinuous. The columella is strong sigmoid; the coloration of the type consists of a creamy white ground, unmarked in the subsutural channel and on the anterior half of the base on the last turn. A few dots of brownish orange appear near the summit between the ribs of the preceding whorls; the ribbed portion of the whorl between the anterior and posterior portion of the base is mottled with brownish orange in the intercostal spaces, less so on the summits of the ribs, while a little posterior to the middle the base is marked by two slender spiral lines of the same color. This marine species occurs off Cape Agulhas to South Africa. Steyn, D. G. & Lussi, M. Marine Shells of South Africa. An Illustrated Collector’s Guide to Beached Shells. Ekogilde Publishers, South Africa, ii + 264 pp. page: 154 Tucker, J. K. 2004 Catalog of recent and fossil turrids. Zootaxa 682:1-1295. "Nquma rousi". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 16 January 2019. Specimen at MNHN, Paris

Rupert von Miller

Rupert von Miller ) was a German architect and sculptor. Rupert von Miller was born in Munich, son of the bronze caster and sculptor Fritz von Miller and grandson of the bronze caster Ferdinand von Miller, he studied in Berlin. He designed the church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Bad Wiessee, he made figures for the Reichenbach Bridge and a bronze bust of his father in the family's chapel in St. Benno's Church, Munich. In 1930 the von Miller bronze foundry received a commission for a monument to Simón Bolívar. Rupert made the design for the 3.5-metres-high statue, set up in the centre of Bogotá. The Rupert-von-Miller-Platz in Bad Wiessee was named after him, he is buried in the mountain burial ground in Bad Wiessee

Shirley Thomas (USC professor)

Shirley Thomas known as Shirley Thomas Perkins, was a radio/television actress/writer/producer and professor in the Master of Professional Writing Program at the University of Southern California. In 2010, The Aerospace Historical Society established the Shirley Thomas Academic Scholarship, it is "presented annually at the International von Kármán Wings Award banquet to a student in aerospace engineering or a related science that shows promise for continued future contributions to the field." Thomas was born in Glendale, the daughter of an electrical engineer and a homemaker. She earned her B. A. in 1960 and her Ph. D. in Communications in 1967 from the University of Sussex. She was awarded a diploma by the Russian Federation of Cosmonautics in 1995, she died of cancer on July 21, 2005 in California. Thomas' career spanned a number of disciplines, most notably aerospace. Active in Hollywood for a number of decades, Thomas conducted red carpet interviews at motion picture premiers and special event broadcasts from 1952 to 1956.

She was involved in the coverage of the New Year’s Day Rose Parade for CBS and did broadcasts for Voice of America. Thomas authored 15 books, including her eight-volume series on Men of Space, she organized and chaired the Woman's Space Symposia from 1962-1973. In 1961, Thomas was the recipient of the Air Force Association's Airpower Arts and Letters Award and, in 1991, she received the Aerospace Excellence Award from the California Museum Foundation, she was a fellow in the British Interplanetary Society and acted as a consultant for the Stanford Research Institute and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Beginning in the 1970s, Thomas organized the Theodore von Karman Stamp committee, succeeding in 1992 in getting a U. S. stamp issued in his honor. She founded and chaired the Aerospace Historical Society, an organization that. Since 1985, has presented the international Von Karman Wings award to outstanding and innovative contributors to the world of aerospace. Thomas, an associate fellow and advocate for the national Society for Technical Communication taught Technical and Fundamental Writing in the Master of Professional Writing Program at the University of Southern California for more than three decades.

