The Western world or the West is a term usually referring to different nations, depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe. There are many accepted definitions about what they all have in common, the Western world is known as the Occident. The concept of the Western part of the earth has its roots in Greco-Roman civilization in Europe, before the Cold War era, the traditional Western viewpoint identified Western Civilization with the Western Christian countries and culture. Its political usage was changed by the antagonism during the Cold War in the mid-to-late 20th Century. The term originally had a literal geographic meaning, Western culture was influenced by many older great civilizations of the ancient Near East, such as Phoenicia, Minoan Crete, Sumer and Ancient Egypt. It originated in the Mediterranean basin and its vicinity, over time, their associated empires grew first to the east and west to include the rest of Mediterranean and Black Sea coastal areas and absorbing.
Later, they expanded to the north of the Mediterranean Sea to include Western, numerous times, this expansion was accompanied by Christian missionaries, who attempted to proselytize Christianity. There is debate among some as to whether Latin America is in a category of its own, Western culture may imply, a Biblical Christian cultural influence in spiritual thinking and either ethic or moral traditions, around the Post-Classical Era and after. European cultural influences concerning artistic, folkloric and oral traditions, the concept of Western culture is generally linked to the classical definition of the Western world. In this definition, Western culture is the set of literary, political, much of this set of traditions and knowledge is collected in the Western canon. The term has come to apply to countries whose history is marked by European immigration or settlement, such as the Americas, and Oceania. The geopolitical divisions in Europe that created a concept of East and West originated in the Roman Empire, Roman Catholic Western and Central Europe, as such, maintained a distinct identity particularly as it began to redevelop during the Renaissance.
Even following the Protestant Reformation, Protestant Europe continued to see itself as more tied to Roman Catholic Europe than other parts of the civilized world. Use of the term West as a cultural and geopolitical term developed over the course of the Age of Exploration as Europe spread its culture to other parts of the world. Additionally, closer contacts between the West and Asia and other parts of the world in recent times have continued to cloud the use, herodotus considered the Persian Wars of the early 5th century BC a conflict of Europa versus Asia. The terms West and East were not used by any Greek author to describe that conflict, the Great Schism and the Fourth Crusade confirmed this deviation. The Renaissance in the West emerged partly from currents within the Roman Empire, Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a city-state founded on the Italian Peninsula about the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. In its 12-century existence, Roman civilization shifted from a monarchy, to a republic, despite its great legacy, a number of factors led to the eventual decline of the Roman Empire
The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation. A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was established on 24 October 1945 after World War II in order to prevent another such conflict, at its founding, the UN had 51 member states, there are now 193. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, further main offices are situated in Geneva and Vienna. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states, the UNs mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades by the Cold War between the US and Soviet Union and their respective allies. The organization participated in actions in Korea and the Congo. After the end of the Cold War, the UN took on major military, the UN has six principal organs, the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Secretariat, the International Court of Justice, and the UN Trusteeship Council.
UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, the UNs most prominent officer is the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese António Guterres since 2017. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UNs work, the organization won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2001, and a number of its officers and agencies have been awarded the prize. Other evaluations of the UNs effectiveness have been mixed, some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, corrupt, or biased. Following the catastrophic loss of life in the First World War, the earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the US State Department in 1939. It incorporated Soviet suggestions, but left no role for France, four Policemen was coined to refer to four major Allied countries, United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, and China, which emerged in the Declaration by United Nations.
Roosevelt first coined the term United Nations to describe the Allied countries, the term United Nations was first officially used when 26 governments signed this Declaration. One major change from the Atlantic Charter was the addition of a provision for religious freedom, by 1 March 1945,21 additional states had signed. Each Government pledges itself to cooperate with the Governments signatory hereto, the foregoing declaration may be adhered to by other nations which are, or which may be, rendering material assistance and contributions in the struggle for victory over Hitlerism. During the war, the United Nations became the term for the Allies. To join, countries had to sign the Declaration and declare war on the Axis, at the meetings, Lord Halifax deputized for Mr. Eden, Wellington Koo for T. V. Soong, and Mr Gromyko for Mr. Molotov. The first meetings of the General Assembly, with 51 nations represented, the General Assembly selected New York City as the site for the headquarters of the UN, and the facility was completed in 1952.
