65th United States Congress
The Sixty-fifth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from March 4, 1917, to March 4, 1919, during the fifth and sixth years of Woodrow Wilson's presidency; the apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Thirteenth Census of the United States in 1910. The Senate had a Democratic majority, the House had a Republican plurality but the Democrats remained in control with the support of the Progressives and Socialist Representative Meyer London. March 4, 1917: Jeannette Rankin of Montana became the first woman member of the United States House of Representatives. March 8, 1917: The United States Senate adopted the cloture rule to limit filibusters. March 31, 1917: The United States took possession of the Danish West Indies, which become the US Virgin Islands, after paying $25 million to Denmark.
April 2, 1917: World War I: President Woodrow Wilson asks the U. S. Congress for a declaration of war on Germany. April 10, 1917: An ammunition factory explosion in Chester, kills 133. May 21, 1917: Over 300 acres are destroyed in the Great Atlanta fire of 1917. May 26, 1917: A tornado strikes Mattoon, causing devastation and killing 101 people. July 1, 1917: A labor dispute ignited a race riot in East St. Louis, which left 250 dead. July 12, 1917: The Phelps Dodge Corporation deported over 1,000 suspected Industrial Workers of the World members from Bisbee, Arizona. July 28, 1917: The Silent Protest was organized by the NAACP in New York to protest the East St. Louis Riot of July 2, as well as lynchings in Texas and Tennessee. August, 1917: The Green Corn Rebellion, an uprising by several hundred farmers against the World War I draft, took place in central Oklahoma. November 24, 1917: In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 9 members of the Milwaukee Police Department were killed by a bomb, the most fatal single event in U.
S. police history until the September 11, 2001, attacks. December 26, 1917: President Woodrow Wilson used the Federal Possession and Control Act to place most U. S. railroads under the United States Railroad Administration, hoping to more efficiently transport troops and materials for the war effort. January 8, 1918: Woodrow Wilson delivered his Fourteen Points speech. March 4, 1918: A soldier at Camp Fuston, fell sick with the first confirmed case of the Spanish flu. April 3, 1918 "The American's Creed" is the title of a resolution passed by the U. S. House of Representatives on this date, it is a statement written in 1917 by William Tyler Page as an entry into a patriotic contest. Source:The American's Creed at USHistory.org May 15, 1918: The United States Post Office Department began the first regular airmail service in the world. October 8, 1918: World War I: In the Argonne Forest in France, U. S. Corporal Alvin C. York single-handedly killed 25 German soldiers and captures 132. December 4, 1918: U.
S. President Woodrow Wilson sailed for the Paris Peace Conference, becoming the first U. S. president to travel to Europe. January 6, 1919: Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th President of the United States, died. January 15, 1919: The Boston Molasses Disaster: A wave of molasses released from an exploding storage tank sweeps through Boston, killing 21 and injuring 150. February 25, 1919: Oregon placed a 1 cent per U. S. gallon tax on gasoline, becoming the first U. S. state to levy a gasoline tax. April 6, 1917: Declaration of war against Germany, Sess. 1 ch. 1, 40 Stat. 1 April 24, 1917: First Liberty Bond Act, Sess. 1, ch. 4, 40 Stat. 35 May 12, 1917: Enemy Vessel Confiscation Joint Resolution, Pub. L. 65–2, 40 Stat. 75 May 12, 1917: First Army Appropriations Act of 1917, 40 Stat. 69 May 18, 1917: Selective Service Act of 1917, Sess. 1, ch. 15, 40 Stat. 76 May 29, 1917: Esch Car Service Act of 1917, Sess. 1, ch. 23, 40 Stat. 101 June 15, 1917: Emergency Shipping Fund Act of 1917, c. 29, 40 Stat. 182 June 15, 1917: Second Army Appropriations Act of 1917, 40 Stat. 188 June 15, 1917: Espionage Act of 1917, Sess.
