Waylon Arnold Jennings was an American singer and musician. In 1958, Buddy Holly arranged Jennings's first recording session, hired him to play bass. Jennings gave up his seat on the ill-fated flight in 1959 that crashed and killed Holly, J. P. "The Big Bopper" Richardson and Ritchie Valens. During the 1970s, Jennings was instrumental in the inception of Outlaw country movement, recorded country music's first platinum album, Wanted! The Outlaws with Willie Nelson, Tompall Glaser, Jessi Colter. Jennings began playing guitar at eight and began performing at 12 on KVOW radio, after which he formed his first band, The Texas Longhorns. Jennings left high school at 16, determined to become a musician, bounced around as a performer and DJ on KVOW, KDAV, KYTI, KLLL, in Coolidge and Phoenix, he formed a rockabilly club band, The Waylors, enjoyed a residency at "JD's", a club in Scottsdale Arizona. He recorded for independent label Trend Records and A&M Records, but did not achieve success until moving to RCA Victor, taking on Neil Reshen as manager, who negotiated better touring and recording contracts for him.
After wresting creative control from RCA Victor, his career turning point became the critically acclaimed albums Lonesome, On'ry and Mean and Honky Tonk Heroes followed by hit albums Dreaming My Dreams as well as Are You Ready for the Country. 1976's platinum certified Wanted! The Outlaws was followed by Ol' Waylon and the hit song "Luckenbach, Texas". Jennings was featured in the 1978 album White Mansions performed by various artists documenting the lives of people in the Confederacy during the Civil War; the songs on the album were written by Paul Kennerley. Jennings appeared in films and television series, including Sesame Street, a stint as the balladeer for The Dukes of Hazzard and singing the show's theme song and providing narration for the show. By the early 1980s, Jennings was struggling with a cocaine addiction, which he overcame in 1984, he joined the country supergroup The Highwaymen with Willie Nelson, Kris Kristofferson, Johnny Cash, which released three albums between 1985 and 1995.
During that period, Jennings released the successful album Will the Wolf Survive. He toured less after 1997 to spend more time with his family. Between 1999 and 2001, his appearances were limited by health problems. In 2001, he was inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame. On February 13, 2002, Jennings died from complications of diabetes. In 2007, he was posthumously awarded the Cliffie Stone Pioneer Award by the Academy of Country Music. Waylon Jennings was born on June 15, 1937, on the G. W. Bitner farm, near Littlefield, Texas; the Jennings family line descended from Black-Dutch. Meanwhile, the Shipley family settled in Texas; the Shipley line descended from Comanche families. The name on his birth certificate was Wayland, his name was changed after a Baptist preacher visited Jennings's parents and congratulated his mother for naming him after the Wayland Baptist University in Plainview, Texas. Lorene Jennings, unaware of the college, changed the spelling to Waylon. Jennings expressed in his autobiography, "I didn't like Waylon.
It sounded corny and hillbilly, but it's been good to me, I'm pretty well at peace with it right now."After working as a laborer on the Bitner farm, Jennings's father moved the family to Littlefield and established a retail creamery. When Jennings was eight, his mother taught him to play guitar with the tune "Thirty Pieces of Silver". Jennings used to practice with his relatives' guitars, until his mother bought him a used Stella, ordered a Harmony Patrician. Early influences were Bob Wills, Floyd Tillman, Ernest Tubb, Hank Williams, Carl Smith, Elvis Presley. Beginning at family gatherings, Jennings advanced to perform at the Youth Center with Anthony Bonanno, followed by appearances at the local Jaycees and Lions Clubs, he won a talent show at Channel 13, in Lubbock, singing "Hey Joe". He made frequent performances at the Palace Theater in Littlefield, during local talent night. At 12 years, Jennings auditioned for a spot on KVOW in Texas. Owner J. B. McShan, along with Emil Macha, recorded Jennings's performance.
