Giuseppe Cesari was an Italian Mannerist painter named Il Giuseppino and called Cavaliere d'Arpino, because he was created Cavaliere di Cristo by his patron Pope Clement VIII. He was much patronized in Rome by both Clement and Sixtus V, he was the chief of the studio in which Caravaggio trained upon the younger painter's arrival in Rome. Cesari's father, Muzio Cesari, had been a native of Arpino. Here, he was apprenticed to Niccolò Pomarancio. Cesari is stigmatized by Lanzi, as not less the corrupter of taste in painting than Marino was in poetry.. Cesari's first major work done in his twenties was the painting of the right counterfacade of San Lorenzo in Damaso, completed from 1588 to 1589. On 28 June 1589, he receives the commission for the murals of the choir vault in the Certosa di San Martino in Naples. From 1591 he is again in Rome, where he painted the vault in the Contarelli Chapel within the church of San Luigi dei Francesi, he completed murals in the Cappella Olgiati in Santa Prassede, the vault of the Sacristy in the Certosa di San Martino.
He was a man of touchy and irascible character, rose from penury to the height of opulence. His brother Bernardino Cesari assisted in many of his works. Cesari became a member of the Accademia di San Luca in 1585. In 1607, he was jailed by the new papal administration, he died in 1640, at the age of seventy-two, or of eighty, at Rome. His only direct followers were his sons Bernardino. Pier Francesco Mola apprenticed in his studio. Other pupils include Francesco Allegrini da Gubbio, Guido Ubaldo Abatini, Vincenzo Manenti, Bernardino Parasole, his most notable and surprising pupil was Caravaggio. In c. 1593-94, Caravaggio held a job at Cesari's studio as a painter of flowers and fruit. Cappella Olgiati in Santa Prassede Frescoes in Salon of the Palazzo dei Conservatori Battle between Horatii and Curiatii Finding of the She-wolf Rape of the Sabine Women Numa Pompilius Instituting the Cult of the Vestals Cappella Paolina in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore Gash, J.. Caravaggio, in Turner, J.. The Dictionary of Art.
London: Macmillan Hobbes, James R.. Picture collector's manual. T. & W. Boone, 29 Bond Street, London. P. 49. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Cesari, Giuseppe". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Biography at arte-argomenti.org 8 paintings by or after Giuseppe Cesari at the Art UK site Orazio and Artemisia Gentileschi, a digitized exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries, which contains material on Giuseppe Cesari
Boy Peeling Fruit (Caravaggio)
Boy Peeling Fruit is a painting by the Italian Baroque master Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio painted circa 1592–1593. This is the earliest known work by Caravaggio, painted soon after his arrival in Rome from his native Milan in mid 1592, his movements in this period are not certain. According to his contemporary Giulio Mancini he stayed for a short time with Monsignor Pandulfo Pucci in the Palazzo Colonna, but disliked the way Pucci treated him and left after a few months.. He copied religious pictures for Pucci, did a few pieces of his own for personal sale, of which Boy Peeling a Fruit would be the only known example; the piece may date from later, when he was working for Giuseppe Cesari, the "cavaliere d'Arpino". As Caravaggio is said to have been painting only "flowers and fruit" for d'Arpino, this would again be a personal piece done for sale outside the workshop, but it was among the works seized from d'Alpino by Cardinal Scipione Borghese in 1607, together with two other early Caravaggios, the Young Sick Bacchus and the Boy with a Basket of Fruit.
It is not known. The fruit being peeled by the boy is something of a mystery. Sources indicate it may be a pear, correct but has been questioned. Seen as a simple genre painting, it differs from most in that the boy is not'rusticated,' that is, he is depicted as clean and well-dressed instead of as a'cute' ragamuffin. An allegoric meaning behind the painting is plausible, given the complex Renaissance symbology of fruit. Caravaggio scholar John T. Spike has suggested that the boy demonstrates resistance to temptation by ignoring the sweeter fruits in favour of the bergamot, but no specific reading is accepted; the model is thought to bear a resemblance to the angel in Caravaggio's Ecstasy of Saint Francis and to the boy dressed as Cupid on the far left in his Young Musicians, both about 1595 to 1597. Several other versions of the work are known. In 1996 John T. Spike identified the original as a painting auctioned in London that year, although others have argued that either the Ishizuka version or that in the British Royal Collection could be the prototype.
