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Thanjavur

Thanjavur Tanjore, is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Thanjavur is an important center of South Indian religion and architecture. Most of the Great Living Chola Temples, which are UNESCO World Heritage Monuments, are located in and around Thanjavur; the foremost among these, the Brihadeeswara Temple, is located in the centre of the city. Thanjavur is home to Tanjore painting, a painting style unique to the region. Thanjavur is the headquarters of the Thanjavur District; the city is an important agricultural centre located in the Cauvery Delta and is known as the Rice bowl of Tamil Nadu. Thanjavur is administered by a municipal corporation covering an area of 36.33 km2 and had a population of 222,943 in 2011. Roadways are the major means of transportation, while the city has rail connectivity; the nearest airport is Tiruchirapalli International Airport, located 59.6 km away from the city. The nearest seaport is Karaikal, 94 km away from Thanjavur; the city first rose to prominence during the reign of Cholas when it served as the capital of the empire.

After the fall of Cholas, the city was ruled by various dynasties like Pandyas, Vijayanagar Empire, Madurai Nayaks, Thanjavur Nayaks, Thanjavur Marathas and British Empire. It has been a part of independent India since 1947; the city name "Thanjavur" seems to be derived from the name of a Mutharayar king "Thananjay" or "Dhananjaya". Thananjaya+Oor=Thanjavur. Kalamalla stone inscription was done by Renati chola king Erikal Muthuraju Dhanunjaya Varma of 575ad According to local legend, the word Thanjavur is derived from "Tanjan", an asura in Hindu mythology, killed in what is now Thanjavur by the Hindu god Neelamegha Perumal, a form of Vishnu. There are no references to Thanjavur in any of the Sangam period Tamil records, though some scholars believe that the city has existed since that time. Kovil Venni, situated 15 miles to the east of the city, was the site of the Battle of Venni between the Chola king Karikala and a confederacy of the Cheras and the Pandyas; the Cholas seemed to have faced an invasion of the Kalabhras in the third century AD after which the kingdom faded into obscurity.

The region around present day Thanjavur was conquered by the Mutharayars during the sixth century, who ruled it up to 849. The Cholas came to prominence once more through the rise of the Medieval Chola monarch Vijayalaya in about 850. Vijayalaya conquered Thanjavur from the Mutharayar king Elango Mutharayar and built a temple dedicated to Hindu goddess Nisumbhasudani, his son Aditya. The Rashtrakuta king Krishna II, a contemporary of the Chola king Parantaka I, claims to have conquered Thanjavur, but there are no records to support the claim. Thanjavur became the most important city in the Chola Empire and remained its capital till the emergence of Gangaikonda Cholapuram in about 1025. During the first decade of the eleventh century, the Chola king Raja Raja Chola I constructed the Brihadeeswarar Temple at Thanjavur; the temple is considered to be one of the best specimens of Tamil architecture. When the Chola Empire began to decline in the 13th century, the Pandyas from the south invaded and captured Thanjavur twice, first during 1218–19 and during 1230.

During the second invasion, the Chola king Rajaraja III was exiled and he sought the help of the Hoysala king Vira Narasimha II to regain Thanjavur. Thanjavur was annexed along with the rest of the Chola kingdom by the Pandya king Maravarman Kulasekara Pandyan I in 1279 and the Chola kings were forced to accept the suzerainty of the Pandyas; the Pandyas ruled Thanjavur from 1279 to 1311 when their kingdom was raided by the forces of Malik Kafur and annexed by the Delhi Sultanate. The Sultanate extended its authority directly over the conquered regions from 1311 to 1335 and through the semi-independent Ma'bar Sultanate from 1335 to 1378. Starting from the 1350s, the Ma'bar Sultanate was absorbed into the rising Vijayanagar Empire. Thanjavur is believed to have been conquered by Kampanna Udayar during his invasion of Srirangam between 1365 and 1371. Deva Raya's inscription dated 1443, Thirumala's inscription dated 1455 and Achuta Deva's land grants dated 1532 and 1539 attest Vijayanagar's dominance over Thanjavur.