The Thomas mss. Manuscripts Department, Lilly Library, Indiana University Men of Space: Profiles of the Leaders in Space Research and Exploration, vol. 1-8. Theodore von Kármán Memorial Seminar, 1965: Proceedings of the Seminar... Held in Los Angeles 12 May 1965. Computers: Their History, Present Applications, Future. Satellite Tracking Facilities

Anatolia Party

The Anatolia Party was a political party in Turkey led by Emine Ülker Tarhan. It was founded on 14 November 2014 following Tarhan's resignation from the Republican People's Party due to disillusionment with the leadership of Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu, its logo is composed of a rising sun with a sunflower, representing Anatolia and Thrace respectively. The party's name was subject to a legal complaint by former MP Yılmaz Hastürk, who claimed that the political parties law in Turkey forbade party names to refer to geographic regions, though a former party was named Great Anatolia Party without facing legal problems. After a disappointing result at the June 2015 general election where the party won just 0.06% of the vote, Tarhan took the decision to boycott the snap general election in November. The party's performance at the June general election and the decision to boycott the November general election gave rise to inner-party arguments, resulting in the executive taking the decision to disband the party in December 2015.

The Anatolia Party has been described by Tarhan as laicist and progressive, in favour of an impartial justice system and unity. The party was created in response to the 12-year-long rule of the conservative Justice and Development Party and the ineffectiveness of the CHP in opposition; the founding members of the party include a range of opposition intellectuals, former CHP members and politicians aligned with the centre-left Democratic Left Party and the conservative Motherland Party. In March 2015, two minuscule parties, namely Party for a Turkey without Disabilities and the National Alliance Platform joined the Anatolia Party; the Republican People's Party has and continues to observe a split between the Kemalists who emphasize on nationalism and laicism and those who are more tolerant to non-secular and decentralized policies. A new initiative set out by CHP leader Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu led to the creation of a'New CHP', which aimed to increase the party's appeal to the Kurds in the south-east of the country.

This led to opposition by the party's nationalist faction, the YCHP initiative has been perceived as a failure after many concerns were raised whether the party would continue to respect the principles of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and its stance against the Kurdistan Workers' Party. Entering parliament in the 2011 general election as a CHP Ankara MP, Emine Ülker Tarhan was a nationalist within her party, she was seen as a potential CHP presidential candidate in the 2014 presidential election, where Kılıçdaroğlu chose to nominate former Organisation of Islamic Co-operation secretary general Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu instead. With strong opposition from several party members, Tarhan declared that she would not run as a rival. Several CHP MPs criticised the choice of candidate, with six endorsing Tarhan for the candidacy despite her refusal to run; the election resulted in AKP candidate Recep Tayyip Erdoğan winning in the first round with 51.79% of the vote, while İhsanoğlu won 38.44% of the vote despite being backed by 15 opposition parties including the Nationalist Movement Party.

The poor election result led to CHP members such as Tarhan, Muharrem İnce and Süheyl Batum calling for Kılıçdaroğlu's resignation as party leader. Kılıçdaroğlu subsequently called for an extraordinary party convention, where the party delegate system meant that Kılıçdaroğlu was re-elected comfortably against rival Muharrem İnce; this led to further disillusionment within the party, Tarhan announced her resignation from the CHP on 31 October 2014. In her resignation letter, she criticised the lack of any potential electoral prospects in the critical June 2015 general election, the selfishness of career politicians and the ineffectiveness of the party in opposition; the Anatolia Party was founded on 14 November 2014, with Tarhan as leader and a 43-member executive committee with members affiliated with the CHP, the Democratic Left Party and the Motherland Party. The list of founding members can be found here. Deputy leader Yunus Yunusoğlu claimed that the party's purpose was to not split the CHP's vote, but to win the 2015 election.

An opinion poll conducted by SONAR showed the party polling 8.04% of the vote without causing a significant vote split with the CHP. It was deemed that if true, the majority of this support came from former non-voters. Regardless, the party still polled under the 10% threshold necessary to gain seats in parliament, more recent polls showed the party to not command any significant support. In the event of surpassing the 10% threshold in the next general election, a triple coalition with the CHP and Nationalist Movement Party was a possible eventuality. However, the party only managed to win 0.06% of the vote in the June 2015 general election, coming 15th out of 20 parties. Tarhan subsequently lost her seat in Parliament; the party was disestablished on 21 December 2015 after inner-party arguments and poor election results

