Théodore Géricault

Jean-Louis André Théodore Géricault was an influential French painter and lithographer, whose best-known painting is The Raft of the Medusa. Although he died young, he was one of the pioneers of the Romantic movement. Born in Rouen, France, Géricault was educated in the tradition of English sporting art by Carle Vernet and classical figure composition by Pierre-Narcisse Guérin, a rigorous classicist who disapproved of his student's impulsive temperament while recognizing his talent. Géricault soon left the classroom, choosing to study at the Louvre, where from 1810 to 1815 he copied paintings by Rubens, Velázquez and Rembrandt. During this period at the Louvre he discovered a vitality he found lacking in the prevailing school of Neoclassicism. Much of his time was spent in Versailles, where he found the stables of the palace open to him, where he gained his knowledge of the anatomy and action of horses. Géricault's first major work, The Charging Chasseur, exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1812, revealed the influence of the style of Rubens and an interest in the depiction of contemporary subject matter.

This youthful success and monumental, was followed by a change in direction: for the next several years Géricault produced a series of small studies of horses and cavalrymen. He exhibited Wounded Cuirassier at the Salon in 1814, a work more labored and less well received. Géricault in a fit of disappointment entered the army and served for a time in the garrison of Versailles. In the nearly two years that followed the 1814 Salon, he underwent a self-imposed study of figure construction and composition, all the while evidencing a personal predilection for drama and expressive force. A trip to Florence and Naples, prompted in part by the desire to flee from a romantic entanglement with his aunt, ignited a fascination with Michelangelo. Rome itself inspired the preparation of a monumental canvas, the Race of the Barberi Horses, a work of epic composition and abstracted theme that promised to be "entirely without parallel in its time". However, Géricault returned to France. In 1821, he painted The Derby of Epsom.

Géricault continually returned to the military themes of his early paintings, the series of lithographs he undertook on military subjects after his return from Italy are considered some of the earliest masterworks in that medium. His most significant, most ambitious work, is The Raft of the Medusa, which depicted the aftermath of a contemporary French shipwreck, Meduse, in which the captain had left the crew and passengers to die; the incident became a national scandal, Géricault's dramatic interpretation presented a contemporary tragedy on a monumental scale. The painting's notoriety stemmed from its indictment of a corrupt establishment, but it dramatized a more eternal theme, that of man's struggle with nature, it excited the imagination of the young Eugène Delacroix, who posed for one of the dying figures. The classical depiction of the figures and structure of the composition stand in contrast to the turbulence of the subject, so that the painting constitutes an important bridge between neo-classicism and romanticism.

It fuses many influences: the Last Judgment of Michelangelo, the monumental approach to contemporary events by Antoine-Jean Gros, figure groupings by Henry Fuseli, the painting Watson and the Shark by John Singleton Copley. The painting ignited political controversy when first exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1819. While in London, Géricault witnessed urban poverty, made drawings of his impressions, published lithographs based on these observations which were free of sentimentality, he associated much there with the lithographer and caricaturist. After his return to France in 1821, Géricault was inspired to paint a series of ten portraits of the insane, the patients of a friend, Dr. Étienne-Jean Georget, a pioneer in psychiatric medicine, with each subject exhibiting a different affliction. There are five remaining portraits from the series, including Insane Woman; the paintings are noteworthy for their bravura style, expressive realism, for their documenting of the psychological discomfort of individuals, made all the more poignant by the history of insanity in Géricault's family, as well as the artist's own fragile mental health.

His observations of the human subject were not confined to the living, for some remarkable still-lifes—painted studies of severed heads and limbs—have been ascribed to the artist. Géricault's last efforts were directed toward preliminary studies for several epic compositions, including the Opening of the Doors of the Spanish Inquisition and the African Slave Trade; the preparatory drawings suggest works of great ambition. Weakened by riding accidents and chronic tubercular infection, Géricault died in Paris in 1824 after a long period of suffering, his bronze figure reclines, brush in hand, on his tomb at Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris, above a low-relief panel of The Raft of the Medusa. Ciofalo, John J; the Raft: A Play about the Tragic Life of Théodore Géricault Eitner, Lorenz, "Theodore Gericault", Salander-O'Reilly Whitney, Gericault in Italy, New Haven/London: Yale University Press Riding, Christine, "The Raft of the Medusa in Britain", Crossing the Channel: British and French Painting in the Age of Romanticism, Tate Publishing French painting 1774–1830: the Age of Revolution.