McShan hired him for a weekly 30-minute program. Following this successful introduction, Jennings formed his own band, he asked Macha to play bass for him, gathered other friends and acquaintances to form The Texas Longhorns. The style of the band, a mixture of Country and Western and Bluegrass music, was not well received. At age 16, after several disciplinary infractions, tenth-grader Jennings was convinced to drop out of high school by the superintendent. Upon leaving school, he worked for his father in the produce store taking temporary jobs. Jennings felt that his favorite activity, would turn into his career; the next year and The Texas Longhorns recorded a demo of the songs "Stranger in My Home" and "There'll Be a New Day" at KFYO radio in Lubbock. Meanwhile, he drove a truck for the Thomas Land Lumber Company, a concrete truck for the Roberts Lumber Company. Tired of the owner, after a minor driving accident, Jennings quit. Jennings, other local musicians performed at country radio station KDAV, it is during this time he met Buddy Holly at a Lubbock restaurant.
The two met during local shows, Jennings began to attend Holly's performances on KDAV's Sunday Party. In addition to performing on air for KVOW, Jennings started to work as a DJ in 1956, moved to Lubbock, his program ran from 4:00 in the afternoon to 10:00 in the evening. Jennings played
Fort Ord is a former United States Army post on Monterey Bay of the Pacific Ocean coast in California, which closed in 1994 due to Base Realignment and Closure action. Most of the fort's land now makes up the Fort Ord National Monument, managed by the United States Bureau of Land Management as part of the National Conservation Lands, while a small portion remains an active military installation under Army control designated as the Ord Military Community. Before construction and official designation as a fort in 1940, the land was used as a maneuver area and field-artillery target range during 1917. Fort Ord was considered one of the most attractive locations of any U. S. Army post, because of its proximity to California weather; the 7th Infantry Division was its main garrison for many years. When Fort Ord was converted to civilian use, space was set aside for the first nature reserve in the United States created for conservation of an insect, the endangered Smith's blue butterfly. Additional endangered species are found on Fort Ord, including Contra Costa goldfields and the threatened California tiger salamander.
While much of the old military buildings and infrastructure remain abandoned, many structures have been torn down for anticipated development. California State University, Monterey Bay and the Fort Ord Dunes State Park, along with some subdivisions, the Veterans Transition Center, a commercial strip mall, a tandem skydiving drop zone, military facilities and a nature preserve occupy the area today. On April 20, 2012, President Barack Obama signed a proclamation designating a 14,651-acre portion of the former post as the Fort Ord National Monument. In his proclamation, the President stated that, "The protection of the Fort Ord area will maintain its historical and cultural significance, attract tourists and recreationalists from near and far, enhance its unique natural resources, for the enjoyment of all Americans." After the American entry into World War I, land was purchased just north of the city of Monterey along Monterey Bay for use as an artillery training field for the United States Army by the U.
S. Department of War; the area was known as the Gigling Reservation, U. S. Field Artillery Area, Presidio of Monterey and Gigling Field Artillery Range. Although military development and construction was just beginning, the War only lasted for another year and a half until the armistice in November 11, 1918. Despite a great demobilization of the U. S. Armed Forces during the inter-war years of the 1920s and 1930s, by 1933, the artillery field became Camp Ord, named in honor of Union Army Maj. Gen. Edward Otho Cresap Ord. Horse cavalry units trained on the camp until the military began to mechanize and train mobile combat units such as tanks, armored personnel carriers and movable artillery. By 1940, the 23-year-old Camp Ord was expanded to 2,000 acres, with the realization that the two-year-old conflict of World War II could soon cross the Atlantic Ocean to involve America. In August 1940, it was re-designated Fort Ord and the 7th Infantry Division was reactivated, becoming the first major unit to occupy the post.
