GNU Emacs is the most popular and most ported Emacs text editor. It was created by GNU Project founder Richard Stallman. In common with other varieties of Emacs, GNU Emacs is extensible using a Turing complete programming language. GNU Emacs has been called "the most powerful text editor available today". With proper support from the underlying system, GNU Emacs is able to display files in multiple character sets, has been able to display most human languages since at least 1999. Throughout its history, GNU Emacs has been a central component of the GNU project, a flagship of the free software movement. GNU Emacs is sometimes abbreviated as GNUMACS to differentiate it from other EMACS variants; the tag line for GNU Emacs is "the extensible self-documenting text editor". In 1976, Stallman wrote the first Emacs, in 1984, began work on GNU Emacs, to produce a free software alternative to the proprietary Gosling Emacs. GNU Emacs was based on Gosling Emacs, but Stallman's replacement of its Mocklisp interpreter with a true Lisp interpreter required that nearly all of its code be rewritten.
This became the first program released by the nascent GNU Project. GNU Emacs is written in C and provides Emacs Lisp implemented in C, as an extension language. Version 13, the first public release, was made on March 20, 1985; the first distributed version of GNU Emacs was version 15.34, released in 1985. Early versions of GNU Emacs were numbered as "1.x.x," with the initial digit denoting the version of the C core. The "1" was dropped after version 1.12 as it was thought that the major number would never change, thus the major version skipped from "1" to "13". A new third version number was added to represent changes made by user sites. In the current numbering scheme, a number with two components signifies a release version, with development versions having three components. GNU Emacs was ported to Unix, it offered more features than Gosling Emacs, in particular a full-featured Lisp as its extension language, soon replaced Gosling Emacs as the de facto Unix Emacs editor. Markus Hess exploited a security flaw in GNU Emacs' email subsystem in his 1986 cracking spree, in which he gained superuser access to Unix computers.
Although users submitted patches and Elisp code to the net.emacs newsgroup, participation in GNU Emacs development was restricted until 1999, was used as an example of the "Cathedral" development style in The Cathedral and the Bazaar. The project has since adopted anonymous CVS access. Development took place in a single CVS trunk until 2008, today uses the Git DVCS. Richard Stallman has remained the principal maintainer of GNU Emacs, but he has stepped back from the role at times. Stefan Monnier and Chong Yidong have overseen maintenance since 2008. On September 21, 2015 Monnier announced that he would be stepping down as maintainer effective with the feature freeze of Emacs 25. Longtime contributor John Wiegley was announced as the new maintainer on November 5, 2015; the terms of the GNU General Public License state that the Emacs source code, including both the C and Emacs Lisp components, are available for examination and redistribution. Older versions of the GNU Emacs documentation appeared under an ad-hoc license that required the inclusion of certain text in any modified copy.
In the GNU Emacs user's manual, for example, this included instructions for obtaining GNU Emacs and Richard Stallman's essay The GNU Manifesto. The XEmacs manuals, which were inherited from older GNU Emacs manuals when the fork occurred, have the same license. Newer versions of the documentation use the GNU Free Documentation License with "invariant sections" that require the inclusion of the same documents and that the manuals proclaim themselves as GNU Manuals. For GNU Emacs, like many other GNU packages, it remains policy to accept significant code contributions only if the copyright holder executes a suitable disclaimer or assignment of their copyright interest to the Free Software Foundation. Bug fixes and minor code contributions of fewer than 10 lines are exempt; this policy is in place so that the FSF can defend the software in court if its copyleft license is violated. In 2011, it was noticed that GNU Emacs had been accidentally releasing some binaries without corresponding source code for two years, in opposition to the intended spirit of the GPL, resulting in a copyright violation.