The version in the Royal Collection has been on display in the Cumberland Gallery of Hampton Court Palace since 2004. Caravaggio's fruit Caravaggio's secular paintings Peter Robb, M ISBN 0-312-27474-2ISBN 0-7475-4858-7
Fort Worth, Texas
Fort Worth is a city in the U. S. state of Texas. It is fifth-largest city in Texas, it is the county seat of Tarrant County, covering nearly 350 square miles into four other counties: Denton, Johnson and Wise. According to the 2017 census estimates, Fort Worth's population is 874,168. Fort Worth is the second-largest city in the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area, the 4th most populous metropolitan area in the United States; the city of Fort Worth was established in 1849 as an army outpost on a bluff overlooking the Trinity River. Fort Worth has been a center of the longhorn cattle trade, it still embraces traditional architecture and design. USS Fort Worth is the first ship of the United States Navy named after the city. Fort Worth is home to the Van Cliburn International Piano Competition and several world-class museums designed by internationally known contemporary architects; the Kimbell Art Museum, considered to have one of the best art collections in Texas, is housed in what is regarded as one of the outstanding architectural achievements of the modern era.
The museum was designed by the American architect Louis Kahn, with an addition designed by world-renowned Italian architect Renzo Piano opening November 2013. Of note is the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, designed by Tadao Ando; the Amon Carter Museum of American Art, designed by Philip Johnson, houses one of the world's most extensive collections of American art. The Sid Richardson Museum, redesigned by David M. Schwarz, has one of the most focused collections of Western art in the U. S. emphasizing Frederic Remington and Charles Russell. The Fort Worth Museum of Science and History, designed by famed architect Ricardo Legorreta of Mexico, engages the diverse Fort Worth community through creative, vibrant programs and exhibits; the city is stimulated by several university communities: Texas Christian University, Texas Wesleyan, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Texas A&M University School of Law, many multinational corporations, including Bell Helicopter, Lockheed Martin, American Airlines, BNSF Railway, Pier 1 Imports, XTO Energy and RadioShack.
The Treaty of Bird's Fort between the Republic of Texas and several Native American tribes was signed in 1843 at Bird's Fort in present-day Arlington, Texas. Article XI of the treaty provided that no one may "pass the line of trading houses" without permission of the President of Texas, may not reside or remain in the Indians' territory; these "trading houses" were established at the junction of the Clear Fork and West Fork of the Trinity River in present-day Fort Worth. At this river junction, the U. S. War Department established Fort Worth in 1849 as the northernmost of a system of 10 forts for protecting the American Frontier following the end of the Mexican–American War; the city of Fort Worth continues to be known as "where the West begins." A line of seven army posts were established in 1848–49 after the Mexican War to protect the settlers of Texas along the western American Frontier and included Fort Worth, Fort Graham, Fort Gates, Fort Croghan, Fort Martin Scott, Fort Lincoln, Fort Duncan.
10 forts had been proposed by Major General William Jenkins Worth, who commanded the Department of Texas in 1849. In January 1849, Worth proposed a line of 10 forts to mark the western Texas frontier from Eagle Pass to the confluence of the West Fork and Clear Fork of the Trinity River. One month Worth died from cholera in South Texas. General William S. Harney assumed command of the Department of Texas and ordered Major Ripley A. Arnold to find a new fort site near the West Clear Fork. On June 6, 1849, advised by Middleton Tate Johnson, established a camp on the bank of the Trinity River and named the post Camp Worth in honor of the late General Worth. In August 1849, Arnold moved the camp to the north-facing bluff, which overlooked the mouth of the Clear Fork of the Trinity River; the United States War Department named the post Fort Worth on November 14, 1849. Native American attacks were still a threat in the area, as this was their traditional territory and they resented encroachment by European-American settlers, but people from the United States set up homesteads near the fort.
E. S. Terrell from Tennessee claimed to be the first resident of Fort Worth; the fort was moved to the top of the bluff. The fort was abandoned September 17, 1853. No trace of it remains; as a stop on the legendary Chisholm Trail, Fort Worth was stimulated by the business of the cattle drives and became a brawling, bustling town. Millions of head of cattle were driven north to market along this trail. Fort Worth became the center of the cattle drives, the ranching industry, it was given the nickname of Cowtown. During the Civil War, Fort Worth suffered from shortages of money and supplies; the population began to recover during Reconstruction. By 1872, Jacob Samuels, William Jesse Boaz, William Henry Davis had opened general stores; the next year, Khleber M. Van Zandt established Tidball, Van Zandt, Company, which became Fort Worth National Bank in 1884. In 1875, the Dallas Herald published an article by a former Fort Worth lawyer, Robert E. Cowart, who wrote that the decimation of Fort Worth's population, caused by the economic disaster and hard winter of 1873, had dealt a severe blow to the cattle industry.
