Yves Chaland was a French cartoonist. During the 1980s, together with Luc Cornillon, Serge Clerc and Floc'h, he launched the Atomic style, a stylish remake of the Marcinelle School in Franco-Belgian comics. Chaland published his first strips in the fanzine Biblipop when he was 17. During his studies at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Saint-Etienne, he created his own fanzine, L'Unité de Valeur, in 1976, with Luc Cornillon. In 1978, he met writer/editor Jean-Pierre Dionnet, they collaborated on features published in the Franco-Belgian comics magazines Métal Hurlant and Ah Nana; these pastiches of 50s comics have been collected in the album Captivant. He created the characters of Bob Fish, Adolphus Claar, Freddy Lombard, Le Jeune Albert, a scamp character living in the Marolles, a working-class area of Brussels. Yves Chaland, was approached to draw an adventure of Spirou et Fantasio, appearinging in half-page installments of the weekly Spirou magazine. Done in a retro 50s style similar to his influences Jijé and André Franquin, both former artists on the Spirou feature.
The unfinished story has been collected in the album Spirou et Fantasio – Hors Série, No. 4. He did many advertising illustration commissions in his crisp, clean, "retro-modern" cartoon style; as with many Franco-Belgian comics, Chaland's works have had limited publication in English. The complete Freddy Lombard series was released in the two volume Chaland Anthology; these were the only two released in English, while 4 volumes were released in French, containing his complete comic strip works for Métal Hurlant.. A Magazine contribute to the knowledge of Chaland's artwork, The Journal of Freddy's friends is available in English. Le Journal des Amis de Freddy #1, editing by Club des Amis de Freddy in 2008, #2 in 2010, #3 in 2012. Captivant 1st ed. 1979 Bob Fish 1st ed. 1981 Adolphus Claar 1st ed. 1982 John Bravo pre-publication in Astrapi in 1983 The Adventures of Freddy LombardThe Will of Godfrey of Bouillon 1st ed. 1981 The Elephant Graveyard 1st ed. 1984 The Comet of Carthage 1st ed. 1986 Holiday in Budapest 1st ed. 1988 F-52 1st ed. 1990Le Jeune Albert 1st ed. 1985 1982: Best Comic at the Prix Saint-Michel, Belgium 1984: Betty Boop of the best comics of the year for The Elephant Graveyard in Hyères Footnotes Yves Chaland biography on Lambiek Comiclopedia Yves Chaland homage site by "Atoomstijl" The place for the Club Les Amis de Freddy by Club des ADF
Edgar P. Jacobs
Edgard Félix Pierre Jacobs, better known under his pen name Edgar P. Jacobs, was a Belgian comic book creator, born in Brussels, Belgium, he was one of the founding fathers of the European comics movement, through his collaborations with Hergé and the graphic novel series that made him famous and Mortimer. Edgar Félix Pierre Jacobs was born in Brussels in 1904. Jacobs remembered having drawn for as far back, his real love though was for the opera in particular. In 1919 he graduated from the commercial school where his parents had sent him, swore he would never work in an office, he kept on drawing in his spare time, focusing his greatest attention on musical and dramatic training. He took on odd jobs at the opera, including decoration and painting, sometimes got to work as an extra. In 1929 he received the annual Belgian government medal for excellence in classical singing. Financial good fortune did not follow, since the Great Depression hit the Brussels artistic community hard. After a career as extra and baritone singer in opera productions between 1919 and 1940 in Brussels and Lille, punctuated by small drawing commissions, Jacobs turned permanently to illustration, drawing commercial illustrations and collaborating in the children's weekly comic magazine Bravo until 1946, after he was introduced there by Jacques Laudy.