Richard Stallman described this incident as "a bad mistake", promptly fixed. The FSF didn't sue any downstream redistributors who unknowingly violated the GPL by distributing these binaries. In its normal editing mode, GNU Emacs behaves like other text editors and allows the user to insert characters with the corresponding keys and to move the editing point with the arrow keys. Escape key sequences or pressing the control key and/or the meta key, alt key or super keys in conjunction with a regular key produces modified keystrokes that invoke functions from the Emacs Lisp environment. Commands such as save-buffer and save-buffers-kill-emacs combine multiple modified keystrokes; some GNU Emacs commands work by invoking an external program, such as ispell for spell-checking or GNU Compiler Collection for program compilation, parsing the program's output, displaying the result in GNU Emacs. Emacs supports "inferior processes"—long-lived processes that interact with an Emacs buffer; this is used to implement shell-mode, running a Unix shell as inferior process, as well as read–eval–print loop modes for various programming languages.
Emacs' support for external processes makes it an attractive environment for interactive programming along the lines of Interlisp or Smalltalk. Users who prefer
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, academic and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies; the Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web, electronic mail and file sharing. Some publications no longer capitalize "internet"; the origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the federal government of the United States in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication with computer networks. The primary precursor network, the ARPANET served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s; the funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, the merger of many networks.
The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional and mobile computers were connected to the network. Although the Internet was used by academia since the 1980s, commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into every aspect of modern life. Most traditional communication media, including telephony, television, paper mail and newspapers are reshaped, redefined, or bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, video streaming websites. Newspaper and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators; the Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, social networking. Online shopping has grown exponentially both for major retailers and small businesses and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their "brick and mortar" presence to serve a larger market or sell goods and services online.
Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. The Internet has no single centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force, a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. In November 2006, the Internet was included on USA Today's list of New Seven Wonders; when the term Internet is used to refer to the specific global system of interconnected Internet Protocol networks, the word is a proper noun that should be written with an initial capital letter.
In common use and the media, it is erroneously not capitalized, viz. the internet. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, but not capitalized when used as an adjective; the Internet is often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network. As early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, meaning interconnected or interwoven; the designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are used interchangeably in everyday speech. However, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. As another point of comparison, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, is the language used on the Web for information transfer, yet it is just one of many languages or protocols that can be used for communication on the Internet.
The term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user. Research into packet switching, one of the fundamental Internet technologies, started in the early 1960s in the work of Paul Baran and Donald Davies. Packet-switched networks such as the NPL network, ARPANET, the Merit Network, CYCLADES, Telenet were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s; the ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, by which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks. ARPANET development began with two network nodes which were interconnected between the Network Measurement Center at the University of California, Los Angeles Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science directed by Leonard Kleinrock, the NLS system at SRI International by Douglas Engelbart in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969; the third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
Lyubov Sergeyevna Popova was a Russian avant-garde artist and designer. Popova was born in Ivanovskoe, near Moscow, to the wealthy family of Sergei Maximovich Popov, a successful textile merchant and vigorous patron of the arts, Lyubov Vasilievna Zubova, who came from a cultured family. Lyubov Sergeyevna had two brothers and a sister: Sergei was the eldest Lyubov and Olga. Pavel became the guardian of his sister's artistic legacy. Popova grew up with a strong interest in art Italian Renaissance painting. At eleven years old she began formal art lessons at home. By the age of 18 she was studying with Stanislav Zhukovsky, in 1908 entered the private studios of Konstantin Yuon and Ivan Dudin. In 1912 to 1913, she began attending the studios of the Cubist painters Henri Le Fauconnier and Jean Metzinger at Académie de La Palette in Paris. Popova traveled to investigate and learn from diverse styles of painting, but it was the ancient Russian icons, the paintings of Giotto, the works of the 15th- and 16th-century Italian painters which interested her the most.