1, ch. 30, 40 Stat. 217 August 8, 1917: River and Harbor Act of 1917, Sess. 1, ch. 49, 40 Stat. 250 August 10, 1917: Priority of Shipments Act of 1917, Sess. 1, ch. 51, 40 Stat. 272 August 10, 1917: Food and Fuel Control Act, Sess. 1, ch. 53, 40 Stat. 27 October 1, 1917: Second Liberty Bond Act, Sess. 1, ch. 56, 40 Stat. 288 October 1, 1917: Aircraft Board Act of 1917, Sess. 1, ch. 61, 40 Stat. 296 October 3, 1917: War Revenue Act of 1917, Sess. 1, ch. 63, 40 Stat. 300 October 5, 1917: Repatriation Act of 1917, Sess. 1, ch. 68, 40 Stat. 340 October 6, 1917: Federal Explosives Act of 1917, Sess. 1, ch. 83, 40 Stat. 385 October 6, 1917: War Risk Insurance Act of 1917, Sess. 1, ch. 105, 40 Stat. 398 October 6, 1917: International Emergency Economic Powers Act, Sess. 1, ch. 106, 40 Stat. 411 December 7, 1917: Declaration of war against Austria-Hungary, Sess. 2, ch. 1, 40 Stat. 429 February 24, 1918: Revenue Act of 1918, Sess. 2, ch. 18, 40 Stat. 1057 March 8, 1918: Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act, Sess. 2, ch.
20, 40 Stat. 440 March 19, 1918: Standard Time Act of 1918, Sess. 2, ch. 24, 40 Stat. 450 March 21, 1918: Federal Control Act of 1918, Sess. 2, ch. 25, 40 Stat. 451 April 4, 1918: Third Liberty Bond Act, Sess. 2, ch. 44, 40 Stat. 502 April 5, 1918: War Finance Corporation Act, Sess. 2, ch. 45, 40 Stat. 506 April 10, 1918: Webb-Pomerene Act, Sess. 2, ch. 50, 40 Stat. 516 April 18, 1918: American Forces Abroad Indemnity Act, Sess. 2, ch. 57, 40 Stat. 532 Apr
John Sidney McCain III was an American politician and military officer who served as a United States senator from Arizona from January 1987 until his death. He served two terms in the United States House of Representatives and was the Republican nominee for president of the United States in the 2008 election, which he lost to Barack Obama. McCain graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1958 and received a commission in the United States Navy, he flew ground-attack aircraft from aircraft carriers. During the Vietnam War, he died in the 1967 USS Forrestal fire. While on a bombing mission during Operation Rolling Thunder over Hanoi in October 1967, he was shot down injured, captured by the North Vietnamese, he was a prisoner of war until 1973. He refused an out-of-sequence early release. During the war, he sustained wounds, he moved to Arizona, where he entered politics. In 1982, McCain was elected to the United States House of Representatives, where he served two terms, he entered the U. S. Senate in 1987 and won reelection five times.
While adhering to conservative principles, McCain had a reputation as a "maverick" for his willingness to break from his party on certain issues. His supportive stances on LGBT rights, gun regulations, campaign finance reform were more liberal than those of the party's base. McCain was investigated and exonerated in a political influence scandal of the 1980s as one of the Keating Five, he was known for his work in the 1990s to restore diplomatic relations with Vietnam. McCain opposed pork barrel spending, he belonged to the bipartisan "Gang of 14", which played a key role in alleviating a crisis over judicial nominations. McCain entered the race for the Republican nomination for president in 2000, but lost a heated primary season contest to Governor George W. Bush of Texas, he lost the general election. McCain subsequently adopted more orthodox conservative stances and attitudes and opposed actions of the Obama administration with regard to foreign policy matters. In 2015, he became Chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee.
He refused to support then-Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump in 2016. While McCain opposed the Affordable Care Act, he cast the deciding vote against the ACA-repealing American Health Care Act of 2017. After being diagnosed with brain cancer in 2017, McCain reduced his role in the Senate in order to focus on treatment, he died on August 2018, four days before his 82nd birthday. Following his death, McCain lay in state in the Arizona State Capitol rotunda and in the United States Capitol rotunda, his funeral was televised from the Washington National Cathedral, with former U. S. Presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama giving eulogies. John Sidney McCain III was born on August 29, 1936, at Coco Solo Naval Air Station in the Panama Canal Zone, to naval officer John S. McCain Jr. and Roberta McCain. He had a younger brother Joe. At that time, the Panama Canal was under U. S. control. McCain's family tree includes English ancestors, his father and his paternal grandfather, John S. McCain Sr. were Naval Academy graduates and both became four-star admirals in the United States Navy.