This review or periodical was a smashing success. When the American comic strip Flash Gordon was prohibited in Belgium by the German occupation authorities during World War II, he was asked to write an end to the comic in order to provide a denouement to the readers. German censorship banned this continuation after only a couple of weeks. Jacobs subsequently published his first comic strip in Bravo, Le Rayon U in the same Flash Gordon style. Around this time, he became a stage painter for a theatre adaptation for Hergé's Cigars of the Pharaoh. Although the play was only a modest success, it brought him into contact with Hergé and the two become friends; as a direct result, he assisted Hergé in colorizing the black and white strips of The Shooting Star from Le Soir in preparation for book publication in 1942, from 1944 on he helped him in the recasting of his earlier albums Tintin in the Congo, Tintin in America, King Ottokar's Sceptre and The Blue Lotus for color book publication. After the project, he continued to contribute directly in the drawing as well as the storyline for the new Tintin double-albums The Seven Crystal Balls/Prisoners of the Sun.
Jacobs, as a fan of opera, decided to take Hergé with him to a concert. Hergé did not like opera and for decades he would lampoon his friend Jacobs through the device of opera singer Bianca Castafiore, a supporting character in The Adventures of Tintin. Hergé gave him tiny cameo roles in Tintin adventures, sometimes under the name Jacobini, for example in The Calculus Affair where Jacobini is the name of an opera singer advertised as starring alongside La Castafiore in Gounod's Faust, as a mummified egyptologist on the cover of Cigars of the Pharaoh, as well as in the rewritten version. In a 1977 interview with the BBC, Hergé stated that Jacobs was part of his inspiration for the major character of Captain Haddock: "He is just like Captain Haddock, full of movement...bursting into...invective."In 1946, Jacobs was part of the team gathered by Raymond Leblanc around the new Franco-Belgian comics magazine Tintin, where his story Le secret de l’Espadon was published on September 26, the first of the Blake and Mortimer series.
In 1947, Jacobs asked to share the credit with Hergé on The Adventures of Tintin. When Hergé refused, their collaboration suffered a bit of a setback. Hergé still remained a friend however, as before Blake et Mortimer continued to be serialised in Tintin magazine. In 1950, Jacobs published The Mystery of the Great Pyramid. Many others soon followed. Jacobs published in 1970 the first volume of The Three formulas of Professor Sato, staged in Japan. In 1973 he restyled his first full-length album, Le Rayon U, wrote his autobiography under the title Un opéra de papier: Les mémoires de Blake et Mortimer, he wrote the scenario for the second episode of Les Trois Formules du Professeur Sato, but the artwork remained unfinished at the time of his death. Bob de Moor was drafted in to complete the album, published in 1990. Jacobs has two stone sphinxes. One of them is in the Bois des Pauvres near Brussels, where his home used to stand, the other one is over his tomb at the Lasne cemetery near Brussels; the cemetery sphinx has a "collar" beard, his face looks a lot like Philip Mortimer, the protagonist of most of the Jacobs albums.
Jacobs’ style varies from one album to another. There are however many common threads, such as the theme of subterranean descent and the consistent Ligne claire drawing style. Le Rayon U, in 1943 Le Secret de l'Espadon, in 1947 Le Mystère de la Grande Pyramide, in 1950 La Marque Jaune, in 1953 L'Énigme de l'Atlantide, in 1955 S. O. S. Météores: Mortimer à Paris, in 1958 Le Piège diabolique in 1960 L'Affaire du Collier in 1965 Les trois Formules du Professeur Sato: Mortimer à Tokyo in 1970. Vol. 2 Mortimer contre Mortimer completed by Bob De Moor, 1990 1971: Grand Prix Saint-Michel, Belgium Footnotes E. P. Jacobs 2004 centenary
Ligne claire is a style of drawing created and pioneered by Hergé, the Belgian creator of The Adventures of Tintin. It uses clear strong lines all of the same width and no hatching, while contrast is downplayed as well. Cast shadows are illuminate. Additionally, the style features strong colours and a combination of cartoonish characters against a realistic background. All these elements together can result in giving comics drawn this way a flat aspect; the name was coined by Joost Swarte in 1977. Hergé started out drawing in a much looser, rougher style, influenced by American comic strip artists of the late 1920s and 1930s, such as Gluyas Williams and George McManus; however the precise lines which characterize most of his work, are in place from early on. For Hergé, the style was not limited to the drawings but extended to the story: the plot must be straightforward. Much of the "Brussels school" started to use this style, notably Edgar P. Jacobs, Bob de Moor, Roger Leloup, Jacques Martin, many of whom worked for Tintin magazine.