In 1909 she traveled to Kiev in 1910 to Pskov and Novgorod. The following year she visited other ancient Russian cities, including St. Petersburg, to study icons. In 1912 she worked in a Moscow studio known as "The Tower" with Ivan Aksenov and Vladimir Tatlin, visited Sergei Shchukin's collection of modern French paintings. In 1912–1913 she studied art with Nadezhda Udaltsova in Paris, where she met Alexander Archipenko and Ossip Zadkine in 1913. After returning to Russia that same year, she worked with Tatlin and the Vesnin brothers. In 1914 she traveled in Italy at the development of Cubism and Futurism. Popova was one of the first female pioneers in Cubo-Futurism. Through a synthesis of styles she worked towards. After first exploring Impressionism, by 1913, in Composition with Figures, she was experimenting with the Russian development of Cubo-Futurism: a fusion of two equal influences from France and Italy. From 1914–1915 her Moscow home became the meeting-place for artists and writers. In 1914–1916 Popova together with other avant-garde artists contributed to the two Knave of Diamonds exhibitions, in Petrograd Tramway V and the 0.10, The Store in Moscow.
An analysis of Popova's cubo-futurist work suggests an affinity with the work of Fernand Leger, whose geometry of tubular and conical forms in his series of paintings from 1913–1914 is similar to that in Popova's paintings. Her painting The Violin of 1914 suggests the development from Cubism towards the "painterly architectonics" series of 1916–1918; this series defined her distinct artistic trajectory in abstract form. The canvas surface is an energy field of overlapping and intersecting angular planes in a constant state of potential release of energy. At the same time the elements are held in a balanced and proportioned whole as if linking the compositions of the classical past to the future. Color is used as the iconic focus. In 1916 she joined the Supremus group with Kazimir Malevich, the founder of Suprematism, Aleksandra Ekster, Ivan Kliun, Nadezhda Udaltsova, Olga Rozanova, Ivan Puni, Nina Genke, Ksenia Boguslavskaya and others who at this time worked in Verbovka Village Folk Centre.
The creation of a new kind of painting was part of the revolutionary urge of the Russian avant-garde to remake the world. The term'supreme' refers to a'non-objective' or abstract world beyond that of everyday reality. However, there was a tension between those who, like Malevich, saw art as a spiritual quest, others who responded to the need for the artist to create a new physical world. Popova embraced both of these ideals but identified herself with the aims of the Revolution working in poster, book design and theatre design, as well as teaching. At 0.10 she had exhibited a number of figurative painted cardboard reliefs in a cubist derived style. In 1916 she began to paint abstract Suprematist compositions, but the title "Painterly Architectonics" suggests that as a Suprematist, Popova was more interested in painting as a projection of material reality than as the personal expression of a metaphysical reality. Popova's superimposed planes and strong color have the objective presence of actual space and materials.
In 1918 Popova married the art historian Boris von Eding, gave birth to a son. Von Eding died the following year of typhoid fever. Popova was seriously ill but recovered; as early as 1917 in parallel with her Suprematist work, she had made fabric designs and worked on Agitprop books and posters, In the Tenth State Exhibition: Non Objective Creativity and Suprematism, 1918, she contributed the architectonic series of paintings. She continued painting advanced abstract works until 1921. In the 5 x 5 Exhibition of 1921, Popova and her four fellow Constructivists declared that easel painting was to be abandoned and all creative work was to be for the people and the making of the new society. Popova worked in a broad range of mediums and disciplines, including painting, works on paper, designs for the theater and typography. Popova did not join the Working Group of Constructivists when it was set up in Moscow in March 1921, but joined by the end of 1921. In 1923 she began creating designs for fabric to be manufactured by the First State Textile Printing Wo
Library of Congress Classification
The Library of Congress Classification is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress. It is used by most research and academic libraries in the U. S. and several other countries. LCC should not be confused with LCCN, the system of Library of Congress Control Numbers assigned to all books, which defines URLs of their online catalog entries, such as "82006074" and "http://lccn.loc.gov/82006074". The Classification is distinct from Library of Congress Subject Headings, the system of labels such as "Boarding schools" and "Boarding schools—Fiction" that describe contents systematically; the classifications may be distinguished from the call numbers assigned to particular copies of books in the collection, such as "PZ7. J684 Wj 1982 FT MEADE Copy 1" where the classification is "PZ7. J684 Wj 1982"; the classification was invented by Herbert Putnam in 1897, just before he assumed the librarianship of Congress. With advice from Charles Ammi Cutter, it was influenced by his Cutter Expansive Classification, the Dewey Decimal System, the Putnam Classification System.