In 1941, Camp Ord became Fort Ord. But soon the first threat came from the west as the Imperial Japanese Navy struck at U. S. naval and military bases on the islands of Hawaii at Pearl Harbor near Honolulu and in the Philippines in a sneak air attack, December 7, 1941. In a few days the other Axis powers of dictators Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany, along with Fascist Italy of Benito Mussolini and spread their war in Europe against Great Britain and France and the Low Countries to the U. S. With the end of the war with the surrenders of Germany in May and Japan in September 1945, the soon onset of a Cold War against the Soviet Union continued for the next forty some years to the early 1990s. In 1947, Fort Ord became the home of the 4th Replacement Training Center. During the 1950s and 1960s, Fort Ord was a staging area for units departing for war in the Korean War and peacetime/occupation duty in Japan, South Korea and the Philippines and Thailand; when Southeast Asia became a war zone with Vietnam, the United States had, at one time, 50,000 troops on the installation.
The 194th Armored Brigade was activated there under Combat Development Command in 1957, but departed for Fort Knox in Kentucky in 1960. In 1957, land on the eastern side of the post was used to create the Laguna Seca Raceway which served to replace the Pebble Beach road racing course that ceased operations for safety reasons in that same year; the post continued as a center for instruction of basic and advanced infantrymen until 1976, when the training area was deactivated and Fort Ord again became the home of the 7th Infantry Division, following their return from South Korea after twenty-five years on the DMZ. In 1988, the "Base Realignment and Closure" legislation considering the post-Cold War era was passed by the Congress, under 41st President George H. W. Bush. On July 14, 1989, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed placement of Fort Ord on the National Priorities List; the site contained leaking petroleum underground storage tanks, a 150-acre landfill, used to dispose of residential waste and small amounts of commercial waste generated by the base, a former fire drill area, motor pool maintenance areas, small dump sites, small arms target ranges, an 8,000-acre firing range, other limited areas that posed threats from unexploded ordnance.
NPL status was finalized on February 21, 1990. The final basic training classes were held in 1990. In 1991, the decision to close Fort Ord was made. In 1994, Fort Ord was closed; the Fort w
The Beechcraft Bonanza is an American general aviation aircraft introduced in 1947 by Beech Aircraft Corporation of Wichita, Kansas. The six-seater, single-engined aircraft is still being produced by Beechcraft and has been in continuous production longer than any other airplane in history. More than 17,000 Bonanzas of all variants have been built, produced in both distinctive V-tail and conventional tail configurations. At the end of World War II, two all-metal light aircraft emerged, the Model 35 Bonanza and the Cessna 195, that represented different approaches to the premium end of the postwar civil-aviation market. With its high-wing, seven-cylinder radial engine, fixed tailwheel undercarriage, roll-down side windows, the Cessna 195 was little more than a continuation of prewar technology. Designed by a team led by Ralph Harmon, the model 35 Bonanza was a fast, low-wing monoplane at a time when most light aircraft were still made of wood and fabric; the Model 35 featured retractable landing gear, its signature V-tail, which made it both efficient and the most distinctive private aircraft in the sky.
The prototype 35 Bonanza made its first flight on December 22, 1945, with the first production aircraft debuting as 1947 models. The first 30–40 Bonanzas produced had fabric-covered flaps and ailerons, after which those surfaces were covered with magnesium alloy sheet. Three major variants comprised the Bonanza family: Model 35 Bonanza Model 33 Debonair Model 36 Bonanza The ICAO aircraft type designators for the three variants are BE35, BE33, BE36 respectively; the basic Bonanza fuselage was used for the twin-engined Travel Air, developed into the Baron. Despite its name, the Twin Bonanza uses a different fuselage and is dissimilar to the single-engined Bonanza. All Bonanzas share an unusual feature: The yoke and rudder pedals are interconnected by a system of bungee cords that assist in keeping the airplane in coordinated flight during turns; the bungee system allows the pilot to make coordinated turns using the yoke alone, or with minimal rudder input, during cruise flight. Increased right-rudder pressure is still required on takeoff to overcome P-factor.