The ligne claire style achieved its highest popularity in the 1950s, but its influence started to wane in the 1960s and was seen as old-fashioned by the new generation of comic book artists. In the late 1970s, it experienced a resurgence of interest due to Dutch artists like Joost Swarte and Theo van den Boogaard, who had come up through the Dutch underground comics scene, as well as the French artist Jacques Tardi. Henk Kuijpers was successful in his application of the style. Throughout the 1980s, Yves Chaland, Ted Benoit, Serge Clerc and Floc'h relaunched the ligne claire style in France; this incarnation was a stylistic and artistic variation, which the artists utilized for illustrating posters and LP covers etc. Swarte dubbed this variant "atoomstijl". Contemporary use of the ligne claire is ironic or post-modern. For example, Van den Boogaard used the simple, clear style to set up a conflict with the amorality of his characters, while Tardi used it in his Adèle Blanc-Sec series to create a nostalgic atmosphere, ruthlessly undercut by the story.
A recent serious clear line artist is the Dutchman Peter van Dongen, who created the Rampokan series about the Dutch colonisation of Indonesia. Ligne claire is not confined to Franco-Belgian comics. British artists such as Martin Handford, Bryan Talbot and Garen Ewing; the Adventures of Tintin Jo, Zette and Jocko Quick and Flupke Jommeke — Jef Nys The Adventures of Freddy Lombard — Yves Chaland Alix — Jacques Martin Barelli — Bob de Moor Berlin — Jason Lutes Bingo Bongo et son Combo Congolais — Ted Benoît Blake and Mortimer — Edgar P. Jacobs César and Jessica Franka — Henk Kuijpers Hector and Dexter — Joost Swarte Julian Opie's Portraits — Julian Opie Kurt Dunder — Frank Madsen Professor Palmboom — Dick Briel The Rainbow Orchid — Garen Ewing Jimmy Corrigan, the Smartest Kid on Earth — Chris Ware Shutterbug Follies — Jason Little Spike and Suzy — Willy Vandersteen Tintin pastiches — Yves Rodier Where's Wally? — Martin Handford Yoko Tsuno — Roger Leloup How to Understand Israel in 60 Days or Less — Sarah Glidden Sjef van Oekel — Theo van den Boogaard The Property — Rutu Modan Franco-Belgian comics Marcinelle school – a contemporary, contrasting style Klare lijn international — News on ligne claire comics Hergé & The Clear Line: Part 1
Vercingetorix was a king and chieftain of the Arverni tribe. Vercingetorix was the son of leader of the Gallic tribes. Vercingetorix came to power after his formal designation as chieftain of the Arverni at the oppidum Gergovia in 52 BC, he established an alliance with other Gallic tribes, took command and combined all forces, led them in the Celts' most significant revolt against Roman power. He won the Battle of Gergovia against Julius Caesar in which several thousand Romans and allies died and Caesar's Roman legions withdrew. However, Caesar had been able to exploit Gaulish internal division to subjugate the country, Vercingetorix's attempt to unite the Gauls against Roman invasion came too late. At the Battle of Alesia, the Romans defeated his forces. In order to save as many of his men as possible, he gave himself to the Romans, he was held prisoner for five years. In 46 BC, as part of Caesar's triumph, Vercingetorix was paraded through the streets of Rome and executed by strangulation on Caesar's orders.
Vercingetorix is known through Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War. To this day, Vercingetorix is considered a folk hero in his native region. Vercingetorix derives from the Gaulish ver-, cingeto-, rix, thus either "great warrior king" or "king of great warriors". In his Life of Caesar, Plutarch renders the name as Vergentorix. Having been appointed governor of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis in 58 BC, Julius Caesar proceeded to conquer the Gallic tribes beyond over the next few years, maintaining control through a careful divide and rule strategy, he made use of the factionalism among the Gallic elites, favouring certain noblemen over others with political support and Roman luxuries such as wine. Attempts at revolt, such as that of Ambiorix in 54 BC, had secured only local support, but Vercingetorix, whose father, had been put to death by his own countrymen for seeking to rule all of Gaul, managed to unify the Gallic tribes against the Romans and adopted more current styles of warfare.