It was designed for the purposes and collection of the Library of Congress to replace the fixed location system developed by Thomas Jefferson. By the time Putnam departed from his post in 1939, all the classes except K and parts of B were well developed. LCC has been criticized for lacking a sound theoretical basis. Although it divides subjects into broad categories, it is enumerative in nature; that is, it provides a guide to the books in one library's collections, not a classification of the world. In 2007 The Wall Street Journal reported that in the countries it surveyed most public libraries and small academic libraries used the older Dewey Decimal Classification system; the National Library of Medicine classification system uses the initial letters W and QS–QZ, which are not used by LCC. Some libraries use NLM in conjunction with LCC. Others include Medicine R. Subclass AC -- Collections. Series. Collected works Subclass AE – Encyclopedias Subclass AG – Dictionaries and other general reference works Subclass AI – Indexes Subclass AM – Museums.
Collectors and collecting Subclass AN – Newspapers Subclass AP – Periodicals Subclass AS – Academies and learned societies Subclass AY – Yearbooks. Almanacs. Directories Subclass AZ – History of scholarship and learning; the humanities Subclass B – Philosophy Subclass BC – Logic Subclass BD – Speculative philosophy Subclass BF – Psychology Subclass BH – Aesthetics Subclass BJ – Ethics Subclass BL – Religions. Mythology. Rationalism Subclass BM – Judaism Subclass BP – Islam. Bahaism. Theosophy, etc. Subclass BQ – Buddhism Subclass BR – Christianity Subclass BS – The Bible Subclass BT – Doctrinal theology Subclass BV – Practical Theology Subclass BX – Christian Denominations Subclass C – Auxiliary Sciences of History Subclass CB – History of Civilization Subclass CC – Archaeology Subclass CD – Diplomatics. Archives. Seals Subclass CE – Technical Chronology. Calendar Subclass CJ – Numismatics Subclass CN – Inscriptions. Epigraphy Subclass CR – Heraldry Subclass CS – Genealogy Subclass CT – Biography Subclass D – History Subclass DA – Great Britain Subclass DAW – Central Europe Subclass DB – Austria – Liechtenstein – Hungary – Czechoslovakia Subclass DC – France – Andorra – Monaco Subclass DD – Germany Subclass DE – Greco-Roman World Subclass DF – Greece Subclass DG – Italy – Malta Subclass DH – Low Countries – Benelux Countries Subclass DJ – Netherlands Subclass DJK – Eastern Europe Subclass DK – Russia.
Soviet Union. Former Soviet Republics – Poland Subclass DL – Northern Europe. Scandinavia Subclass DP – Spain – Portugal Subclass DQ – Switzerland Subclass DR – Balkan Peninsula Subclass DS – Asia Subclass DT – Africa Subclass DU – Oceania Subclass DX – Romanies Class E does not have any subclasses. Class F does not have any subclasses, however Canadian Universities and the Canadian National Library use FC for Canadian History, a subclass that the LC has not adopted, but which it has agreed not to use for anything else Subclass G – Geography. Atlases. Maps Subclass GA – Mathematical geography. Cartography Subclass GB – Physical geography Subclass GC – Oceanography Subclass GE – Environmental Sciences Subclass GF – Human ecology. Anthropogeography Subclass GN – Anthropology Subclass GR – Folklore Subclass GT – Manners and customs Subclass GV – Recreation. Leisure Subclass H – Social sciences Subclass HA – Statistics Subclass HB – Economic theory. Demography Subclass HC – Economic history and conditions Subclass HD – Industries.