In the landing phase, the bungee system must be overridden by the pilot when making crosswind landings, which require cross-controlled inputs to keep the nose of the airplane aligned with the runway centerline without drifting left or right. This feature persists on the current production model; the V-tail design gained a reputation as the "forked-tail doctor killer", due to crashes by overconfident wealthy amateur pilots, fatal accidents, inflight breakups. "Doctor killer" has sometimes been used to describe the conventional-tailed version, as well. However, a detailed analysis by the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association of accident records for common single-engine retractable-gear airplanes in the United States between 1982 and 1989 demonstrated that the Bonanza had a lower accident rate than other types in the study. Pilot error was cited in 73% of V-tail crashes and 83% of conventional-tail crashes, with aircraft-related causes accounting for 15% and 11% of crashes respectively. However, the study noted that the aircraft had an unusually high incidence of gear-up landings and inadvertent gear retractions on the ground, which were attributed to a non-standard gear-retraction switch on early models, confused with the switch that operates the flaps.
1984 and models use a more distinctive relocated landing-gear switch, augmented by "squat switches" in the landing gear that prevent its operation while compressed by the aircraft's weight, a throttle position switch that prevents gear retraction at low engine power settings. In the late 1980s, repeated V-tail structural failures prompted the United States Department of Transportation and Federal Aviation Administration to conduct extensive wind tunnel and flight tests, which proved that the V-tail did not meet type certification standards under certain conditions. Despite this, Beech has long contended that most V-tail failures involve operations well beyond the aircraft's intended flight envelope. Subsequent analysis of National Transportation Safety Board accident records between 1962 and 2007 revealed an average of three V-tail structural failures per year, while the conventional-tailed Bonanza 33 and 36 suffered only eleven such failures during the same time period. Most V-tail failures involved flight under visual flight rules into instrument meteorological conditions, flight into thunderstorms, or airframe icing.
In addition to the structural issues, the Bonanza 35 has a narrow center of gravity envelope, the tail design is intolerant of imbalances caused by damage, improper maintenance, or repainting. Despite these issues, many Bonanza 35 owners insist that the aircraft is reasonably safe, its reputation has lessened acquisition costs for budget-conscious buyers. In 1982, the production of the V-tail Bonanza stopped but the conventional-tail Model 33 continued in production until 1995. Still built t
George Glenn Jones was an American musician and songwriter. He achieved international fame for his long list of hit records, including his best known song "He Stopped Loving Her Today", as well as his distinctive voice and phrasing. For the last twenty years of his life, Jones was referred to as the greatest living country singer. Country music scholar Bill Malone writes, "For the two or three minutes consumed by a song, Jones immerses himself so in its lyrics, in the mood it conveys, that the listener can scarcely avoid becoming involved." Waylon Jennings expressed a similar opinion in his song "It's Alright": "If we all could sound like we wanted to, we'd all sound like George Jones." The shape of his nose and facial features earned Jones the nickname "The Possum."Born in Texas, Jones first heard country music when he was seven and was given a guitar at the age of nine. He married his first wife, Dorothy Bonvillion, in 1950, was divorced in 1951, he served in the United States Marine Corps and was discharged in 1953.
He married Shirley Ann Corley in 1954. In 1959, Jones recorded "White Lightning," written by J. P. Richardson, which launched his career as a singer, his second marriage ended in divorce in 1968. Years of alcoholism compromised his health and led to his missing many performances, earning him the nickname "No Show Jones." After his divorce from Wynette in 1975, Jones married his fourth wife, Nancy Sepulvado, in 1983 and became sober for good in 1999. Jones died in 2013, aged 81, from hypoxic respiratory failure. During his career, Jones had more than 150 hits, both as a solo artist and in duets with other artists. Robert Christgau has called him "honky-tonk's greatest honky". George Glenn Jones was born on September 12, 1931, in Saratoga and was raised in Colmesneil, with his brother and five sisters, his father, George Washington Jones, worked in a shipyard and played harmonica and guitar while his mother, played piano in the Pentecostal Church on Sundays. During his delivery, one of the doctors broke his arm.