The revolt that Vercingetorix came to lead began in early 52 BC while Caesar was raising troops in Cisalpine Gaul. Believing that Caesar would be distracted by the turmoil in Rome following the death of Publius Clodius Pulcher, the Carnutes, under Cotuatus and Conetodunus, made the first move, slaughtering the Romans who had settled in their territory. Vercingetorix, a young nobleman of the Arvernian city of Gergovia, roused his dependents to join the revolt, but he and his followers were expelled by Vercingetorix's uncle Gobanitio and the rest of the nobles because they thought opposing Caesar was too great a risk. Undeterred, Vercingetorix raised an army of the poor, took Gergovia, was hailed as king, he made alliances with other tribes, having been unanimously given supreme command of their armies, imposed his authority through harsh discipline and the taking of hostages. He adopted the policy of retreating to natural fortifications, undertook an early example of a scorched earth strategy by burning towns to prevent the Roman legions from living off the land.
Vercingetorix scorched much of the land marching north with his army from Gergovia in an attempt to deprive Caesar of the resources and safe haven of the towns and villages along Caesar's march south. However, the capital of the Bituriges, Avaricum, a Gallic settlement directly in Caesar's path, was spared. Due to the town's strong protests defendable terrain, strong man-made reinforcing defenses, Vercingetorix decided against razing and burning it. Leaving the town to its fate, Vercingetorix camped well outside of Avaricum and focused on conducting harassing engagements of the advancing Roman units led by Caesar and his chief lieutenant Titus Labienus. Upon reaching Avaricum however, the Romans laid siege and captured the capital. Afterwards, in a contemptuous reprisal for 25 days of hunger and of laboring over the siegeworks required to breach Avaricum's defenses, the Romans slaughtered nearly the entire population of some 40,000, leaving only about 800 alive; the next major battle was at capital city of the Arverni and Vercingetorix.
During that battle and his warriors crushed Caesar's legions and allies, inflicting heavy losses. Vercingetorix decided to follow Caesar but suffered heavy losses during a cavalry battle and he retreated and moved to another stronghold, Alesia. In the Battle of Alesia, Caesar built a fortification around the city to besiege it. However, Caesar's army was surrounded by the rest of Gaul, Vercingetorix had summoned his Gallic allies to attack the besieging Romans, so Caesar built another outer fortification against the expected relief armies; the relief came in insufficient numbers: estimates range from 80,000 to 250,000 soldiers. Vercingetorix, the tactical leader, was cut off from them on the inside, without his guidance the attacks were unsuccessful. However, the attacks did reveal a weak point in the fortifications and the combined forces on the inside and the outside made a breakthrough. Only when Caesar led the last reserves into battle did he manage to prevail; this was a decisive battle in the creation of the Roman Empire.
According to Plutarch, Caes. 27.8-10
Belgian Comic Strip Center
The Belgian Comic Strip Center is a museum in Brussels dedicated to Belgian comics. It is located on rue des Sables/Zandstraat 20, is served by the Brussels-Congress railway station; the building was designed in 1905 by world-famous architect Victor Horta in Art Nouveau style and served as a textile department store, the Magasins Waucquez. After Waucquez's death in 1920, the building began to languish away, in 1970, the firm closed its doors. Jean Delhaye, a former aid of Horta, saved the building from demolition, by 16 October 1975, it was designated as a protected monument. Still, the building was in bad victim to a lot of vandalism. In 1980, architect Jean Breydel and comics artists François Schuiten, Bob de Moor, Alain Baran, Guy Dessicy and Hergé planned to restore the building and give it a new destination as a museum dedicated to the history of Belgian comics; the museum would be a homage to Hergé, but he suggested honoring the entire Belgian comics industry. In 1983, Belgian Minister of Public Works Louis Olivier decided that the building would be bought by the Direction of Buildings, making it national property.
