Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand and known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Southeast Asian Indochinese Peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th-largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country; the capital and largest city is a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar, its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. It is a unitary state. Although nominally the country is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup, in 2014, established a de facto military dictatorship under a junta. Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia from the 11th century. Various Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon kingdoms, Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as the Kingdoms of Ngoenyang, Lan Na and Ayutthaya, which rivaled each other.
Documented European contact began in 1511 with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya, now one of the great powers in the region. Ayutthaya reached its peak during cosmopolitan Narai's reign declining thereafter until being destroyed in the 1767 Burmese–Siamese War. Taksin reunified the fragmented territory and established the short-lived Thonburi Kingdom, he was succeeded in 1782 by Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the first monarch of the Chakri dynasty and founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom, which lasted into the early 20th century. Through the 18th and 19th centuries, Siam faced pressure from France and the United Kingdom, including forced concessions of territory. Following a bloodless revolution in 1932, Siam became a constitutional monarchy and changed its official name to "Thailand". While it joined the Allies in World War I, Thailand was an Axis satellite in World War II. In the late 1950s, a military coup under Field Marshal Sarit Thanarat revived the monarchy's influential role in politics.
Thailand became a major ally of the United States, played a key anti-communist role in the region as a member of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. Apart from a brief period of parliamentary democracy in the mid-1970s, Thailand has periodically alternated between democracy and military rule. In 2013, Thailand endured a political crisis that culminated in two coups and the establishment of its current and 20th constitution by a military junta. Thailand is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and remains a major ally of the US. Despite comparatively sporadic changes in leadership, it is considered a regional power in Southeast Asia and a middle power in global affairs. With a high level of human development, the second-largest economy in Southeast Asia, the 20th-largest by PPP, Thailand is classified as a newly industrialized economy. Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia; the country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens.
By outsiders, prior to 1949 it was known by the exonym Siam. The word Siam may have originated from Pali or Sanskrit श्याम or Mon ရာမည; the names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word. The word Śyâma is not its origin, but a learned and artificial distortion. Another theory is the name derives from Chinese: "Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late fourteenth century; the Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam." A further possibility is that Mon-speaking peoples migrating south called themselves syem as do the autochthonous Mon-Khmer-speaking inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula. The signature of King Mongkut reads SPPM Mongkut Rex Siamensium, giving the name Siam official status until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to "Thailand". Thailand was renamed Siam from 1946 to 1948, after which it again reverted to "Thailand". According to George Cœdès, the word Thai means'free man' in the Thai language, "differentiating the Thai from the natives encompassed in Thai society as serfs".
A famous Thai scholar argued that Thai means'people' or'human being', since his investigation shows that in some rural areas the word "Thai" was used instead of the usual Thai word khon for people. According to Michel Ferlus, the ethnonyms Thai-Tai would have evolved from the etymon *kri:'human being' through the following chain: *kəri: > *kəli: > *kədi:/*kədaj > *di:/*daj > *dajA > tʰajA2 or > tajA2. Michel Ferlus's work is based on some simple rules of phonetic change observable in the Sinosphere and studied for the most part by William H. B
The 2017–18 Honduran Liga Nacional de Ascenso was the 51st season of the Second level in Honduran football and the 16th under the name Liga Nacional de Ascenso. The tournament was divided into each crowning one champion; as winners of both tournaments, Infop RNP was promoted to 2018–19 Honduran Liga Nacional. The Apertura tournament ran from 19 August to 30 December 2017. Infop RNP obtained the title after defeating Villanueva F. C. with a 2–1 aggregate score in the final series. The Clausura tournament was played in the first half of 2018. Note: Yoro and Estrella Roja finished with a 3–3 aggregated score. Estrella Roja was disqualified for abandoning the second leg by not accepting a late penalty at the 89th minute; as winners of both Apertura and Clausura, Infop RNP was automatically promoted to 2018–19 Honduran Liga Nacional and no promotion play off was required
The Archaeological Museum of Eretria is a museum in Eretria, in the Euboea regional unit of Central Greece. The museum was established in 1960, but was enlarged between 1961 and 1962, it underwent further renovation and extension between 1987 and 1991 by the 11th Ephorate of Antiquities of the Greek Archaeological Service in collaboration with the Swiss School of Archaeology in Greece. The museum, located adjacent to the archaeological site of Eretria, contains artifacts unearthed at Xeropolis, the cemetery of Skoumbri, Palaia Perivolia, Toumba in Lefkandi, at Paliochora and Geraki hill in Amarynthos and at Eretria and Magoula. Many artifacts found at Eretria though are on display at the National Archaeological Museum in Athens and in the Louvre in Paris. Of major note is the terracotta centaur from Lefkandi, dated to the second half of the 10th century BC; the figurine was discovered broken in two parts, each of, placed in a different grave. Found at Lefkandi is a straight-sided Mycenaean alabastron with three handles, dated to the 12th century BC.
The decoration is in matt white paint on a dark surface, the shoulder and body are covered with the figures of a griffin, a roe and a deer. The museum has a black-figure epinetron from Amarynthos dated to the end of the 6th century BC; the funerary amphora, depicting geometric patterns and birds, contained the bones of a child and is a product of a local Euboean workshop of the Geometric period, dated to the 8th century BC. There are many more amphoras and vases, including a funerary amphora from the coastal necropolis of Eretria dated to 560 BC which depicts the battle between Herakles and Centaurs on the front and Potnia Theron on the rear, a Panathenaic amphora dated to around 363-362 BC; the front side of the amphora depicts the armed goddess Athena, while the rear illustrates a scene from the Panathenaic contest for which the vase was the prize. Is the terracotta gorgoneion dated from the 4th century BC which belonged to the decoration of the House with the Mosaics at Eretria. Excavation at Eretria has unearthed some notable sculptures which are on display in the museum, including those from the west pediment of the archaic temple of Apollo Daphnephoros that depict an Amazonomachy.
Of particular note is the sculpture representing Theseus and Antiope, believed to have been made by the famous Athenian sculptor Antenor in the 6th century BC. The museum contains Archaic relief pithos fragments decorated with representations of birds devouring bodies dated to the 7th century BC and a necklace made of faience beads representing Isis and Horos from Cyprus and dating from the Protogeometric period, 11th-10th centuries BC. Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Tourism / in Greek ancient-greece.org Gallery www.planetware.com