Its site—like UN headquarters buildings in Geneva and Nairobi—is designated as international territory, the Norwegian Foreign Minister, Trygve Lie, was elected as the first UN Secretary-General
Colin Clark (economist)
Colin Grant Clark was a British and Australian economist and statistician who worked in both the United Kingdom and Australia. He pioneered the use of the national product as the basis for studying national economies. Colin Clark was born in London in 1905 and was educated at the Dragon School in Oxford and he studied at Winchester College, at Brasenose College, Oxford where he graduated in Chemistry in 1928. After graduation he worked as an assistant with William Beveridge at the London School of Economics and with Sir Alexander Carr-Saunders. During this time he ran unsuccessful campaigns to be elected to parliament for the British Labour Party in the seat of North Dorset, in 1930 he was appointed a research assistant to the Economic Advisory Council newly convened by Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald. He resigned shortly after his appointment, after being asked to write a memorandum to make a case for protectionism. Despite this, he had sufficiently impressed one of the members to secure an appointment as a lecturer in statistics at Cambridge University.
He was a lecturer in Statistics in Cambridge from 1931 to 1938 where he completed three books, The National Income 1924–31, The Economic Position of Great Britain and National Income and Outlay. During a visit to Australia and New Zealand in 1937 and 1938 he accepted a position with the Queensland Government at the invitation of the premier Forgan Smith, at the time he wrote to Keynes about his decision to stay in Australia. He held the position of Deputy Director of the Commonwealth Department of War Organisation of Industry from 1942 to 1946, Clark resigned as Government Statistician on 28 February 1947 to become Under Secretary of the Queensland Department of Labour and Industry. Unusually for a servant he continued his academic work, publishing numerous articles in Economics. He was on the Council of the Econometric Society from 1948 to 1952, Clark married Marjorie Tattersall in 1931, and they had 8 sons and 1 daughter who in turned produced a total of 40 grandchildren. His son Gregory became an author and academic in Japan, Clark died in Brisbane, Australia in 1989.
He is buried together with his wife Marjorie at the Mount Gravatt Cemetery in Brisbane, in 1984 he was named by the World Bank as one of the pioneers of development along with Sir Arthur Lewis, Gunnar Myrdal, W. W. In 1987 Clark was together with Professor Trevor Swan the first recipient of the Distinguished Fellow awards, corresponding Fellow of the British Academy. Distinguished Fellow Award, The Economic Society of Australia, HonDEcon Tilburg University, DLitt Oxford University, HonDSc University of Milan, Hon DEcon, Monash University, HonDEcon University of Queensland. The Australasian Meeting of the Econometric Society has a Colin Clark Lecture at its meetings, a building at the University of Queensland is named for him, and it is reputed that a stone grotesque in the Universitys Great Court was made in his likeness. A System of Equations Explaining the United States Trade Cycle,1921 to 1941, Vol.17, the Economic Functions of a City in Relation to Its Size, Vol.13, No
A restaurant, or an eatery, is a business which prepares and serves food and drinks to customers in exchange for money. Meals are generally served and eaten on the premises, but many offer take-out and food delivery services. In Western countries, most mid- to high-range restaurants serve alcoholic beverages such as beer, some restaurants serve all the major meals, such as breakfast and dinner. Other restaurants may serve a single meal or they may serve two meals or even a kids meal. Restaurants may be classified or distinguished in different ways. The primary factors are usually the food itself, the cuisine and/or the style of offering, beyond this, restaurants may differentiate themselves on factors including speed, location, service, or novelty themes. In the former case, customers usually wear casual clothing, in the latter case, depending on culture and local traditions, customers might wear semi-casual, semi-formal or formal wear. Typically, at mid- to high-priced restaurants, customers sit at tables, their orders are taken by a waiter, after eating, the customers pay the bill.