Sevappa Nayak, the Vijayanagar viceroy of Arcot, established himself as an independent monarch in 1532 and founded the Thanjavur Nayak kingdom. Achuthappa Nayak, Raghunatha Nayak and Vijaya Raghava Nayak are some of the important rulers of the Nayak dynasty who ruled Thanjavur. Thanjavur Nayaks were notable for their patronage of literature and arts; the rule of the dynasty came to an end when Thanjavur fell to the Madurai Nayak king Chokkanatha Nayak in 1673. Vijaya Raghunatha Nayak, the son of Chokkanatha, was killed in a battle and Chokkanatha's brother Alagiri Nayak was crowned as the ruler of the empire. Thanjavur was conquered in 1674 by Ekoji I, the Maratha feudatory of the sultan of Bijapur and half-brother of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj of the Bhonsle dynasty. Ekoji founded the Thanjavur Maratha kingdom which ruled Thanjavur till 1855; the Marathas exercised their sovereignty over Thanjavur throughout the last quarter of the 17th and the whole of the 18th century. The Maratha rulers patronized Carnatic music.

In 1787, Amar Singh, the regent of Thanjavur, deposed the minor Raja, his nephew Serfoji II and captured the throne. Serfoji II was restored in 1799 with the assistance of the British, who indu

Renaud de Vilbac

Renaud de Vilbac was a prolific French organist and composer. Vilbac entered the Conservatoire de Paris at age 13 to study the pipe organ with François Benoist and composition with Fromental Halévy. Two years in 1844, he won the second "Prix de Rome" with his cantata Le Renégat de Tanger on a text by Claude-Emmanuel de Pastoret. Returning to Paris after his stay at the Villa Medici in Rome, Vilbac became the holder of the great organ Merklin-Schütz of the église Saint-Eugène-Sainte-Cécile in 1855. 1857: Au clair de lune, operetta on a libretto by Antoine de Léris, at the Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens. 1858: Don Almanzor, opéra bouffe on a libreto by Eugène Labat and Louis Ulbach, at the Théâtre Lyrique. Menuet Louis XV, Op. 31 Ophélia, nocturne Petite fantaisie sur la mélodie de Tissot Lili-Polka Petite poupée chérie, waltz Caresses enfantines, mazurka Echo du désert, rêverie arabe Sonnez clairons, military march Caprice Styrien Fior di speranza, romance sans paroles École complète et progressive du piano, in 7 volumes Les Arabesques, Op. 32 La Neige, mazurka russe Échos de l'enfance, 12 esquisses musicales 1re Polonaise Deuxième styrienne Fantaisie sur I Capuleti e i Montecchi by Bellini Fantaisie sur Norma by Bellini Potpourri sur Coppélia, for piano 4 hands Beautés de Coppélia, 2 suites for piano 4 hands Bouquet de mélodies sur La Mascotte, opéra comique by Edmond Audran, 2 suites for piano 4 hands Perles de l'harmonium, 80 Transcriptions of classical pieces L'Orgue moderne, twelve pieces applicable to harmoniums and large organs, in 2 series L’Organiste Catholique, in 3 vols.

Vol. 1: 12 Offertoires, 12 Élévations ou Communions et 12 Sorties Vol. 2: Antiennes, Marches, Processions, Préludes Vol. 3: 12 Offertoires originaux pour les principales fêtes de l'année Renaud de Vilbac on Musopen Vilbac, Charles Renaud de on Musicalion Musica et Memoria Article by Denis Havard de la Montagne. Free scores by Renaud de Vilbac at the International Music Score Library Project YouTube Michael Hendron plays Sortie Solennelle of L’Instituteur Organiste on an harmonium Alexandre of the église de la Madeleine, Paris. YouTube Michael Hendron joue une Communion solennelle sur un harmonium Debain dans l'église de Mouriès. YouTube Le Calme, n° 14 of the 25 Études Brillantes of the École complète et progressive du piano, vol. 4, by Phillip Sear, piano

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