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Texas Instruments

Texas Instruments Incorporated is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally. Its headquarters are in Texas in the United States. TI is one of the top 10 semiconductor companies worldwide, based on sales volume; the company's focus is on developing analog chips and embedded processors, which account for more than 80% of its revenue. TI produces TI digital light processing technology and education technology products including calculators and multi-core processors. To date, TI has more than 45,000 patents worldwide. Texas Instruments emerged in 1951 after a reorganization of Geophysical Service Incorporated, a company founded in 1930 that manufactured equipment for use in the seismic industry, as well as defense electronics. TI produced the world's first commercial silicon transistor in 1954, the same year designed and manufactured the first transistor radio. Jack Kilby invented the integrated circuit in 1958 while working at TI's Central Research Labs.

TI invented the hand-held calculator in 1967, introduced the first single-chip microcontroller in 1970, which combined all the elements of computing onto one piece of silicon. In 1987, TI invented the digital light processing device, which serves as the foundation for the company's award-winning DLP technology and DLP Cinema. TI released the popular TI-81 calculator in 1990, which made it a leader in the graphing calculator industry, its defense business was sold to Raytheon in 1997. After the acquisition of National Semiconductor in 2011, the company had a combined portfolio of nearly 45,000 analog products and customer design tools, making it the world's largest maker of analog technology components. Texas Instruments was founded by Cecil H. Green, J. Erik Jonsson, Eugene McDermott, Patrick E. Haggerty in 1951. McDermott was one of the original founders of Geophysical Service Inc. in 1930. McDermott and Jonsson were GSI employees who purchased the company in 1941. In November, 1945, Patrick Haggerty was hired as general manager of the Laboratory and Manufacturing division, which focused on electronic equipment.

By 1951, the L&M division, with its defense contracts, was growing faster than GSI's geophysical division. The company was reorganized and renamed General Instruments Inc; because a firm named General Instrument existed, the company was renamed Texas Instruments that same year. From 1956 to 1961, Fred Agnich of Dallas a Republican member of the Texas House of Representatives, was the Texas Instruments president. Geophysical Service, Inc. became a subsidiary of Texas Instruments. Early in 1988, most of GSI was sold to the Halliburton Company. Texas Instruments exists to create and market useful products and services to satisfy the needs of its customers throughout the world. In 1930, J. Clarence Karcher and Eugene McDermott founded Geophysical Service, an early provider of seismic exploration services to the petroleum industry. In 1939, the company reorganized as Coronado Corp. an oil company with Geophysical Service Inc, now as a subsidiary. On December 6, 1941, McDermott along with three other GSI employees, J. Erik Jonsson, Cecil H. Green, H.

B. Peacock purchased GSI. During World War II, GSI expanded their services to include electronics for the U. S. Army, Signal Corps, U. S. Navy. In 1951, the company changed its name to Texas Instruments, spun off to build seismographs for oil explorations and with GSI becoming a wholly owned subsidiary of the new company. An early success story for TI-GSI came in 1965 when GSI was able to monitor the Soviet Union's underground nuclear weapons testing under the ocean in Vela Uniform, a subset of Project Vela, to verify compliance of the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Texas Instruments continued to manufacture equipment for use in the seismic industry, GSI continued to provide seismic services. After selling GSI, TI sold the company to Halliburton in 1988, when GSI ceased to exist as a separate entity. In early 1952, Texas Instruments purchased a patent license to produce germanium transistors from Western Electric, the manufacturing arm of AT&T, for $25,000, beginning production by the end of the year.

On January 1, 1953, Haggerty brought Gordon Teal to the company as a research director. Gordon brought with him his expertise in growing semiconductor crystals. Teal's first assignment was to organize what became TI's Central Research Laboratories, which Teal based on his prior experience at Bell Labs. Among his new hires was Willis Adcock, who joined TI early in 1953. Adcock, who like Teal was a physical chemist, began leading a small research group focused on the task of fabricating "grown-junction, single-crystal, small-signal transistors. Adcock became the first TI Principal Fellow. In January 1954, Morris Tanenbaum at Bell Labs created the first workable silicon transistor; this work was reported in the spring of 1954, at the IRE off-the-record conference on solid-state devices, was published in the Journal of Applied Physics. Working independently in April 1954, Gordon Teal at TI created the first commercial silicon transistor and tested it on April 14, 1954. On May 10, 1954, at the Institute of Radio Engineers National Conference on Airborne Electronics in Dayton, Teal presented a paper: "Some Recent Developments in Silicon and Germanium Materials and Devices,".

In 1954, Texas Instruments manufactured the first transistor radio. The Regency TR-1 used germanium transistors, as silicon transistors were much more expensive at the time

Video Toaster

The NewTek Video Toaster is a combination of hardware and software for the editing and production of NTSC standard-definition video. The plug-in expansion card worked with the Amiga 2000 computer and provides a number of BNC connectors on the exposed rear edge that provide connectivity to common analog video sources like VHS; the related software tools support video switching, chroma keying, character generation and image manipulation. Together, the hardware and software provided in the early 1990s a low-cost video editing suite for a few thousand U. S. dollars that rivaled the output of professional systems costing ten times as much at the time. It allowed small studios to produce high-quality material and resulted in a cottage industry for video production not unlike the success of the Macintosh in the desktop publishing market only a few years earlier; the Video Toaster won the Emmy Award for Technical Achievement in 1993. Other parts of the original software package were spun off as stand-alone products, notably LightWave 3D, achieved success on their own.