Another restaurant approach which uses few waiters is the buffet restaurant, customers serve food onto their own plates and pay at the end of the meal. Buffet restaurants typically still have waiters to serve drinks and alcoholic beverages, fast food restaurants are considered a restaurant. The travelling public has long been catered for with ships messes and railway restaurant cars which are, in effect, many railways, the world over, cater for the needs of travellers by providing railway refreshment rooms, a form of restaurant, at railway stations. In the 2000s, a number of travelling restaurants, specifically designed for tourists, have been created and these can be found on trams, buses, etc. A restaurants proprietor is called a restaurateur /ˌrɛstərəˈtɜːr/, like restaurant, professional cooks are called chefs, with there being various finer distinctions. Most restaurant will have various waiting staff to serve food and alcoholic drinks, including busboys who remove used dishes and cutlery.
In finer restaurants, this may include a host or hostess, a maître dhôtel to welcome customers and to them. A new route to becoming a restauranter, rather than working ones way up through the stages, is to operate a food truck, once a sufficient following has been obtained, a permanent restaurant site can be opened. This trend has become common in the UK and the US, a chefs table is a table located in the kitchen of a restaurant, reserved for VIPs and special guests. Patrons may be served a themed tasting menu prepared and served by the head chef, Restaurants can require a minimum party and charge a higher flat fee
Protectionist policies protect the producers and workers of the import-competing sector in a country from foreign competitors. According to proponents, these policies can counteract unfair trade practices, protectionists may favor the policy in order to decrease the trade deficit, maintain employment in certain sectors, or favor the growth of certain industries. In recent years, protectionism has become closely aligned with the anti-globalization movement, There is a broad consensus among economists that the impact of protectionism on economic growth is largely negative, although the impact on specific industries and groups of people may be positive. The doctrine of protectionism contrasts with the doctrine of free trade, a variety of policies have been used to achieve protectionist goals. Tariff rates usually vary according to the type of goods imported, import tariffs will increase the cost to importers, and increase the price of imported goods in the local markets, thus lowering the quantity of goods imported, to favour local producers.
Tariffs may be imposed on exports, and in an economy with floating exchange rates, since export tariffs are often perceived as hurting local industries, while import tariffs are perceived as helping local industries, export tariffs are seldom implemented. Import quotas, To reduce the quantity and therefore increase the price of imported goods. The economic effects of a quota is similar to that of a tariff. Economists often suggest that import licenses be auctioned to the highest bidder, administrative barriers, Countries are sometimes accused of using their various administrative rules as a way to introduce barriers to imports. Anti-dumping legislation, Supporters of anti-dumping laws argue that they prevent dumping of cheaper foreign goods that would cause local firms to close down, however, in practice, anti-dumping laws are usually used to impose trade tariffs on foreign exporters. Direct subsidies, Government subsidies are given to local firms that cannot compete well against imports. These subsidies are purported to protect jobs, and to help local firms adjust to the world markets.
Export subsidies, Export subsidies are often used by governments to increase exports, Export subsidies have the opposite effect of export tariffs because exporters get payment, which is a percentage or proportion of the value of exported. Export subsidies increase the amount of trade, and in a country with floating exchange rates, have similar to import subsidies. Exchange rate control, A government may intervene in the exchange market to lower the value of its currency by selling its currency in the foreign exchange market. Doing so will raise the cost of imports and lower the cost of exports, international patent systems, There is an argument for viewing national patent systems as a cloak for protectionist trade policies at a national level. Peter Drahos explains that States realized that patent systems could be used to cloak protectionist strategies, There were reputational advantages for states to be seen to be sticking to intellectual property systems. In the modern trade arena many other initiatives besides tariffs have been called protectionist, for example, some commentators, such as Jagdish Bhagwati, see developed countries efforts in imposing their own labor or environmental standards as protectionism
Pest control refers to the regulation or management of a species defined as a pest, and can be perceived to be detrimental to a persons health, the ecology or the economy. A practitioner of pest control is called an exterminator, Pest control is at least as old as agriculture, as there has always been a need to keep crops free from pests. In order to maximize production, it is advantageous to protect crops from competing species of plants. Techniques such as rotation, companion planting, and the selective breeding of pest-resistant cultivars have a long history. In the UK, following concern about animal welfare, humane pest control, for instance, with the urban red fox which territorial behaviour is used against the animal, usually in conjunction with non-injurious chemical repellents. In rural areas of Britain, the use of firearms for pest control is quite common, chemical pesticides date back 4,500 years, when the Sumerians used sulfur compounds as insecticides. The Rig Veda, which is about 4,000 years old, in the 20th century, the discovery of several synthetic insecticides, such as DDT, and herbicides boosted this development.