Land use. Labor Subclass HE – Transportation and communications Subclass HF – Commerce Subclass HG – Finance Subclass HJ – Public finance Subclass HM – Sociology Subclass HN – Social history and conditions. Social problems. Social reform Subclass HQ – The family. Marriage and Sexuality Subclass HS – Societies: secret, etc. Subclass HT – Communities. Classes. Races Subclass HV – Social pathology. Social and public welfare. Criminology Subclass HX – Socialism. Communism. Anarchism Subclass J – General legislative and executive papers Subclass JA – Political science Subclass JC – Political theory Subclass JF – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JJ – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JK – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JL – Political instit
The open-source model is a decentralized software development model that encourages open collaboration. A main principle of open-source software development is peer production, with products such as source code and documentation available to the public; the open-source movement in software began as a response to the limitations of proprietary code. The model is used for projects such as in open-source appropriate technology, open-source drug discovery. Open source promotes universal access via an open-source or free license to a product's design or blueprint, universal redistribution of that design or blueprint. Before the phrase open source became adopted and producers used a variety of other terms. Open source gained hold with the rise of the Internet; the open-source software movement arose to clarify copyright, licensing and consumer issues. Open source refers to a computer program in which the source code is available to the general public for use or modification from its original design.
Open-source code is meant to be a collaborative effort, where programmers improve upon the source code and share the changes within the community. Code is released under the terms of a software license. Depending on the license terms, others may download and publish their version back to the community. Many large formal institutions have sprung up to support the development of the open-source movement, including the Apache Software Foundation, which supports community projects such as the open-source framework Apache Hadoop and the open-source HTTP server Apache HTTP; the sharing of technical information predates the personal computer considerably. For instance, in the early years of automobile development a group of capital monopolists owned the rights to a 2-cycle gasoline-engine patent filed by George B. Selden. By controlling this patent, they were able to monopolize the industry and force car manufacturers to adhere to their demands, or risk a lawsuit. In 1911, independent automaker Henry Ford won a challenge to the Selden patent.
The result was that the Selden patent became worthless and a new association was formed. The new association instituted a cross-licensing agreement among all US automotive manufacturers: although each company would develop technology and file patents, these patents were shared and without the exchange of money among all the manufacturers. By the time the US entered World War II, 92 Ford patents and 515 patents from other companies were being shared among these manufacturers, without any exchange of money. Early instances of the free sharing of source code include IBM's source releases of its operating systems and other programs in the 1950s and 1960s, the SHARE user group that formed to facilitate the exchange of software. Beginning in the 1960s, ARPANET researchers used an open "Request for Comments" process to encourage feedback in early telecommunication network protocols; this led to the birth of the early Internet in 1969. The sharing of source code on the Internet began when the Internet was primitive, with software distributed via UUCP, Usenet, IRC, Gopher.
BSD, for example, was first distributed by posts to comp.os.linux on the Usenet, where its development was discussed. Linux followed in this model; the term "open source" was first proposed by a group of people in the free software movement who were critical of the political agenda and moral philosophy implied in the term "free software" and sought to reframe the discourse to reflect a more commercially minded position. In addition, the ambiguity of the term "free software" was seen as discouraging business adoption; the group included Christine Peterson, Todd Anderson, Larry Augustin, Jon Hall, Sam Ockman, Michael Tiemann and Eric S. Raymond. Peterson suggested "open source" at a meeting held at Palo Alto, California, in reaction to Netscape's announcement in January 1998 of a source code release for Navigator. Linus Torvalds gave his support the following day, Phil Hughes backed the term in Linux Journal. Richard Stallman, the founder of the free software movement seemed to adopt the term, but changed his mind.
Netscape released its source code under the Netscape Public License and under the Mozilla Public License. Raymond was active in the effort to popularize the new term, he made the first public call to the free software community to adopt it in February 1998. Shortly after, he founded The Open Source Initiative in collaboration with Bruce Perens; the term gained further visibility through an event organized in April 1998 by technology publisher Tim O'Reilly. Titled the "Freeware Summit" and known as the "Open Source Summit", the event was attended by the leaders of many of the most important free and open-source projects, including Linus Torvalds, Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Eric Allman, Guido van Rossum, Michael Tiemann, Paul Vixie, Jamie Zawinski, Eric Raymond. At that meeting, alternatives to the term "free software" were discussed. Tiemann argued for "sourceware" as a new term, while Raymond argued for "open source"; the assembled developers took a vote, the winner was announced at a press conference the same evening."Open source" has never managed to supersede the older term "free software", giving rise to the combined term free and open-source software.