The McCain family followed his father to various naval postings in the United States and the Pacific. Altogether, he attended about 20 schools. In 1951, the family settled in Northern Virginia, McCain attended Episcopal High School, a private preparatory boarding school in Alexandria, he excelled at wrestling and graduated in 1954. He referred to himself as an Episcopalian as as June 2007 after which date he said he came to identify as a Baptist. Following in the footsteps of his father and grandfather, McCain entered the United States Naval Academy, where he was a friend and informal leader for many of his classmates and sometimes stood up for targets of bullying, he fought as a lightweight boxer. McCain did well in academic subjects that interested him, such as literature and history, but studied only enough to pass subjects that gave him difficulty, such as mathematics, he came into conflict with higher-ranking personnel and did not always obey the rules, which contributed to a low class rank, despite a high IQ. McCain graduated in 1958.
McCain began his early military career when he was commissioned as an ensign and started two and a half years of training at Pensacola to become a naval aviator. While there, he earned a reputation as a man, he became a naval pilot of ground-attack aircraft. McCain began as a sub-par flier, at times careless and reckless, his aviation skills improved over time, he was seen as a good pilot, albeit one who tended to "push the envelope" in his flying. On July 3, 1965, McCain was 28 when he married Carol Shepp, who had worked as a runway model and secretary. McCain adopted her two young children Andrew, he and Carol had a daughter named Sidney. McCain requested a combat assignment and was assigned
2008 United States presidential election
The 2008 United States presidential election was the 56th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 4, 2008. The Democratic ticket of Barack Obama, the junior Senator from Illinois, Joe Biden, the senior Senator from Delaware, defeated the Republican ticket of John McCain, the senior Senator from Arizona, Sarah Palin, the Governor of Alaska. Obama became the first African American to be elected as president. Incumbent Republican President George W. Bush was ineligible to pursue a third term due to the term limits established by the 22nd Amendment; as neither Bush nor Vice President Dick Cheney sought the presidency, the 2008 election was the first election since 1952 in which neither major party's presidential nominee was the incumbent president or the incumbent vice president. McCain secured the Republican nomination by March 2008, defeating Mitt Romney, Mike Huckabee, other challengers; the Democratic primaries were marked by a sharp contest between Obama and the initial front-runner, Senator Hillary Clinton.
Clinton's victory in the New Hampshire primary made her the first woman to win a major party's presidential primary. After a long primary season, Obama clinched the Democratic nomination in June 2008. Early campaigning focused on the Iraq War and Bush's unpopularity. McCain supported the war, as well as a troop surge that had begun in 2007, while Obama opposed the war. Bush endorsed McCain, but the two did not campaign together, Bush did not appear in person at the 2008 Republican National Convention. Obama campaigned on the theme that "Washington must change,"; the campaign was affected by the onset of a major financial crisis, which peaked in September 2008. McCain's decision to suspend his campaign during the height of the financial crisis backfired as voters viewed his response as erratic. Obama won a decisive victory over McCain, winning the Electoral College and the popular vote by a sizable margin, including states that had not voted for the Democratic presidential candidate since 1976 and 1964.
Obama received the largest share of the popular vote won by a Democrat since Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964; as of the 2016 presidential election Obama's total count of 69.5 million votes still stands as the largest tally won by a presidential candidate. Hillary Clinton, U. S. Senator from New York John Edwards, former U. S. Senator from North Carolina Bill Richardson, Governor of New Mexico Dennis Kucinich, U. S. Representative from Ohio Joe Biden, U. S. Senator from Delaware Mike Gravel, former U. S. Senator from Alaska Christopher Dodd, U. S. Senator from Connecticut Evan Bayh, U. S. Senator from Indiana Tom Vilsack, former Governor of Iowa Media speculation had begun immediately after the results of the 2004 presidential election were released. In the 2006 midterm elections, the Democrats regained majorities in both houses of the U. S. Congress. Early polls taken before anyone had announced a candidacy had shown Senators Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama as the most popular potential Democratic candidates.
The media speculated on several other candidates, including Al Gore, the runner-up in the 2000 election. Edwards was one of the first to formally announce his candidacy for the presidency, on December 28, 2006; this run would be his second attempt at the presidency. Clinton announced intentions to run in the Democratic primaries on January 20, 2007. Obama announced his candidacy on February 10 in his home state of Illinois. Early in the year, the support for Barack Obama started to increase in the polls, he passed Clinton for the top spot in Iowa. Obama's win was fueled by first time caucus-goers and Independents and showed voters viewed him as the "candidate of change." Iowa has since been viewed as the state that jump-started Obama's campaign and set him on track to win both the nomination and the presidency. After the Iowa caucus, Joe Biden and Christopher Dodd withdrew from the nomination contest. Obama became the new front runner in New Hampshire, when his poll numbers skyrocketed after his Iowa victory The Clinton campaign was struggling after a huge loss in Iowa and no strategy beyond the early primaries and caucuses.