2011–12 Australian bushfire season

Bushfires were active between September 2011 to March 2012 and caused most damage in the state of Western Australia in the South West. The state had been prepared and had expected an increased risk of bushfire following heavy spring rains as a result of a La Nina weather pattern. Northern TerritoryLarge fires swept through the Barkly Tableland and Victoria River districts, destroying large tracts of grazing land. Fire fronts estimated at 50 kilometres were reported. Western AustraliaDuring the Kimberley Ultramarathon on 2 September, a bushfire raced through the course, engulfing a group of five participants at El Questro Station. Two men escaped the flames, suffering severe burns but the two females were trapped, each suffering critical injuries. Thirty grass fires were burning in Kimberley at the same time. Several other fires were burning through the Kimberley, resulting in the loss of 60,000 hectares of grassland, it has since been discovered that Kimberley locals were lighting fires before and on the day of the race NSWA bushfire at Katoomba and the Blue Mountains on 24 October caused some houses and a school to be evacuated, over 100 fire-fighters and three aircraft responding to contain the blaze.

Some minor property damage occurred. WAA fire broke out near Margaret River in the South West region on 23 November. Temperatures in excess of 30 °C and strong winds fanned what began as a controlled burn in the Leeuwin-Naturaliste National Park; the fire soon swept over the town causing hundreds of people from Prevelly and the town outskirts to be evacuated to the beach. By the following day dozens of homes had been lost to the fire, including historic Wallcliffe House; the premier, Colin Barnett, declared Margaret River a Natural Disaster Zone and promised a full inquiry as to how the fire started. The fire was controlled by 26 November after burning through 3,400 hectares of land and leaving a total of 39 homes destroyed and another 14 damaged, but no lives were lost. Other bushfires were recorded at the same time about 30 kilometres south west of Nannup, another near Three Springs, a third near Peron and a fourth north of Denmark. In the Pilbara region a large bushfire burnt through an area of 650 square kilometres of bushland in the Nimingarra area close to the Yarrie minesite.

WAThe Denmark fire was contained but warnings remained by 1 December, a total of 5,600 hectares were lost. The Nannup fire continued to burn and was not contained until 3 December, by 2 December it had claimed some 30,000 hectares, it had started as a prescribed burn but had raged out of control. Once extinguished it had burnt out about 55,100 hectares of land. A large fire in the Pilbara region had burned out over 1,500 square kilometres of bushland and rangeland by 26 December. A large portion of Giralia Station was burnt out with the firecoming close to the homestead before being extinguished. Yanrey and Koordarrie Stations were threatened by the blaze. QLDMoreton Island suffered a grass fire that burnt out 160 hectares of the island vegetation and came within 500 metres of the small community of Cowan, protected by backburning; the fire was expected to burn for weeks. SAA fire that started 4 January and burnt for three days burnt 8,000 hectares of pastoral lands, damaging stock in an area 40 kilometres south east of Port Augusta.

VICA fire was thought to have been started by lightning. 150 fire-fighters battled the blaze along with water bombing aircraft. Over 230 hectares of bushland was burnt in the blaze. WAA fire that started in late December in the Yalgoo Shire was contained by 5 January after burning out an area of 18,500 hectares of bushland. More fires were ignited in the Kearney State forest, near Nannup, resulting from lightning strikes. A large fire in the Gascoyne burnt out 30 kilometres of grazing and bushland, it spread over a distance of 45 kilometres, leading to the temporary closure of the North West Coastal Highway and other roads around Kennedy Range National Park. The fire burnt for a week after a smaller fire escaped containment lines on 8 January, burning out over 3,300 square kilometres by 15 January and continuing to burn until 30 January. Other fires that broke out late in January in Wooroloo and Chittering were both under control by 30 January. WAThe town of Northcliffe was menaced by a bushfire that came within 8 kilometres of the townsite on 22 February.

Smoke haze from the fire effected the south west coast of the state. The fire had been ignited by lightning on 8 February and had burnt out over 16,000 hectares 14 February and was expected to burn over 30,600 hectares before being contained. WAA fire was brought under control by 14 March. 113 personnel, 13 trucks and 4 earthmovers were used in containing the blaze. The suburb of Koondoola was struck by a fire; the fire that started under suspicious circumstances burnt out 45ha of bushland and required 55 fire-fighters and waterbombers to bring it under control