The Art of War

The Art of War is an ancient Chinese military treatise dating from the Late Spring and Autumn Period. The work, attributed to the ancient Chinese military strategist Sun Tzu, is composed of 13 chapters; each one is devoted to an aspect of warfare. For 1,500 years it was the lead text in an anthology that would be formalised as the Seven Military Classics by Emperor Shenzong of Song in 1080; the Art of War remains the most influential strategy text in East Asian warfare and has influenced both Eastern and Western military thinking, business tactics, legal strategy and beyond. The book contained a detailed explanation and analysis of the Chinese military, from weapons and strategy to rank and discipline. Sun Tzu stressed the importance of intelligence operatives and espionage to the war effort; because Sun Tzu has long been considered to be one of history's finest military tacticians and analysts, his teachings and strategies formed the basis of advanced military training for centuries to come.

The book was translated into French and published in 1772 by the French Jesuit Jean Joseph Marie Amiot. A partial translation into English was attempted by British officer Everard Ferguson Calthrop in 1905 under the title The Book of War; the first annotated English translation was completed and published by Lionel Giles in 1910. Military and political leaders such as the Chinese communist revolutionary Mao Zedong, Japanese daimyō Takeda Shingen, Vietnamese general Võ Nguyên Giáp, American military general Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. have drawn inspiration from the book. The Art of War is traditionally attributed to a military general from the late 6th century BC known as "Master Sun", though its earliest parts date to at least 100 years later. Sima Qian's 1st century BC work Records of the Grand Historian, the first of China's 24 dynastic histories, records an early Chinese tradition stating that a text on military matters was written by one "Sun Wu" from the State of Qi, that this text had been read and studied by King Helü of Wu.

This text was traditionally identified with the received Master Sun's Art of War. The conventional view—which is still held in China—was that Sun Wu was a military theorist from the end of the Spring and Autumn period who fled his home state of Qi to the southeastern kingdom of Wu, where he is said to have impressed the king with his ability to train dainty palace ladies in warfare and to have made Wu's armies powerful enough to challenge their western rivals in the state of Chu; the strategist and warlord Cao Cao in the early 3rd century AD authored the earliest known commentary to the Art of War. Cao's preface makes clear that he edited the text and removed certain passages, but the extent of his changes were unclear historically; the Art of War appears throughout the bibliographical catalogs of the Chinese dynastic histories, but listings of its divisions and size varied widely. In the early 20th century, the Chinese writer and reformer Liang Qichao theorized that the text was written in the 4th century BC by Sunzi's purported descendant Sun Bin, as a number of historical sources mention a military treatise he wrote.

Around the 12th century, some scholars began to doubt the historical existence of Sunzi on the grounds that he is not mentioned in the historical classic The Commentary of Zuo, which mentions most of the notable figures from the Spring and Autumn period. The name "Sun Wu" does not appear in any text prior to the Records of the Grand Historian, has been suspected to be a made-up descriptive cognomen meaning "the fugitive warrior": the surname "Sun" is glossed as the related term "fugitive", while "Wu" is the ancient Chinese virtue of "martial, valiant", which corresponds to Sunzi's role as the hero's doppelgänger in the story of Wu Zixu. Unlike Sun Wu, Sun Bin appears to have been an actual person, a genuine authority on military matters, may have been the inspiration for the creation of the historical figure "Sunzi" through a form of euhemerism. In 1972, the Yinqueshan Han slips were discovered in two Han dynasty tombs near the city of Linyi in Shandong Province. Among the many bamboo slip writings contained in the tombs, sealed between 134 and 118 BC were two separate texts, one attributed to "Sunzi", corresponding to the received text, another attributed to Sun Bin, which explains and expands upon the earlier The Art of War by Sunzi.

The Sun Bin text's material overlaps with much of the "Sunzi" text, the two may be "a single, continuously developing intellectual tradition united under the Sun name". This discovery showed that much of the historical confusion was due to the fact that there were two texts that could have been referred to as "Master Sun's Art of War", not one; the content of the earlier text is about one-third of the chapters of the modern The Art of War, their text matches closely. It is now accepted that the earlier The Art of War was completed sometime between 500 and 430 BC; the Art of War is divided into 13 chapters. Verses from the book occur in modern daily Chinese idioms and phrases, such as the last verse of Chapter 3: 故曰:知彼知己,百戰不殆;不知彼而知己,一勝一負;不知彼,不知己,每戰必殆。 Hence the saying: If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a hundred battles. If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every victory gained you will suffer a defeat. If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, you


Bötersen is a municipality in the district of Rotenburg, in Lower Saxony, Germany. Bötersen belonged to the Prince-Bishopric of Verden, established in 1180. In 1648 the Prince-Bishopric was transformed into the Principality of Verden, first ruled in personal union by the Swedish Crown - interrupted by a Danish occupation - and from 1715 on by the Hanoverian Crown. In 1807 the ephemeral Kingdom of Westphalia annexed the Principality, before France annexed it in 1810. In 1813 the Principality was restored to the Electorate of Hanover, which - after its upgrade to the Kingdom of Hanover in 1814 - incorporated the Principality in a real union and the Princely territory, including Bötersen, became part of the new Stade Region, established in 1823

Suraj Chapagain

Suraj Chapagain is a Nepalese comedy actor, script writer, director. He is one of the main characters of the Nepalese TV series Meri Bassai, named "Bandre". Chapagain was born on 16 January 1984 in Nepal, his father died. After studying at Shree Sharswati Higher Secondary School up to 10th grade, he ran away from home to Kathmandu with his friends and started as a sales man, hoping to become a professional actor and a comedian someday. Chapagain started his career from a hit comedy show called Hijo Aja Kaa Kura, he worked in Thorai Bhaye Pugisari. After that, he started to act in Meri Bassai as the character "Bandre", the role for which he became well known, he has visited many places around the world to perform comedy. Hijo Aja Kaa Kura Thorai Bhaye Pugisari Meri Bassai Gaai Ki Trishul