According to The Vancouver Sun, Campaign strategists had "mapped a victory scenario that envisioned the former first lady wrapping up the Democratic presidential nomination by Super Tuesday on Feb. 5." In what is considered a turning point for her campaign, Clinton had a strong performance at the Saint Anselm College, ABC, Facebook debates several days before the New Hampshire primary as well as an emotional interview in a public broadcast live on TV. Clinton won that primary by 2% of the vote, contrary to the predictions of pollsters who had her trailing Obama for a few days up to the primary date. Clinton's win was the
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
63rd United States Congress
The Sixty-third United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from March 4, 1913, to March 4, 1915, during the first two years of Woodrow Wilson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Thirteenth Census of the United States in 1910. Both chambers had a Democratic majority. March 4, 1913: Woodrow Wilson became President of the United States. March 9, 1914: The Senate adopted a rule forbidding smoking on the floor of the Senate because Senator Ben Tillman, recovering from a stroke, found the smoke irritating. July 28, 1914: World War I began in Europe August 15, 1914: The Panama Canal was inaugurated August 19, 1914: President Woodrow Wilson declared strict U. S. neutrality November 1914: United States House of Representatives elections, 1914 and United States Senate elections, 1914 November 16, 1914: Federal Reserve Bank opened May 27, 1913: Kern Resolution July 9, 1913: Saboth Act July 15, 1913: Newlands Labor Act October 3, 1913: Revenue Act of 1913, including Underwood Tariff October 22, 1913: Urgent Deficiencies Act December 19, 1913: Raker Act December 23, 1913: Federal Reserve Act, ch.
6, 38 Stat. 251, 12 U. S. C. § 221, et seq. May 8, 1914: Smith–Lever Act, ch. 79, 38 Stat. 372, 7 U. S. C. § 341 June 24, 1914: Cutter Service Act June 30, 1914: Cooperative Funds Act July 17, 1914: Agricultural Entry Act July 18, 1914: Aviation Service Act July 21, 1914: Borland Amendment August 13, 1914: Smith–Hayden Act August 15, 1914: Sponge Act August 18, 1914: Cotton Futures Act of 1914 August 18, 1914: Foreign Ship Registry Act August 22, 1914: Glacier National Park Act of 1914 September 2, 1914: War Risk Insurance Act September 26, 1914: Federal Trade Commission Act, ch. 311, 38 Stat. 717, 15 U. S. C. § 41 October 2, 1914: River and Harbors Act of 1914 October 15, 1914: Clayton Antitrust Act, ch. 323, 38 Stat. 730, 15 U. S. C. § 12, et seq. October 22, 1914: Emergency Internal Revenue Tax Act December 17, 1914: Harrison Narcotics Tax Act January 28, 1915: Coast Guard Act March 4, 1915: Merchant Marine Act of 1915 March 4, 1915: River and Harbors Act of 1915 March 4, 1915: Standard Barrel Act For Fruits and Dry Commodities March 4, 1915: Federal Boiler Inspection Act March 4, 1915: Uniform Bill of Lading Act March 4, 1915: Occupancy Permits Act April 8, 1913: Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, establishing the popular election of United States Senators by the people of the states, was ratified by the requisite number of states to become part of the Constitution Democratic: 291 Republican: 134 Progressive: 9 Independent: 1TOTAL members: 435 President of the Senate: Thomas R. Marshall President pro tempore: James P. Clarke Majority Whip: J. Hamilton Lewis Minority Whip: James W. Wadsworth Jr. until March 4.
A few senators were elected directly by the residents of the state. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election, In this Congress, Class 3 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1914; the count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Replacements: 3 Democratic: 2 seat net gain Republican: 2 seat net loss deaths: 3 resignations: 3 vacancy: 3 Total seats with changes: 9 replacements: 20 Democratic: 1 seat gain Republican: 2 seat loss Progressive: 1 seat gain deaths: 11 resignations: 19 contested elections: 2 Total seats with changes: 15 Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link, in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.