As the Amiga platform lost market share and Commodore International went bankrupt in 1994 as a result of declining sales, the Video Toaster was moved to the Microsoft Windows platform where it is still available. The company produces what is a portable pre-packaged version of the Video Toaster along with all the computer hardware needed, as the TriCaster; these became all-digital units in 2014. The Video Toaster was designed by NewTek founder Tim Jenison in Kansas. Engineer Brad Carvey, built the first wire wrap prototype, Steve Kell wrote the software for the prototype. Many other people worked on the Toaster; the Toaster was announced at the World of Commodore expo in 1987 and released as a commercial product in December 1990 for the Commodore Amiga 2000 computer system, taking advantage of the video-friendly aspects of that system's hardware to deliver the product at an unusually low cost of $2,399. The Amiga was well adapted to this application in that its system clock at 7.16 MHz was double that of the NTSC color carrier frequency, 3.579 MHz, allowing for simple synchronization of the video signal.

The hardware component is a full-sized card, installed into the Amiga 2000's unique single video expansion slot rather than the standard bus slots, therefore cannot be used with the A500 or A1000 models. The card has several BNC connectors in the rear, which accepts four video input sources and provided two outputs; this initial generation system is a real-time four-channel video switcher. One feature of the Video Toaster is the inclusion of LightWave 3D, a 3D modeling and animation program; this program became so popular in its own right that in 1994 it was made available as standalone product separate from the Toaster systems. Aside from simple fades and cuts, the Video Toaster has a large variety of character generation and complex animated switching effects; these effects are in large part performed with the help of the native Amiga graphics chipset, synchronized to the NTSC video signals. As a result, while the Toaster was rendering a switching animation, the computer desktop display is not visible.

While these effects are unique and inventive, they cannot be modified. Soon Toaster effects were seen everywhere, advertising the device as the brand of switcher those particular production companies were using; the Toaster hardware requires stable input signals, therefore is used along with a separate video sync time-base corrector to stabilize the video sources. Third-party low-cost time-base correctors designed to work with the Toaster came to market, most of which were designed as standard ISA bus cards, taking advantage of the unused Bridgeboard slots; the cards do not use the Bridgeboard to communicate, but as a convenient power supply and physical location. As with all video switchers that use a frame buffer to create DVEs, the video path through the Toaster hardware introduced delays in the signals when the signal was in "digital" mode. Depending on the video setup of the user, this delay could be quite noticeable when viewed along with the corresponding audio, so some users installed audio delay circuits to match the Toaster's video-delay lag, as is common practice in video-switching studios.

A user still needs at least three VTRs and a controller to perform A/B roll linear video editing, as the Toaster serves as a switcher, as the Toaster itself has no edit-controlling capabilities. The frame delays passing through the Toaster and other low-cost video switchers make precise editing a frustrating endeavor. Internal cards and software from other manufacturers are available to control VTRs. A Non-linear editing system product was added with the invention of the Video Toaster Flyer. Although offered as just an add-on to an Amiga, the Video Toaster was soon available as a complete turn-key system that included the Toaster and sync generator; these Toaster systems became popular because at a cost of around $5,000 US, they could do much of what a $100,000 professional video switcher could do at that time. The Toaster was the first such video device designed around a general-purpose personal computer, capable of delivering broa

1996 Indiana gubernatorial election

The 1996 Indiana gubernatorial Election was held on November 5, 1996, alongside the election of both houses of the Indiana General Assembly. Incumbent Governor Evan Bayh, a Democrat, was ineligible to run for a third consecutive term due to term limits established by the Indiana Constitution, he was succeeded by Lt. Governor Frank O'Bannon, who won election over Republican Stephen Goldsmith with 52% of the vote. Candidates Lt. Governor Frank O'BannonO'Bannon was unchallenged in his party's primary, winning the Democratic nomination unanimously, he chose South Bend Mayor Joe Kernan to be his running mate. Candidates Mayor of Indianapolis Stephen Goldsmith Former Marine Sergeant Rex Early George WitwerDeclined Former Vice President of the United States Dan QuayleWith Governor Evan Bayh unable to seek another term in office, Indiana Republicans felt confident in their ability to take the Governor's Mansion in the general election. Of the three candidates for the nomination, the front-runner by far was Indianapolis Mayor Stephen Goldsmith.

Goldsmith was by far the favorite for the nomination throughout the race, in some polls leading by as much as 20 points. The race was heated: Indiana Republican Party Chairman Michael McDaniel, hoping to avoid alienating any voters, declined to endorse a candidate, instead hanging a Swiss flag in his office to symbolize his neutrality. Goldsmith won the primary and soon after chose Witwer as his running mate. Candidates Steve DillonThe Libertarian Party nominated Steve Dillon as their second candidate to contest the Indiana governorship; the only Great Lakes state to have a Democratic Governor going into the 1996 elections, Indiana became the center of the Republican Party's attention in that year's gubernatorial elections. A traditionally Republican state and his party were considered to have the edge in the election; that changed, when questions about Goldsmith's performance as Mayor of Indianapolis surfaced regarding an August 27 brawl in the city involving several drunken policemen. Goldsmith's campaign was further hurt when it was revealed that several comments made about O'Bannon's record as part of the Indiana state government had been statistically incorrect.

The effect of these gaffes was to erase the double digit lead Goldsmith had enjoyed throughout the summer, leaving him narrowly trailing O'Bannon. O'Bannon, was able to take credit for a thriving economy and a recent tax surplus that had occurred during Bayh's administration; the Democrat centered his campaign on his record in the Indiana State Senate attacking Goldsmith for controversial decisions made during his tenure as Mayor of Indianapolis. By running what was described as a "steady" campaign, O'Bannon was able to refute many of the charges Goldsmith brought against him while keeping the pressure on. So, the race remained tight down to election night, Goldsmith settled in on November 5 expecting to be elected. O'Bannon won the election narrowly, carrying 52% of the vote to Goldsmith's 47%