New York. 1975. Media related to Théodore G

Siege of La Charité

The Siege of La Charité was incited by the order of Charles VII to Joan of Arc after the warlord Perrinet Gressard seized the town in 1423. La Charité was not only fortified, but victualled for a prolonged siege. Joan's forces were known to be poorly equipped with artillery. On November 7, 1429 the people of Clermont were addressed with a letter asking the town to send supplies to Joan's army for the siege. On November 9 Joan made another request for supplies in preparation. Charles II d'Albret, of Joan's army, sent a letter to Riom on the same day; the assistance came from Orléans, which sent soldiers and artillerymen. However, after a month-long struggle in bad weather, the siege was abandoned. Joan of Arc's letter to the people of Riom, Nov. 9, 1429 Siege of Saint-Pierre-le-Moûtier

2009–10 Hibernian F.C. season

Season 2009–10 for Hibernian was their eleventh consecutive season of play in the Scottish Premier League. The SPL season began on 15 August 2009, with a 2–1 win against St Mirren at home. After a strong start to the season in which they challenged for the league leadership, Hibs had a slump in form in the part of the season; the team secured a Europa League place via finishing fourth in the SPL by winning 2–0 on the final day at Tannadice. Hibs were eliminated from the Scottish Cup in a quarter final replay by Ross County and were knocked out of the Scottish League Cup in the third round by St Johnstone. Hibs confirmed seven friendly matches for pre-season, with two of those matches being billed as a "Hibernian XI". Hibs played their first match on 15 July. Hibs split their resources on 18 July, with a young side losing 4–2 at Berwick, while a more experienced side won 4–0 at Dunfermline. John Hughes only retained five players in the team that started against Dunfermline for the first team's next match, against Raith Rovers.

Hibs were losing 1–0 when an electrical storm caused the floodlights to fail, prompting the referee David Somers to abandon the match after 46 minutes. Hibs underwent a short Irish tour, winning 2–0 against IFA Premiership champions Glentoran. Two days they lost 1–0 against a Shamrock Rovers side managed by former Hibs player Michael O'Neill. Hibs lost their only pre-season game at Easter Road, 3–1 against Preston North End on 1 August; the game was a rematch of sorts for a match played in 1887 dubbed the Championship of the World by the Football Association and the Scottish Football Association, as both clubs had won their respective national cup competitions that year. Hibs' final two matches of pre-season saw them play out goalless draws against Blackburn Rovers on 5 August and against Bolton Wanderers, in a testimonial match for Jussi Jääskeläinen, on 8 August. Hibs began the 2009–10 league season with a 2–1 win against St Mirren, who had Steven Thomson sent off early in the match. Although Hibs conceded the first goal due to a series of defensive errors, David Wotherspoon scored a quick equaliser on his senior debut and Abdessalam Benjelloun scored a late winner.

Inconsistent form in the early part of the season saw Hibs win their first two games, lose the next two, but win the following two league matches. These results put Hibs tied with Rangers on points for second place in the league, but manager John Hughes commented that it would be a position that Hibs would be unlikely to hold for the rest of the season. Hughes put this inconsistency down to the team's failure to work hard enough in the games they had lost. Four points from the two following home games against Dundee United and Kilmarnock left Hibs clear in third place, just behind the Old Firm, after 8 games. Poor performances by the Old Firm in European competition, led some writers to comment that there was an opportunity for Hibs to challenge the Old Firm in a way not seen since the New Firm's success in the 1980s. John Hughes again tried to play down these expectations, stating that Hibs were "miles away" from challenging the Old Firm. Hibs continued their good start to the season with a 1–1 draw at Ibrox, a 2–0 win against Aberdeen.

Continued good form, including late winning goals against Celtic and St Mirren in late January, led to Hughes challenging his players to maintain that form and secure Europa League qualification by finishing third in the SPL. Hughes targeted third though Hibs would move above second-placed Celtic by winning a game in hand, arguing that the Old Firm were still "miles and miles in front of us". Hibs suffered heavy defeats by Rangers and St Johnstone soon afterwards, with Hughes admitting that he had picked the wrong team for the latter game. A defeat at Motherwell and draw with St Johnstone extended a winless run to five games, with Hibs showing "defensive frailties". A narrow win against Kilmarnock was followed by an Edinburgh derby defeat, which led Graham Stack to comment that Hibs had been "found out". Further poor results, including a 4–1 defeat at Hamilton, led Hughes to concede that the team were "too expansive". Hibs had conceded. Defeats by Celtic and Hearts meant that Hibs lost six straight matches, their worst sequence of results in 13 years.

Despite this poor run, a win on the final day against Dundee United meant that Hibs finished in fourth place and qualified for the 2010–11 UEFA Europa League. Hibs entered the Scottish Cup in the fourth round, were drawn to play junior club Irvine Meadow at home. Irvine's secretary Iain McQueen described the tie as the "biggest game in our history". Hibs were heavy favourites to progress, did so after surviving a few scares. Hibs again received a favourable draw for the fifth round, being drawn at home to either neighbours Edinburgh City or Montrose. At the date of the tie, there were 39 league places between the two clubs, with Hibs third in the SPL and Montrose bottom of the Third Division. Hibs progressed to the quarter-finals. Hibs were given a third consecutive home draw in the quarter-final, paired with First Division club Ross County; the tie was the first meeting of the two clubs and Ross County's first appearance in a Scottish Cup quarter-final. Hibs were "fortunate" to remain in the cup, as Ross County forced a 2–2 draw and had chances to win the tie.

The result meant that there would be a replay at Dingwall on 23 March. Hibs went into the replay in poor form.