Added to the slowdown due to the railroad's stopping the laying of track 30 miles outside of Fort Worth, Cowart said that Fort Worth was so slow th
Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio was an Italian painter active in Rome, Naples and Sicily from the early 1590s to 1610. His paintings combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting, which had a formative influence on Baroque painting. Caravaggio employed close physical observation with a dramatic use of chiaroscuro that came to be known as tenebrism, he made the technique a dominant stylistic element, darkening shadows and transfixing subjects in bright shafts of light. Caravaggio vividly expressed crucial moments and scenes featuring violent struggles and death, he worked with live models, preferring to forgo drawings and work directly onto the canvas. His influence on the new Baroque style that emerged from Mannerism was profound, it can be seen directly or indirectly in the work of Peter Paul Rubens, Jusepe de Ribera, Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Rembrandt, artists in the following generation under his influence were called the "Caravaggisti" or "Caravagesques", as well as tenebrists or tenebrosi.
Caravaggio trained as a painter in Milan before moving in his twenties to Rome. He developed a considerable name as an artist, as a violent and provocative man. A brawl forced him to flee to Naples. There he again established himself as one of the most prominent Italian painters of his generation, he traveled in 1607 to Malta and on to Sicily, pursued a papal pardon for his sentence. In 1609 he returned to Naples. Questions about his mental state arose from his bizarre behavior, he died in 1610 under uncertain circumstances while on his way from Naples to Rome. Reports stated that he died of a fever, but suggestions have been made that he was murdered or that he died of lead poisoning. Caravaggio's innovations inspired Baroque painting, but the Baroque incorporated the drama of his chiaroscuro without the psychological realism; the style evolved and fashions changed, Caravaggio fell out of favor. In the 20th century interest in his work revived, his importance to the development of Western art was reevaluated.
The 20th-century art historian André Berne-Joffroy stated, "What begins in the work of Caravaggio is, quite modern painting." Caravaggio was born in Milan, where his father, was a household administrator and architect-decorator to the Marchese of Caravaggio, a town not far from the city of Bergamo. In 1576 the family moved to Caravaggio to escape a plague that ravaged Milan, Caravaggio's father and grandfather both died there on the same day in 1577, it is assumed that the artist grew up in Caravaggio, but his family kept up connections with the Sforzas and with the powerful Colonna family, who were allied by marriage with the Sforzas and destined to play a major role in Caravaggio's life. Caravaggio's mother died in 1584, the same year he began his four-year apprenticeship to the Milanese painter Simone Peterzano, described in the contract of apprenticeship as a pupil of Titian. Caravaggio appears to have stayed in the Milan-Caravaggio area after his apprenticeship ended, but it is possible that he visited Venice and saw the works of Giorgione, whom Federico Zuccari accused him of imitating, Titian.
He would have become familiar with the art treasures of Milan, including Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper, with the regional Lombard art, a style that valued simplicity and attention to naturalistic detail and was closer to the naturalism of Germany than to the stylised formality and grandeur of Roman Mannerism. Following his initial training under Simone Peterzano, in 1592 Caravaggio left Milan for Rome, in flight after "certain quarrels" and the wounding of a police officer; the young artist arrived in Rome "naked and needy... without fixed address and without provision... short of money." During this period he stayed with the miserly Pandolfo Pucci, known as "monnsignor Insalata". A few months he was performing hack-work for the successful Giuseppe Cesari, Pope Clement VIII's favourite artist, "painting flowers and fruit" in his factory-like workshop. In Rome there was demand for paintings to fill the many huge new churches and palazzos being built at the time, it was a period when the Church was searching for a stylistic alternative to Mannerism in religious art, tasked to counter the threat of Protestantism.
Caravaggio's innovation was a radical naturalism that combined close physical observation with a dramatic theatrical, use of chiaroscuro that came to be known as tenebrism. Known works from this period include a small Boy Peeling a Fruit, a Boy with a Basket of Fruit, the Young Sick Bacchus a self-portrait done during convalescence from a serious illness that ended his employment with Cesari. All three demonstrate the physical particularity for which Caravaggio was to become renowned: the fruit-basket-boy's produce has been analysed by a professor of horticulture, able to identify individual cultivars right down to "... a large fig leaf with a prominent fungal scorch lesion resembling anthracnose."Caravaggio left Cesari, determined to make his own way after a heated argument. At this point he forged some important friendships, with the painter Prospero Orsi, the architect Onorio Longhi, the sixteen-year-old Sicilian artist Mario Minniti. Orsi
Rest on the Flight into Egypt (Caravaggio)
Rest on the Flight into Egypt is a painting by the Italian Baroque master Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, in the Doria Pamphilj Gallery, Rome. The Rest on the Flight into Egypt, like the Flight into Egypt, was a popular subject in art, but Caravaggio's composition, with an angel playing the viol to the Holy Family, is unusual; the scene is based not on any incident in the Bible itself, but on a body of tales or legends that had grown up in the early Middle Ages around the Bible story of the Holy Family fleeing into Egypt for refuge on being warned that Herod the Great was seeking to kill the Christ Child. According to the legend and Mary paused on the flight in a grove of trees; this basic story acquired many extra details during the centuries. Caravaggio shows Mary asleep with the infant Jesus, while Joseph holds a manuscript for an angel, playing a hymn to Mary on the viol; the date of the painting is disputed. According to Caravaggio's contemporary Giulio Mancini, this painting and the Penitent Magdalene, together with an unidentified painting of Saint John the Evangelist, was done while Caravaggio was staying with Monsignor Fantino Petrignani, shortly after leaving the workshop of Giuseppe Cesari.