When he was seven, his parents bought a radio and he heard country music for the first time. Jones recalled to Billboard in 2006 that he would lie in bed with his parents on Saturday nights listening to the Grand Ole Opry and insist that his mother wake him if he fell asleep so he could hear Roy Acuff or Bill Monroe. In his autobiography I Lived To Tell It All, Jones explains that the early death of his sister Ethel spurred on his father's drinking problem and, by all accounts, George Washington Jones could be physically and abusive to his wife and children when he drank. In the book George Jones: The Life and Times of a Honky Tonk Legend, Bob Allen recounts how George Washington Jones would return home in the middle of the night with his cronies roaring drunk, wake up a terrified George Glenn Jones and demand that he sing for them or face a beating. In a CMT episode of Inside Fame dedicated to Jones' life, country music historian Robert K. Oermann marveled, "You would think that it would make him not a singer, because it was so abusively thrust on him.
But the opposite happened. He became someone who had to sing." In the same program, Jones admitted that he remained ambivalent and resentful towards his father up until the day he died and observed in his autobiography "The Jones family makeup doesn't sit well with liquor... Daddy was an unusual drinker, he drank to excess but never while working, he was the hardest working man I've known." His father bought him his first guitar at age nine and he learned his first chords and songs at church and there are several photographs of a young George busking on the streets of Beaumont. He left home at 16 and went to Jasper, where he sang and played on the KTXJ radio station with fellow musician Dalton Henderson. From there, he worked at the KRIC radio station. During one such afternoon show, Jones met Hank Williams. In the 1989 video documentary Same Ole Me, Jones admitted, "I couldn't think or eat nothin' unless it was Hank Williams, I couldn't wait for his next record to come out, he had to be the greatest."
He married his first wife Dorothy Bonvillion in 1950, but they divorced in 1951. He was enlisted in the United States Marines until his discharge in 1953, he was stationed in San Jose, for his entire service. Jones married Shirley Ann Corley in 1954, his first record, the self-penned "No Money in This Deal", was recorded on January 19, appeared in February on Starday Records, beginning the singer's association with producer and mentor H. W. "Pappy" Daily. The song was cut in Starday Records' co-founder Jack Starnes' living room and produced by Starnes. Jones worked at KTRM in Beaumont around this time. Deejay Gordon Baxter told Nick Tosches that Jones acquired the nickname "possum" while working there: "One of the deejays there, Slim Watts, took to calling him George P. Willicker Picklepuss Possum Jones. For one thing, he cut his hair short, like a possum's belly, he had a possum's nose and stupid eyes, like a possum." During his early recording sessions, Daily admonished Jones for attempting to sound too much like his heroes Hank Williams and Lefty Frizzell.
In years, Jones would have little good to say about the music production at Starday, recalling to NPR in 1996 that "it was a terrible sound. We recorded in a small living room of a house on a highway near Beaumont. You could hear the trucks. We had to stop a lot of times because it wasn't soundproof, it was just egg crates nailed on the wall and the big old semi trucks would go by and make a
Richard Steven Valenzuela, known professionally as Ritchie Valens, was a Mexican American singer and guitarist. A rock and roll pioneer and a forefather of the Chicano rock movement, Valens' recording career lasted eight months, as it abruptly ended when he died in a plane crash. During this time, he had several hits, most notably "La Bamba", which he had adapted from a Mexican folk song. Valens transformed the song into one with a rock rhythm and beat, it became a hit in 1958, making Valens a pioneer of the Spanish-speaking rock and roll movement, he had the American number 2 hit"Donna". On February 3, 1959, on what has become known as "The Day the Music Died", Valens died in a plane crash in Iowa, an accident that claimed the lives of fellow musicians Buddy Holly and J. P. "The Big Bopper" Richardson, as well as pilot Roger Peterson. Valens was posthumously inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2001. Valens was born Richard Steven Valenzuela in Pacoima, a neighborhood in the San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles.
