SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Thanksgiving

Thanksgiving Day is a national holiday celebrated on various dates in the United States, some of the Caribbean islands, Liberia. It began as a day of giving thanks and sacrifice for the blessing of the harvest and of the preceding year. Named festival holidays occur in Germany and Japan. Thanksgiving is celebrated on the second Monday of October in Canada and on the fourth Thursday of November in the United States and Brazil, around the same part of the year in other places. Although Thanksgiving has historical roots in religious and cultural traditions, it has long been celebrated as a secular holiday as well. Prayers of thanks and special thanksgiving ceremonies are common among all religions after harvests and at other times; the Thanksgiving holiday's history in North America is rooted in English traditions dating from the Protestant Reformation. It has aspects of a harvest festival though the harvest in New England occurs well before the late-November date on which the modern Thanksgiving holiday is celebrated.

In the English tradition, days of thanksgiving and special thanksgiving religious services became important during the English Reformation in the reign of Henry VIII and in reaction to the large number of religious holidays on the Catholic calendar. Before 1536 there were 95 Church holidays, plus 52 Sundays, when people were required to attend church and forego work and sometimes pay for expensive celebrations; the 1536 reforms reduced the number of Church holidays to 27, but some Puritans wished to eliminate all Church holidays, including Christmas and Easter. The holidays were to be replaced by specially called Days of Fasting or Days of Thanksgiving, in response to events that the Puritans viewed as acts of special providence. Unexpected disasters or threats of judgement from on high called for Days of Fasting. Special blessings, viewed as coming from God, called for Days of Thanksgiving. For example, Days of Fasting were called on account of drought in 1611, floods in 1613, plagues in 1604 and 1622.

Days of Thanksgiving were called following the victory over the Spanish Armada in 1588 and following the deliverance of Queen Anne in 1705. An unusual annual Day of Thanksgiving began in 1606 following the failure of the Gunpowder Plot in 1605 and developed into Guy Fawkes Day on November 5. According to some historians, the first celebration of Thanksgiving in North America occurred during the 1578 voyage of Martin Frobisher from England in search of the Northwest Passage. Other researchers, state that "there is no compelling narrative of the origins of the Canadian Thanksgiving day."The origins of Canadian Thanksgiving are sometimes traced to the French settlers who came to New France in the 17th century, who celebrated their successful harvests. The French settlers in the area had feasts at the end of the harvest season and continued throughout the winter season sharing food with the indigenous peoples of the area; as settlers arrived in Nova Scotia from New England after 1700, late autumn Thanksgiving celebrations became commonplace.

New immigrants into the country—such as the Irish and Germans—also added their own traditions to the harvest celebrations. Most of the US aspects of Thanksgiving were incorporated when United Empire Loyalists began to flee from the United States during the American Revolution and settled in Canada. Pilgrims and Puritans who emigrated from England in the 1620s and 1630s carried the tradition of Days of Fasting and Days of Thanksgiving with them to New England; the modern Thanksgiving holiday tradition is traced to a well-recorded 1619 event in Virginia and a sparsely documented 1621 celebration at Plymouth in present-day Massachusetts. The 1619 arrival of 38 English settlers at Berkeley Hundred in Charles City County, concluded with a religious celebration as dictated by the group's charter from the London Company, which required "that the day of our ships arrival at the place assigned... in the land of Virginia shall be yearly and perpetually kept holy as a day of thanksgiving to Almighty God."

The 1621 Plymouth feast and thanksgiving was prompted by a good harvest, which the Pilgrims celebrated with Native Americans, who helped them get through the previous winter by giving them food in that time of scarcity. Several days of Thanksgiving were held in early New England history that have been identified as the "First Thanksgiving", including Pilgrim holidays in Plymouth in 1621 and 1623, a Puritan holiday in Boston in 1631. According to historian Jeremy Bangs, director of the Leiden American Pilgrim Museum, the Pilgrims may have been influenced by watching the annual services of Thanksgiving for the relief of the siege of Leiden in 1574, while they were staying in Leiden. Now called Oktober Feest, Leiden's autumn thanksgiving celebration in 1617 was the occasion for sectarian disturbance that appears to have accelerated the pilgrims' plans to emigrate to America. In Massachusetts, religious thanksgiving services were declared by civil leaders such as Governor Bradford, who planned the colony's thanksgiving celebration and fast in 1623.