Additional Accommodations for the Library of Congress Agriculture and Forestry Appropriations Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate Banking and Currency Canadian Relations Census Civil Service and Retrenchment Claims Coast and Insular Survey Coast Defenses Commerce Conservation of National Resources Corporations Organized in the District of Columbia Cuban Relations Disposition of Useless Papers in the Executive Departments District of Columbia Education and Labor Engrossed Bills Enrolled Bills Establish a University in the United States Examine the Several Branches in the Civil Servic
James Earl Carter Jr. is an American politician and philanthropist who served as the 39th president of the United States from 1977 to 1981. A Democrat, he served as a Georgia State senator from 1963 to 1967 and as the 76th governor of Georgia from 1971 to 1975. Carter has remained active in public life during his post-presidency, in 2002 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work in co-founding the Carter Center. Raised in Plains, Carter graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1946 with a Bachelor of Science degree and joined the United States Navy, where he served on submarines. After the death of his father in 1953, Carter left his naval career and returned home to Georgia to take up the reins of his family's peanut-growing business. Carter inherited comparatively little due to his father's forgiveness of debts and the division of the estate among the children, his ambition to expand and grow the Carters' peanut business was fulfilled. During this period, Carter was motivated to oppose the political climate of racial segregation and support the growing civil rights movement.
He became an activist within the Democratic Party. From 1963 to 1967, Carter served in the Georgia State Senate, in 1970, he was elected as Governor of Georgia, defeating former Governor Carl Sanders in the Democratic primary on an anti-segregation platform advocating affirmative action for ethnic minorities. Carter remained as governor until 1975. Despite being a dark-horse candidate, little known outside of Georgia at the start of the campaign, Carter won the 1976 Democratic presidential nomination. In the general election, Carter ran as an outsider and narrowly defeated incumbent Republican President Gerald Ford. On his second day in office, Carter pardoned all the Vietnam War draft evaders. During Carter's term as president, two new cabinet-level departments, the Department of Energy and the Department of Education, were established, he established a national energy policy that included conservation, price control, new technology. In foreign affairs, Carter pursued the Camp David Accords, the Panama Canal Treaties, the second round of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, the return of the Panama Canal Zone to Panama.
On the economic front he confronted persistent stagflation, a combination of high inflation, high unemployment and slow growth. The end of his presidential tenure was marked by the 1979–1981 Iran hostage crisis, the 1979 energy crisis, the Three Mile Island nuclear accident, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. In response to the invasion, Carter escalated the Cold War by ending détente, imposing a grain embargo against the Soviets, enunciating the Carter doctrine, leading an international boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. In 1980, Carter faced a primary challenge from Senator Ted Kennedy, but he won re-nomination at the 1980 Democratic National Convention. Carter lost the general election in an electoral landslide to Republican nominee Ronald Reagan. Polls of historians and political scientists rank Carter as an average president. In 2012, Carter surpassed Herbert Hoover as the longest-retired president in U. S. history, in 2017 became the first president to live to the 40th anniversary of his inauguration.
He is the oldest and earliest-serving of all living U. S. presidents. In 2019, Carter surpassed George H. W. Bush as the longest-lived American president in U. S. history. In 1982, he established the Carter Center to expand human rights, he has traveled extensively to conduct peace negotiations, monitor elections, advance disease prevention and eradication in developing nations. Carter is considered a key figure in the Habitat for Humanity charity, he has written over 30 books ranging from politics to poetry and inspiration. He has criticized some of Israel's actions and policies in regards to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict and has advocated for a two-state solution. James Earl Carter Jr. was born on October 1, 1924, at the Wise Sanitarium in Plains, Georgia, a hospital where his mother was employed as a registered nurse. Carter was the first U. S. president to be born in a hospital. He was the eldest son of Bessie Lillian and James Earl Carter Sr. Carter is a descendant of English immigrant Thomas Carter, who settled in Virginia in 1635.
Numerous generations of Carters lived as cotton farmers in Georgia. Carter is a descendant of Thomas Cornell, an ancestor of Cornell University's founder, is distantly related to Richard Nixon and Bill Gates. Plains was a boomtown of 600 people at the time of Carter's birth. Carter's father was a successful local businessman, who ran a general store, was an investor in farmland, he served as a reserve second lieutenant in the U. S. Army's Quartermaster Corps during World War I; the family moved several times during Carter Jr.'s infancy. The Carters settled on a dirt road in nearby Archery, entirely populated by impoverished African American families, they had three more children: Gloria and Billy. Carter got along well with his parents, although his mother worked long hours and was absent in his childhood. Although Earl was staunchly pro-segregation, he allowed his son to befriend the black farmhands' children. Carter was an enterprising teenager, given his own acre of Earl's farmland where he grew and sold peanuts.