His parents, Joseph Steven Valenzuela and Concepcion "Concha" Reyes, were from Mexico. He was the second of five siblings with older brother Bob Morales, younger sisters Connie and Irma, younger brother Mario Ramirez. Valenzuela was brought up hearing traditional Mexican mariachi music, as well as flamenco guitar, R&B, jump blues. Valenzuela expressed an interest in making music of his own by the age of five, he was encouraged by his father to take up guitar and trumpet, taught himself the drums. Though Valenzuela was left-handed, he was so eager to learn the guitar that he mastered the traditionally right-handed version of the instrument. By the time Valenzuela was attending junior high school, he would bring his guitar to school and sing and play songs to his friends on the bleachers; when he was 16 years old, he was invited to join The Silhouettes. He began as a guitarist, when the main vocalist left the group, Valenzuela assumed the position. On October 19, 1957, he made his performing debut with The Silhouettes.
Valenzuela attended San Fernando High School. A self-taught musician, Valenzuela was guitarist. At his appearances, he improvised new lyrics and added new riffs to popular songs while he was playing. Bob Keane, the owner and president of small record label Del-Fi Records in Hollywood, was given a tip in May 1958 by San Fernando High School student Doug Macchia about a young performer from Pacoima by the name of Richard Valenzuela. Kids knew the performer as "the Little Richard of San Fernando". Swayed by the Little Richard comparison, Keane went to see Valenzuela play a Saturday morning matinée at a movie theater in San Fernando. Impressed by the performance, he invited the youth to audition at his home in the Silver Lake area of Los Angeles, where he had a small recording studio in his basement, his recording equipment comprised an early stereo recorder and a pair of Neumann U-47 condenser microphones. After this first audition, Keane signed Valenzuela to Del-Fi on May 27, 1958. At this point, the musician took the name "Ritchie" because, as Keane said, "There were a bunch of'Richards' around at that time, I wanted it to be different."
Keane recommended shortening his surname to "Valens" from Valenzuela to widen his appeal beyond any obvious ethnic group. Valens demonstrated several songs in Keane's studio that he recorded at Gold Star Studios in Hollywood; the demos consisted of Valens singing and playing guitar, but some of them featured drums. These originals can be heard on Ritchie Valens -- The Lost Tapes. Two of the tracks laid down in Keane's studio were taken to Gold Star Studios and had additional instruments dubbed over to create full-band recordings. "Donna" was one track, the other was an instrumental entitled "Ritchie's Blues". After several songwriting and demonstration recording sessions with Keane in his basement studio, Keane decided that Valens was ready to enter the studio with a full band backing him; the musicians included René Hall, Carol Kaye, Earl Palmer. The first songs recorded at Gold Star Studios, at a single studio session one afternoon in July 1958, were "Come On, Let's Go", an original, "Framed", a Leiber and Stoller tune.
Pressed and released within days of the recording session, the record was a success. Valens's next record, a double A-side, the final record to be released in his lifetime, had the song "Donna" coupled with "La Bamba", it sold over one million copies, was awarded a gold disc by the RIAA. By the autumn of 1958, the demands of Valens' career forced him to drop out of high school. Keane booked appearances at performances on television programs. Valens had a fear of flying due to a freak accident at his junior high school when, on January 31, 1957, two airplanes collided over the playground, killing or injuring several of his friends. Valens had been at his grandfather Frank Reyes' funeral that day, but was upset about the loss of his friends, he overcame his fear enough to travel by airplane for his career. He went to Philadelphia to appear on Dick Clark's American Bandstand television show on October 6, where he sang "Come On, Let's Go". In November, Valens flew to Hawaii, where he performed alongside Paul Anka.
Valens was added to the bill of legendary disc jockey Alan Freed's Christmas Jubi
Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s. It takes its roots from genres such as folk blues. Country music consists of ballads and dance tunes with simple forms, folk lyrics, harmonies accompanied by string instruments such as banjos and acoustic guitars, steel guitars, fiddles as well as harmonicas. Blues modes have been used extensively throughout its recorded history. According to Lindsey Starnes, the term country music gained popularity in the 1940s in preference to the earlier term hillbilly music. In 2009 in the United States, country music was the most listened to rush hour radio genre during the evening commute, second most popular in the morning commute; the term country music is used today to describe many subgenres. The origins of country music are found in the folk music of working class Americans, who blended popular songs and Celtic fiddle tunes, traditional English ballads, cowboy songs, the musical traditions of various groups of European immigrants.