In 1984, a fund was founded which brought together several Walloon comics artists. Two years the restorations began, with respect for the original architecture, while updating it to modern standards; the mosaics were flown over from Italy and constructed by Italian mosaic workers, because the profession had become obsolete in Belgium. On 6 October 1989, the museum was inaugurated in the presence of King Baudouin of Belgium and Queen Fabiola of Belgium. In the Autumn of 2015, the museum started redecorating its permanent exhibition; the ground floor of the museum holds a restaurant, a room dedicated to Victor Horta, a comics' store named "Slumberland" after Little Nemo in Slumberland, a library with a reading room and a study centre. The first floor has an auditorium, a room with original comic book pages by various artists and a room dedicated to animation, more the Belgian animation industry, such as Belvision; the second floor has a permanent exhibition dedicated to the chronological history of the medium in Belgium called "The Museum of Imagination".
The exhibit starts off with Hergé and ends with Peyo, covering the pioneers of Belgian comics between 1929 and 1958 and with special focus on the magazines Spirou and Tintin. Each artist has a room designed in a playful way; the final floor is dedicated to the merchandising of comics and available for provisional exhibitions. Four artists exhibited are Flemish: Marc Sleen, Bob de Moor and Morris; the rest are Walloon, except for Jacques Martin and Tibet who were born in France, but published in Tintin. Hergé - Jijé - Edgar P. Jacobs - Willy Vandersteen - Marc Sleen - Maurice Tillieux - Bob De Moor - André Franquin - Jacques Martin - Morris - Paul Cuvelier - Victor Hubinon - Tibet - Raymond Macherot - Jean Roba - Peyo - Since 2009, directly across the Belgian comics museum, in the same street, another comics-themed museum can be found, the Marc Sleen Museum, dedicated to the work of Belgian comics artist Marc Sleen. Brussels' Comic Book Route Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum Fred Waring Cartoon Collection Michigan State University Comic Art Collection Museum of Comic and Cartoon Art Belgian Centre for Comic Strip Art official website
A commemorative plaque, or plaque, or in other places referred to as a historical marker or historic plaque, is a plate of metal, stone, wood, or other material attached to a wall, stone, or other vertical surface, bearing text or an image in relief, or both, to commemorate one or more persons, an event, a former use of the place, or some other thing. Many modern plaques and markers are used to associate the location where the plaque or marker is installed with the person, event, or item commemorated as a place worthy of visit. A monumental plaque or tablet commemorating a deceased person or persons, can be a simple form of church monument. Most modern plaques affixed in this way are commemorative of something, but this is not always the case, there are purely religious plaques, or those signifying ownership or affiliation of some sort. A plaquette is a small plaque, but in English, unlike many European languages, the term is not used for outdoor plaques fixed to walls; the Benin Empire, which flourished in present-day Nigeria between the thirteenth and nineteenth centuries, had an exceedingly rich sculptural tradition.
One of the kingdom's chief sites of cultural production was the elaborate ceremonial court of the Oba at the palace in Benin. Among the wide range of artistic forms produced at the court were rectangular brass or bronze plaques. At least a portion of these plaques, which were created from the thirteenth through sixteenth centuries, commemorate significant persons and events associated with the Oba's court, including important battles during Benin's sixteenth century expansionary period. Brass or bronze memorial plaques were produced throughout medieval Europe from at least the early thirteenth through the sixteenth centuries as a form of sepulchral memorial inset into the walls of churches or surfaces of tombs. Surviving in great numbers, they were manufactured from sheet brass or latten occasionally coloured with enamels, tend to depict conventional figures with brief inscriptions. Historical markers are put on display by the owners of sites listed by national agencies concerned with historic preservation such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation and the National Register of Historic Places, the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, An Taisce, National Historical Commission of the Philippines, the National Trusts of other countries.