The practice of holding an annual harvest festival did not become a regular affair in New England until the late 1660s. Thanksgiving proclamations were made by church leaders in New England up until 1682, by both state and church leaders until after the American Revolution. During the revolutionary period, political influences affected the issuance of Thanksgiving proclamations. Various proclamations were made by royal governors, John Hancock, General George Washington, the Continental Congress, each giving thanks to God for events favorable to their causes; as President of the United States, George Washington proclaimed the first natio

Indonesian Aerospace N-245

Indonesian Aerospace N-245 is an Indonesian turboprop airliner being developed by Indonesian Aerospace. A refinement of CASA/IPTN CN-235, the N-245 is designed for greater passenger capacity and lower operating costs than the CN-235; the N-245 has a longer body, a newer engine type, a T-tail and no ramp door. When President Joko Widodo took office, he ordered the revival of several Indonesian aircraft in order to boost the Indonesian economy, including the N250 which captured world attention in 1997. After the successful revival of the N219 aircraft, Indonesian Aerospace decided to make a better and larger aircraft, chose the N-245, a 50-seat turboprop airliner, as the N219's successor; the airliner was named N-245 for Indonesia's 1945 independence. The program to produce the N-245 began in 2016. Indonesian Aerospace stated its intention to produce the N-270, the 70-seat version of the N-245 and the N-219; the design phase was to begin in 2017 and the first N-245 was to be done by 2020. The Indonesian government pledged to provide a total of $44 million to develop the aircraft.

On 8 December 2016, the Indonesian Ministry of Industry opined that the N-245 and the RAI R-80 should be designated as Strategic National Projects. On 10 February 2017, the R-80 were added to the project list. Due to this decision, the government was to prioritize the development of both aircraft, accelerate the production timetable, saying that both aircraft could make a first flight as soon as 2019. In July 2017, Indonesian Aerospace announced that it has entered into an agreement with Turkish Aerospace Industries to collaborate in the development of N-245 and N-219. Under a Framework Agreement, the two organizations will work together on technical aspects as well marketing initiatives. TAI's portfolio includes licensed production of General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon jets, SIAI-Marchetti SF.260 trainers, Cougar AS-532 search and rescue, the N235, which the N245 is based on. The collaboration is expected to facilitate the conversion of the N245 from an aircraft designed for lightweight transport into a cost-effective commuter airplane.

Initial report cited TAI's involvement in the conceptual design activities of the N245. Aside from the N245, the agreement covered the joint development of a new medium-altitude, long-endurance unmanned aerial vehicle that will have a capability to operate in an altitude of 40,000 feet. Menristek: Indonesia Produksi Pesawat N219 pada 2014

Epiphany (literature)

Epiphany in literature refers to a visionary moment, when a character has a sudden insight or realization that changes his or her understanding of themselves or their comprehension of the world. The term has a more specialized sense as a literary device distinct to modernist fiction. Author James Joyce first borrowed the religious term "Epiphany" and adopted it into a profane literary context in Stephen Hero, an early version of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. In that manuscript, Stephen Daedalus defines epiphany as "a sudden spiritual manifestation, whether in the vulgarity of speech or of gesture or in a memorable phase of the mind itself." Stephen's epiphanies are moments of heightened poetic perception in the trivial aspects of everyday Dublin life, non-religious and non-mystical in nature. They become the basis of Stephen's theory of aesthetic perception as well as his writing. In similar terms, Joyce experimented with epiphany throughout his career, from the short stories he wrote between 1898 and 1904 which were central to his early work, to his late novel Finnegans Wake.