Many pests have only become a problem as a result of the actions by humans. Modifying these actions can often reduce the pest problem. In the United States, raccoons caused a nuisance by tearing open refuse sacks, many householders introduced bins with locking lids, which deterred the raccoons from visiting. House flies tend to accumulate wherever there is activity and live in close association with people all over the world especially where food or food waste is exposed. Similarly, seagulls have become pests at many seaside resorts, tourists would often feed the birds with scraps of fish and chips, and before long, the birds would rely on this food source and act aggressively towards humans. Living organisms evolve and increase their resistance to biological, physical or any form of control. Perhaps as far ago as 3000BC in Egypt, cats were being used to control pests of grain such as rodents. In 1939/40 a survey discovered that cats could keep a population of rats down to a low level. However, if the rats were cleared by trapping or poisoning, ferrets were domesticated at least by 500 AD in Europe, being used as mousers.
Mongooses have been introduced into homes to control rodents and snakes, biological pest control is the control of one through the control and management of natural predators and parasites. For example, mosquitoes are often controlled by putting Bt Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis, the treatment has no known negative consequences on the remaining ecology and is safe for humans to drink
Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one location to another. Modes of transport include air, road, cable, the field can be divided into infrastructure and operations. Transport is important because it enables trade between people, which is essential for the development of civilizations, terminals may be used both for interchange of passengers and cargo and for maintenance. Vehicles traveling on these networks may include automobiles, buses, trucks, helicopters, operations deal with the way the vehicles are operated, and the procedures set for this purpose including financing and policies. In the transport industry and ownership of infrastructure can be public or private, depending on the country. Passenger transport may be public, where operators provide scheduled services, freight transport has become focused on containerization, although bulk transport is used for large volumes of durable items. Transport plays an important part in growth and globalization, but most types cause air pollution.
While it is subsidized by governments, good planning of transport is essential to make traffic flow. A mode of transport is a solution that makes use of a type of vehicle, infrastructure. The transport of a person or of cargo may involve one mode or several of the modes, each mode has its own advantages and disadvantages, and will be chosen for a trip on the basis of cost and route. Human powered transport, a form of transportation, is the transport of people and/or goods using human muscle-power. Modern technology has allowed machines to enhance human power, human-powered vehicles have been developed for difficult environments, such as snow and water, by watercraft rowing and skiing, even the air can be entered with human-powered aircraft. Animal-powered transport is the use of working animals for the movement of people, humans may ride some of the animals directly, use them as pack animals for carrying goods, or harness them, alone or in teams, to pull sleds or wheeled vehicles. A fixed-wing aircraft, commonly called airplane, is a craft where movement of the air in relation to the wings is used to generate lift.
The term is used to distinguish this from rotary-wing aircraft, where the movement of the lift surfaces relative to the air generates lift, a gyroplane is both fixed-wing and rotary-wing. Fixed-wing aircraft range from small trainers and recreational aircraft to large airliners, two things necessary for aircraft are air flow over the wings for lift and an area for landing. The majority of aircraft need an airport with the infrastructure to receive maintenance, restocking and for the loading and unloading of crew and passengers. While the vast majority of land and take off on land, some are capable of take off and landing on ice, snow
In economics, a service is a transaction in which no physical goods is transferred from the seller to the buyer. The benefits of such a service are held to be demonstrated by the willingness to make the exchange. Public services are those that society as a whole pays for, using resources, skill and experience, service providers benefit service consumers. Services can be described in terms of their key characteristics, sometimes called the Five Is of Services and they are not manufactured, transported or stocked. Services cannot be stored for a future use and they are produced and consumed simultaneously. Services are perishable in two regards, Service-relevant resources and systems are assigned for delivery during a specific period in time. If the service consumer does not request and consume the service during this period, from the perspective of the service provider, this is a lost business opportunity if no other use for those resources is available. Examples, A hairdresser serves another client, an empty seat on an airplane cannot be filled after departure.