Immigrants to the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America brought the music and instruments of Europe along with them for nearly 300 years. Country music was "introduced to the world as a Southern phenomenon." The U. S. Congress has formally recognized Bristol, Tennessee as the "Birthplace of Country Music", based on the historic Bristol recording sessions of 1927. Since 2014, the city has been home to the Birthplace of Country Music Museum. Historians have noted the influence of the less-known Johnson City sessions of 1928 and 1929, the Knoxville sessions of 1929 and 1930. In addition, the Mountain City Fiddlers Convention, held in 1925, helped to inspire modern country music. Before these, pioneer settlers, in the Great Smoky Mountains region, had developed a rich musical heritage; the first generation emerged in the early 1920s, with Atlanta's music scene playing a major role in launching country's earliest recording artists. New York City record label Okeh Records began issuing hillbilly music records by Fiddlin' John Carson as early as 1923, followed by Columbia Records in 1924, RCA Victor Records in 1927 with the first famous pioneers of the genre Jimmie Rodgers and the first family of country music The Carter Family.
Many "hillbilly" musicians, such as Cliff Carlisle, recorded blues songs throughout the 1920s. During the second generation, radio became a popular source of entertainment, "barn dance" shows featuring country music were started all over the South, as far north as Chicago, as far west as California; the most important was the Grand Ole Opry, aired starting in 1925 by WSM in Nashville and continuing to the present day. During the 1930s and 1940s, cowboy songs, or Western music, recorded since the 1920s, were popularized by films made in Hollywood. Bob Wills was another country musician from the Lower Great Plains who had become popular as the leader of a "hot string band," and who appeared in Hollywood westerns, his mix of country and jazz, which started out as dance hall music, would become known as Western swing. Wills was one of the first country musicians known to have added an electric guitar to his band, in 1938. Country musicians began recording boogie in 1939, shortly after it had been played at Carnegie Hall, when Johnny Barfield recorded "Boogie Woogie".
The third generation started at the end of World War II with "mountaineer" string band music known as bluegrass, which emerged when Bill Monroe, along with Lester Flatt and Earl Scruggs were introduced by Roy Acuff at the Grand Ole Opry. Gospel music remained a popular component of country music. Another type of stripped-down and raw music with a variety of moods and a basic ensemble of guitar, dobro or steel guitar became popular among poor whites in Texas and Oklahoma, it became known as honky tonk, had its roots in Western swing and the ranchera music of Mexico and the border states. By the early 1950s a blend of Western swing, country boogie, honky tonk was played by most country bands. Rockabilly was most popular with country fans in the 1950s, 1956 could be called the year of rockabilly in country music, with Johnny Cash emerging as one of the most popular and enduring representatives of the rockabilly genre. Beginning in the mid-1950s, reaching its peak during the early 1960s, the Nashville sound turned country music into a multimillion-dollar industry centered in Nashville, Tennessee.
The late 1960s in American music produced a unique blend as a result of traditionalist backlash within separate genres. In the aftermath of the British Invasion, many desired a return to the "old values" of rock n' roll. At the same time there was a lack of enthusiasm in the country sector for Nashville-produced music. What resulted was a crossbred genre known as country rock. Fourth generation music included outlaw country with roots in the Bakersfield sound, country pop with roots in the countrypolitan, folk music and soft rock. Between 1972 and 1975 singer/guitarist John Denver released a se
Lamar University referred to as Lamar or LU, is a public university in Beaumont, Texas. Lamar has been a member of the Texas State University System since 1995, it was the flagship institution of the former Lamar University System. As of the fall of 2016, the university enrollment was 15,022 students. Lamar University is accredited by the Southern Association of Schools; the university is named for Mirabeau B. Lamar, the second president of the Republic of Texas. Louis R. Pietzsch founded a public junior college in Beaumont's South Park, he had become intensely interested in the junior college movement while enrolled in summer school at the University of Chicago in 1918, by 1921, was convinced that South Park should have a junior college. Lamar University started on September 17, 1923 as South Park Junior College, operating on the unused third floor of the new South Park High School. Pietzsch acted as the first president of the college. South Park Junior College became the first college in Texas to receive Texas Department of Education approval during the first year of operation, became accredited in 1925.