Scholars used Joyce's term to describe a common feature of the modernist novel, with authors as varied as Virginia Woolf, Marcel Proust, Ezra Pound, Katherine Mansfield all featuring these sudden moments of vision as an aspect of the contemporary mind. Joycean or modernist epiphany has its roots in nineteenth-century lyric poetry the Wordsworthian "spots of time," as well as the sudden spiritual insights that formed the basis of traditional spiritual autobiography. Philosopher Charles Taylor explains the rise of epiphany in modernist art as a reaction against the rise of a “commercial-industrial-capitalist society” during the early twentieth century; the word "epiphany" descends from the ancient Greek ἐπῐφᾰ́νειᾰ, meaning a "manifestation or appearance." The word is built from the Greek words "pha", "phanein", "epiphanein". In ancient Greek usage, the term describes the visible manifestation of a god or goddess to mortal eyes, a form of theophany. Early Christians adopted the term to describe the manifestation of the child Jesus to the Magi, understood figuratively as the revelation of Christ to the Gentiles and commemorated in the Catholic Feast of Epiphany, celebrated January 6.

In the Greek New Testament manuscripts, epiphaneia refers to Christ's second coming. Dubliners by James Joyce is a collection of short stories published in June, 1914; the short stories capture some of Joyce's most unhappy moments in life, which he connects to the city of Dublin. Dublin, to Joyce, seemed to be the centre of paralysis, which he explains in a letter to Grant Richards, the publisher of Dubliners. Joyce explains his purpose and intention behind writing the novel:"My intention was to write a chapter of the moral history of my country and I chose Dublin for the scene because that city seemed to me the centre of paralysis. I have tried to present it to the indifferent public under four of its aspects: childhood, adolescence and public life; the stories are arranged in this order. I have written it for the most part in a style of scrupulous meanness and with the conviction that he is a bold man who dares to alter in the presentment, still more to deform, whatever he has seen and heard."Epiphanies are a main literary device employed within the fifteen short stories in Dubliners and tend to circulate around moments of realisation of despair and disillusionment.

Epiphanies employed by Joyce are described as "a sudden spiritual manifestation, whether from some object, event, or memorable phase of the mind — the manifestation being out of proportion to the significance or logical relevance of whatever produces it." The epiphanies in Dubliners in particular follow a common theme of loss and regret that are intertwined with death and despair that emerge from Joyce's own childhood in Ireland. Epiphanies as a structural tool in Dubliners helps bring the narrative to a climax as the epiphany is formed throughout the story through the protagonists pain and reflection upon their experiences. Araby is the third short story in Dubliners that centres around the narrator recollecting on an experience of when he was a young boy where he experienced a moment of epiphanic disillusionment; the story narrates in first person a young boy, infatuated with a girl who remains unnamed and is referred to as, "Mangan's sister." The narrator is infatuated with her though he has never spoken to her, yet he claims that her name was, "like a summons to all my foolish blood."

When the narrator learns of how Mangan's sister wishes to go to Araby, a bazaar that she cannot go to due to other religious obligations the narrator believes that if he can bring her back a gift that she would return his feelings. However, when the time came to go to the bazaar the narrator is delayed because he needs his uncle to lend him some money although the uncle forgot about it and so the narrator heads out late to the bazaar. Upon arrival to the bazaar, most of the stalls are closed; the narrator is confronted by what he is seeing in front of him and he turns away from Araby after his vision and expectations of it are destroyed with the banal reality of it, presented to him. In turn, he becomes disillusioned with his idealisation of Mangan's sister as well. In the last sentence this notion is captured: "Gazing up into the darkness I saw myself as a creature driven and derided by vanity, he now views the world differently as he now realises his own vanity and stupidity as he now has more self-awareness of himself.

Eveline centres a