When the service has been rendered to the consumer, this particular service irreversibly vanishes. Example, a passenger has been transported to the destination and the flight is over, the service provider must deliver the service at the time of service consumption. The service is not manifested in an object that is independent of the provider. The service consumer is inseparable from service delivery, The service consumer must sit in the hairdressers chair, or in the airplane seat. Correspondingly, the hairdresser or the pilot must be in the shop or plane, many services are regarded as heterogeneous and are typically modified for each service consumer or each service context. Another and more common term for this is heterogeneity, both service provider and service consumer participate in the service provision. Mass generation and delivery of services must be mastered for a provider to expand. This can be seen as a problem of service quality, both inputs and outputs to the processes involved providing services are highly variable, as are the relationships between these processes, making it difficult to maintain consistent service quality.
Many services involve variable human activity, rather than a precisely determined process, the human factor is often the key success factor in service provision. Demand can vary by season, time of day, business cycle, consistency is necessary to create enduring business relationships
Manufacturing is the value added to production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools and biological processing, or formulation. Manufacturing engineering or manufacturing process are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product, the manufacturing process begins with the product design, and materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part. Manufacturing takes turns under all types of economic systems, in a free market economy, manufacturing is usually directed toward the mass production of products for sale to consumers at a profit. In a collectivist economy, manufacturing is more directed by the state to supply a centrally planned economy. In mixed market economies, manufacturing occurs under some degree of government regulation, modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required the production and integration of a products components.
Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead, the manufacturing sector is closely connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in North America include General Motors Corporation, General Electric, Procter & Gamble, General Dynamics, Pfizer, examples in Europe include Volkswagen Group and Michelin. Examples in Asia include Sony, Lenovo, Samsung, in its earliest form, manufacturing was usually carried out by a single skilled artisan with assistants. In much of the world, the guild system protected the privileges. Before the Industrial Revolution, most manufacturing occurred in rural areas, entrepreneurs organized a number of manufacturing households into a single enterprise through the putting-out system. Toll manufacturing is an arrangement whereby a first firm with specialized equipment processes raw materials or semi-finished goods for a second firm, manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and for national defense.
On the other hand, most manufacturing may involve significant social and environmental costs, the clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it. Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks and these costs are now well known and there is effort to address them by improving efficiency, reducing waste, using industrial symbiosis, and eliminating harmful chemicals. The negative costs of manufacturing can be addressed legally, developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with labor laws and environmental laws. Across the globe, manufacturers can be subject to regulations and pollution taxes to offset the costs of manufacturing activities. Labor unions and craft guilds have played a role in the negotiation of worker rights. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world, tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing
Quaternary sector of the economy
The quaternary sector is based on knowledge and skill. It consists of intellectual industries providing information services, such as computing and ICT, according to some definitions, the quaternary sector includes other pure services, such as the entertainment industry, and the term has been used to describe media and government. It has been argued that intellectual services is distinct enough to warrant a separate sector and this sector evolves in well-developed countries and requires a highly educated workforce. Between them, the tertiary and quaternary sectors form the largest part of the UK economy, the number of people who earn their living in these activities is increasing. Companies invest in the sector to promote further expansion. It is seen as a way to higher margins or returns on investment. Research will be directed into cutting costs, tapping into markets, producing innovative ideas, new methods and methods of manufacture. To many industries, such as the industry, the sector is the most valuable because it creates future secondary-sector branded products from which companies may profit.
Zoltan Kenessey, U. S. Federal Reserve Board, Secondary and Quaternary Sectors of the Economy