Other historical markers are created by local municipalities, non-profit organizations, companies, or individuals. In addition to geographically defined regions, individual organizations, such as E Clampus Vitus or the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, can choose to maintain a national set of historical markers that fit a certain theme; the Royal Society of Arts established the first scheme in the world for historical commemoration on plaques in 1866. The scheme was established under the influence of the British politician William Ewart and the civil servant Henry Cole; the first plaque was unveiled in 1867 to commemorate Lord Byron at his birthplace, 24 Holles Street, Cavendish Square. The earliest historical marker to survive, commemorates Napoleon III in King Street, St James's, was put up in 1867; the original plaque colour was blue, but this was changed by the manufacturer Minton, Hollins & Co to chocolate brown to save money. In 1901, the scheme was first taken over by the local government authority - the London County Council.
Bundesdenkmalamt Institut du Patrimoine National Historic Sites of Canada Index: National Historic Sites of Canada National Monuments of Chile Monument historique Plaque commémorative Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz Kulturdenkmal Declared monuments of Hong Kong List of Grade I historic buildings in Hong Kong List of Grade II historic buildings in Hong Kong List of Grade III historic buildings in Hong Kong Fondo per l'Ambiente Italiano Rijksmonument New Zealand Historic Places Trust National Monuments of Singapore Kulturgüterschutz — or: Protection des biens culturels. They are installed by the National Historical Commission of the Philippines; this practice started in 1933, with NHCP's predecessor, the Philippine Historical Research and Markers Committee, which only marked antiquities in Manila. The initial markers were placed in 1934. Markers have their texts in Filipino, while there are markers in the English language for markers that were installed during the American occupation. Markers in regional languages such as Cebuano and Kapampangan, are available and issued by the NHCP.
Markers are found all over the country, there have been markers installed outside the country. The plaques themselves are permanent signs installed in publicly visible locations on buildings, monuments, or in special locations. There are more than 1,500 markers to date. Most markers are located within Luzon in Metro Manila, which has prompted the NHCP to install more markers in Visayas and Mindanao, for their greater inclusion in the national historical narrative. Issues and controversies have been the concern of several individual markers, from the commemoration of the late dictator Ferdinand Marcos to the reaction of the Japanese embassy to the comfort women statue and marker. There have been some markers replaced by new ones because of rectified information, theft, or loss due to war or disasters. Many American-era mark
Joost Swarte is a Dutch cartoonist and graphic designer. He is best known for his ligne claire or clear line style of drawing, in fact coined the term. Comic series and characters by Swarte include Katoen en Pinbal, Jopo de Pojo, Anton Makassar, Dr Ben Cine and Niet Zo, Maar Zo- Passi, Messa, he is however more famous for his numerous drawings, posters, cards, LP and CD covers, for his magazine covers Swarte, born 24 December 1947 in Heemstede, studied industrial design in Eindhoven and started drawing comics in the late sixties. In 1971 he started his own comic magazine Modern Papier and made regular contributions to the Dutch comic magazine Tante Leny Presenteert. International recognition started around 1980 when Swarte took part for the first time in the international comic show Salon International de la Bande Dessinée in Angoulême, his work has been translated into English, Spanish and German. Swarte, Hors Serie, a survey of his work, was published by Futuropolis in 1984. In 1985, he founded the publishing house Blik with Hansje Joustra.
Joost published his own comics and silkscreens, as well as books by other cartoonists and a large number of Dutch translations of foreign comics. In 1992, Swarte initiated a biennial international comic event held in Haarlem. In recent years, Swarte has created many illustrations for the New Yorker magazine. In 2007 Swarte, a former scout, designed the Dutch 2007 Europa stamp with the subject one hundred years of scouting. Swarte has produced a restored collection of all of his comics work, an English-language version of which will be released in late 2011 by Fantagraphics Books under the title Is That All There Is?. Apart from comics and graphic design, Swarte has designed furniture and stained glass windows and other objects. For his hometown Haarlem he designed a theatre building, built in cooperation with Mecanoo Architects. Swarte received numerous international prizes for his work. In 2004, Joost Swarte received a knighthood from Her Majesty Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands. 1981: Best Foreign Artist at the Prix Saint-Michel, Belgium 1998: Stripschapprijs, Netherlands 2008: Communication Arts Award of Excellence, United States Official website Bookmarks designed by Joost Swarte