This happened in January 1594. However, there are problems with accepting Mancini's statement. To begin, none of these three works were listed in Petragnani's inventory of 1600, although it is possible that they could have been painted for another patron. More the painting has an obvious and direct compositional source in Annibale Carracci's Judgement of Hercules, completed early in 1596 and admired: the pose of Caravaggio's angel, for example, is based on that of Carracci's figure of Vice. While John Gash accepts Mancini's testimony, including Peter Robb and Helen Langdon, have raised the possibility that it was painted for Cardinal Francesco Maria Del Monte, who made Caravaggio in effect his household artist from about 1595 or 1596; the sophisticated treatment is appropriate for the cardinal's intellectual tastes and interests, it is unlikely that the artist would embark on a work like this other than as a direct commission. This was the first large-scale work done by Caravaggio, is compositionally more ambitious and more successful than The Musicians, of about 1595.
It is one of the rare landscapes from this artist who seems always to have been painting in a prison cell, a room at a tavern, or at night - one critic has joked that all the sky in all Caravaggio's 80-odd works would add up to a few square centimeters of paint. The painting was sold to the Pamphilj by the early 17th century. Caravaggio's Lombard and Venetian heritage are evident in the treatment of the landscape and in the luminous tonalities. Like most depictions of the flight to Egypt this is a peaceful moment, one in which the scenery is to be enjoyed, more gardenscape than landscape; the luminous figure of the adolescent angel, at once serene and sensuous, holds the centre of the group. The mother and child grouping, one of many that Caravaggio would paint, is comparable in its delicacy and realism to the best that the thousands in the canon can offer. One of the great pastimes of Caravaggio scholars is identifying his models. Much progress has been made, but the following should be regarded as tentative only, as Caravaggio left few clues.
Mary appears to be the same girl who appears as Mary Magdalen in the Penitent Magdalene of about 1597 in the Doria-Pamphilj Gallery. The aged Joseph appears similar to the elderly saints in The Inspiration of Saint Matthew of 1602 and, less Saint Jerome in Meditation of about 1605; some critics have identified the boy-angel with the ingenuous victim of cheats on the left of Cardsharps, while others have seen a similarity with the profile of the boy cheating him instead. Gash, John. Caravaggio. ISBN 1-904449-22-0. Hibbard, Howard. Caravaggio. Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-430128-1. Langdon, Helen. Caravaggio: A Life. ISBN 0-374-11894-9. Robb, Peter. M. ISBN 0-312-27474-2. Media related to Rest on the Flight into Egypt by Caravaggio at Wikimedia Commons
The Lute Player (Caravaggio)
The Lute Player is a composition by the Italian Baroque master Caravaggio. It exists in two versions, one in the Wildenstein Collection and another in the Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg. A third from Badminton House, came to light in 2007 - however, some question its authenticity. Caravaggio's early biographer Giovanni Baglione gives the following description of a piece done by the artist for his patron Cardinal Francesco Del Monte: E dipinse … anche un giovane, che sonava il Lauto, che vivo, e vero il tutto parea con una caraffa di fiori piena d’acqua, che dentro il reflesso d’ua fenestra eccelentemente si scorgeva con altri ripercotimenti di quella camera dentro l’acqua, e sopra quei fiori eravi una viva rugiada con ogni esquisita diligenza finta. E questo che che facesse mai." " The painting exists in three versions. All show a boy with soft facial features and thick brown hair, accompanying himself on the lute as he sings a madrigal about love; as in the Uffizi Bacchus, the artist places a table-top in front of the figure.