He rented out a section of tenant housing that he had purchased. Carter attended the Plains High School from 1937 to 1941. By that time, the Great Depression had impoverished Archery and Plains, but the family benefited from New Deal farming subsidies, Earl
2016 United States presidential election
The 2016 United States presidential election was the 58th quadrennial American presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016. The Republican ticket of businessman Donald Trump and Indiana Governor Mike Pence defeated the Democratic ticket of former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and U. S. Senator from Virginia Tim Kaine, despite losing the popular vote. Trump took office as the 45th President, Pence as the 48th Vice President, on January 20, 2017. Trump emerged as the front-runner amidst a wide field of Republican primary candidates, while Clinton defeated Senator Bernie Sanders and became the first female presidential nominee of a major American party. Trump's populist, nationalist campaign, which promised to "Make America Great Again" and opposed political correctness, illegal immigration, many free-trade agreements, garnered extensive free media coverage. Clinton emphasized her political experience, denounced Trump and many of his supporters as bigots, advocated the expansion of President Obama's policies.
The tone of the general election campaign was characterized as divisive and negative. Trump faced controversy over his views on race and immigration, incidents of violence against protestors at his rallies, his alleged sexual misconduct, while Clinton was dogged by declining approval ratings and an FBI investigation of her improper use of a private email server. Clinton had held the lead in nearly every pre-election nationwide poll and in most swing state polls, leading some commentators to compare Trump's victory to that of Harry S. Truman in 1948 as one of the greatest political upsets in modern U. S. history. While Clinton received 2.87 million more votes nationwide, a margin of 2.1%, Trump won a majority of electoral votes, with a total of 306 electors from 30 states, including upset victories in the pivotal Rust Belt region. Trump received 304 electoral votes and Clinton garnered 227, as two faithless electors defected from Trump and five defected from Clinton. Trump is the fifth person in U.
S. history to become president while losing the nationwide popular vote. He is the first president without any prior experience in public service or the military, the oldest at inauguration and is believed by many to be the wealthiest; the United States government's intelligence agencies concluded on January 6, 2017, that the Russian government had interfered in the elections in order to "undermine public faith in the U. S. democratic process, denigrate Secretary Clinton, harm her electability and potential presidency". President Trump criticized these conclusions, calling the issue a "hoax" and "fake news". Trump has criticized accusations of collusion between Russia and his campaign, citing a lack of evidence. Investigations regarding such collusion were started by the FBI, the Senate Intelligence Committee, the House Intelligence Committee; the Special Counsel investigation began in May 2017 and concluded in March 2019. In a letter sent to Congress on March 24, Attorney General William Barr quoted the special counsel's report in stating that "the investigation did not establish that members of the Trump Campaign conspired or coordinated with the Russian government in its election interference activities."
Article Two of the United States Constitution provides that the President and Vice President of the United States must be natural-born citizens of the United States, at least 35 years old, residents of the United States for a period of at least 14 years. Candidates for the presidency seek the nomination of one of the political parties, in which case each party devises a method to choose the candidate the party deems best suited to run for the position. Traditionally, the primary elections are indirect elections where voters cast ballots for a slate of party delegates pledged to a particular candidate; the party's delegates officially nominate a candidate to run on the party's behalf. The general election in November is an indirect election, where voters cast ballots for a slate of members of the Electoral College. President Barack Obama, a Democrat and former U. S. Senator from Illinois, was ineligible to seek reelection to a third term due to the restrictions of the Twenty-second Amendment; the series of presidential primary elections and caucuses took place between February and June 2016, staggered among the 50 states, the District of Columbia and U.
S. territories. This nominating process was an indirect election, where voters cast ballots for a slate of delegates to a political party's nominating convention, who in turn elected their party's presidential nominee. Speculation about the 2016 campaign began immediately following the 2012 campaign, with New York magazine declaring the race had begun in an article published on November 8, two days after the 2012 election. On the same day, Politico released an article predicting the 2016 general election would be between Clinton and former Florida Governor Jeb Bush, while a New York Times article named New Jersey Governor Chris Christie and Senator Cory Booker from New Jersey as potential candidates. With seventeen major candidates entering the race, starting with Ted Cruz on March 23, 2015, this was the largest presidential primary field for any political party in American history. Prior to the Iowa caucuses on February 1, 2016, Walker, Jindal and Pataki withdrew due to low polling numbers.
Despite leading many polls in Iowa, Trump came in second to Cruz, after whic