In 1932, the college administration, recognizing that the junior college was serving the region rather than just the community, renamed it as Lamar College. It was named for Mirabeau B. Lamar, the second president of the Republic of Texas; because he arranged to set aside land in counties for public schools, he is regarded as the "Father of Texas Education." A statue of him was installed in the quadrangle of the campus near the Setzer Student Center. The inscription is: "The cultivated mind is the guardian genius of democracy and, while guided and controlled by virtue, the noblest attribute of man, it is the only dictator that freemen acknowledge and the only security that freemen desire." In 1933, the college was moving toward independence from South Park High School when construction began on new facilities. By 1942, the college was independent of the South Park school district, operations moved to the current campus. With the end of World War II, an influx of veterans boosted enrollment; the Lamar board of trustees asked the Texas Legislature to promote Lamar College to a four-year state college.
The initial attempt in 1947, led in the Texas House of Representatives by Jack Brooks and in the Texas Senate by W. R. Cousins, Jr. failed, but the following year the two sponsors again advanced the bill through both houses. On June 14, 1949, Governor Beauford Jester signed the bill creating Lamar State College of Technology. Enrollment continued reaching 10,000 students. Graduate work was authorized in 1960; the enrollment plateaued in the 1970s. In 1969, Lamar State College opened its first branch at a center in Texas. In 1970, Lamar State College began offering the Doctor of Engineering. In 1971 the college's name was changed to Lamar University. African American veterans of World War II who returned to Southeast Texas found they had no opportunities for postsecondary education or vocational training and chafed over Lamar becoming state supported while it still barred their admission on the grounds of race. A group of black leaders calling themselves the Negro Goodwill Council protested to Governor Beauford Jester about the dismal educational inequality in the city and the exclusion of blacks from Lamar State College.
They attempted to block passage of the bill to change Lamar into a state-supported senior college, which resulted in John Gray, Lamar's president, creating a black branch of Lamar called Jefferson Junior College. It opened with evening classes at Charlton-Pollard High School. In 1952, James Briscoe, a native Beaumonter and graduate of Charlton-Pollard High School, applied to Lamar. Briscoe's parents were laborers and members of the Beaumont chapter of the NAACP, they courageously supported their son's effort to prove that qualified blacks desired more than junior college offerings and wanted to study in Lamar's new four-year degree programs and avoid the inconvenience of going long distances away from home for a BA degree. Briscoe, a student at Morehouse College in Atlanta since 1950, at the urging of his parents and the Beaumont NAACP, applied to Lamar and was accepted; the admissions office notified him that on the basis of his transcript, he was qualified to enroll for the spring term of 1951.
On January 29, when Briscoe went to Lamar with his acceptance letter in hand to register for classes, Lamar's acting president G. A. Wimberly met with Briscoe and explained that a mistake had been made and suggested he apply to TSUN, now named Texas Southern University. State law, created Lamar for whites only. In the summer of 1955, Versie Jackson and Henry Cooper, Jr. became the lead plaintiffs of a class action lawsuit, Jackson v. McDonald, which sought to end Lamar's policy of racial segregation. Lamar Cecil, the federal judge the case came before, ruled on July 30, 1956, that Lamar's “white youth” only admissions policy was unconstitutional and that September, a total of twenty-six blacks were admitted to the college amid violent protests at the campus gates and throughout the region for a number of weeks until Texas Rangers arrived and the rule of law restored. In 1975, the university merged with Port Arthur College in Port Arthur, creating Lamar University-Port Arthur. In 1983, state Senator Carl A. Parker sponsored a bill creating the Lamar University System.
In 1986, Lamar University-Orange and Lamar University-Port Arthur were granted accreditation separate from the main campus. Lamar Institute of Technology was created in 1990 in Bea