In the Hermitage and Badminton House versions it is bare marble, with a violin on one side and a still life of flowers and fruit on the other. In the Wildenstein version the table is covered with a carpet and extended forwards to hold a tenor recorder, while the still life is replaced by a spinetta and a caged songbird; the musical instruments are valuable and came from Del Monte's personal collection. The Hermitage and Badminton House versions show madrigals by Jacques Arcadelt, the visible text reads in part: "Vous savez que je vous aime et vous adore... Je fus vôtre.". The Wildenstein version shows songs by a native Florentine on a text by Petrarch: Laisse le voile and Pourquoi ne vous donnez-vous pas? by Giachetto Berchem. The flowers and damaged fruit, the cracked body of the lute, suggest the theme of transience: love, like all things, is fleeting and mortal; the choice of Franco-Flemish composers over native Italians – only Layolle was a native Italian – no doubt reflects the cultural affiliations of the pro-French Del Monte-Giustiniani circle.
The still life elements are of an high standard in all versions, the finely rendered fruit and flowers in two versions equalled by the textures of spinetta and flute in the other, the artist has reproduced the initial notes of the madrigals so that one can recognize the Roman printer, Valerio Dorica. The rather androgynous model could be Pedro Montoya, a castrato known to have been a member of the Del Monte household and a singer at the Sistine Chapel at about this time - castrati were prized and the Cardinal was a patron of music as well as of painting. More Caravaggio biographer Peter Robb has identified him as Caravaggio's companion Mario Minniti, the model for several other paintings from this period including The Cardsharps and one of the two versions of The Fortune Teller. All three versions demonstrate the innovative approach to light that Caravaggio adopted at this time. Caravaggio's method, as described by Caravaggio's contemporary Giulio Mancini, was to use "a strong light from above with a single window and the walls painted black, so that having the lights bright and the shadows dark, it gives depth to the painting, but with a method, not natural nor done or thought of by any other century or older painters like Raphael, Titian and others."
The room itself seems to be the same as that in the Contarelli Chapel Calling of Saint Matthew, the beam of light across the rear wall has an upper limit that would appear to be the shutter of the window above the table in the Calling. The carafe is a "cut-and-paste" motif from another image, where the main light came from a window at more or less the same level as the carafe itself; such a complex illustration of refracted light is unprecedented in the Cinquecento, may have been the result of collaboration with scientists in Del Monte's circle, including Giovanni Battista della Porta, the guiding spirit behind the foundation in 1603 of the Accademia dei Lincei. His multi-volume De Refractione Optices was concerned with optical matters, the second volume being devoted to the incidence of light on water-filled and glass spheres; the circle of Della Porta was significant for Caravaggio on in Naples, where the commission for the Seven Acts of Mercy seems to have emanated from Giovanni Batista Manso, Marchese di Villa, whose friend, the alchemist Colantonio Stigliola, was a member of the Accademia dei Lincei.
The appearance of second originals is a feature of a new understanding of Caravaggio's work, indeed Vincenzo Giustiniani, whose experience was related to the artist's career, describes in his Discorso sulla pittura the painter's development as beginning with copying others’ work - ‘Proceeding further, he can copy his own work, so that the replica may be as good, sometimes better, than the first’. The procedure for making a second version was, however different from the sometimes arduous task of building a group from many separate observations of reality, of figures and objects.
Bacchus is a painting by Italian Baroque master Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio. It is held in the Uffizi Florence; the painting shows a youthful Bacchus reclining in classical fashion with grapes and vine leaves in his hair, fingering the drawstring of his loosely draped robe. On a stone table in front of him is a large carafe of red wine. Bacchus was painted shortly after Caravaggio joined the household of his first important patron, Cardinal Del Monte, reflects the humanist interests of the Cardinal's educated circle, it was not in the cardinal's collection at his death, may have been a gift to the Grand Duke in Florence. It was unknown until 1913; when it was found in a storeroom of the Uffizi Galleries, it had never been framed. Bacchus' offering of the wine with his left hand, despite the obvious effort this is causing the model, has led to speculation that Caravaggio used a mirror to assist himself while working from life, doing away with the need for drawing. In other words, what appears to us as the boy's left hand was his right.
This would accord with the comment by Caravaggio's early biographer, the artist Giovanni Baglione, that Caravaggio did some early paintings using a mirror. English artist David Hockney made Caravaggio's working methods a central feature of his thesis that Renaissance and artists used some form of camera lucida; the model for Bacchus might have been Caravaggio's friend Mario Minniti, whom he had used before in The Musicians. It was discovered upon closer investigation that Caravaggio included a miniature self-portrait of himself painting the subject in the reflection of the offered glass. Bacchus Analysis and Critical Reception Discussion of Hockney's Secret Knowledge and Caravaggio Iconographic Themes in Art: Bacchus | Dionysos High resolution preview