Some economists agree that open-source is an information good or "knowledge good" with original work involving a significant amount of time and effort. The cost of reproducing the work is low enough that additional users may be added at zero or near zero cost – this is referred to as the marginal c
Eric S. Raymond
Eric Steven Raymond referred to as ESR, is an American software developer, author of the cited 1997 essay and 1999 book The Cathedral and the Bazaar and other works, open-source software advocate. He wrote a guidebook for the Roguelike game NetHack. In the 1990s, he edited and updated the Jargon File in print as The New Hacker's Dictionary. Raymond was lived in Venezuela as a child, his family moved to Pennsylvania in 1971. He has suffered from cerebral palsy since birth. Raymond began his programming career writing proprietary software, between 1980 and 1985. In 1990, noting that the Jargon File had not been maintained since about 1983, he adopted it. Paul Dourish maintains an archived original version of the Jargon File, because, he says, Raymond's updates "essentially destroyed what held it together."In 1996 Raymond took over development of the open-source email software "popclient", renaming it to Fetchmail. Soon after this experience, in 1997, he wrote the essay "The Cathedral and the Bazaar", detailing his thoughts on open-source software development and why it should be done as as possible.
The essay was based in part on his experience in developing Fetchmail. He first presented his thesis at the annual Linux Kongress on May 27, 1997, he expanded the essay into a book, The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary, in 1999. The internal white paper by Frank Hecker that led to the release of the Mozilla source code in 1998 cited The Cathedral and the Bazaar as "independent validation" of ideas proposed by Eric Hahn and Jamie Zawinski. Hahn would describe the 1999 book as "clearly influential". From the late 1990s onward, due in part to the popularity of his essay, Raymond became a prominent voice in the open source movement, he co-founded the Open Source Initiative in 1998, taking on the self-appointed role of ambassador of open source to the press and public. He remains active in OSI, stepped down as president of the initiative in February 2005. In 1998 Raymond received and published a Microsoft document expressing worry about the quality of rival open-source software.
Eric named this document, together with others subsequently leaked, "the Halloween Documents". In 2000–2002 he created CML2, a source code configuration system. Raymond attributed this rejection to "kernel list politics". Linus Torvalds on the other hand said in a 2007 mailing list post that as a matter of policy, the development team preferred more incremental changes, his 2003 book The Art of Unix Programming discusses user tools for programming and other tasks. Raymond is the administrator of the project page for the GPS data tool gpsd; some versions of NetHack include his guide. He has contributed code and content to the free software video game The Battle for Wesnoth. Raymond coined an aphorism he dubbed "Linus's Law", inspired by Linus Torvalds: "Given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow", it first appeared in his book the Bazaar. Raymond has refused to speculate on whether the "bazaar" development model could be applied to works such as books and music, not wanting to "weaken the winning argument for open-sourcing software by tying it to a potential loser".
Raymond has had a number of public disputes with other figures in the free software movement. As head of the Open Source Initiative, he argued that advocates should focus on the potential for better products; the "very seductive" moral and ethical rhetoric of Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation fails, he said, "not because his principles are wrong, but because that kind of language... does not persuade anybody". In a 2008 essay he "defended the right of programmers to issue work under proprietary licenses because I think that if a programmer wants to write a program and sell it, it's neither my business nor anyone else's but his customer's what the terms of sale are". In the same essay he said that the "logic of the system" puts developers into "dysfunctional roles", with bad code the result. Raymond is a member of the Libertarian Party, he is a gun rights advocate. He has endorsed the open source firearms organization Defense Distributed, calling them "friends of freedom" and writing "I approve of any development that makes it more difficult for governments and criminals to monopolize the use of force.
As 3D printers become less expensive and more ubiquitous, this could be a major step in the right direction."In 2015 Raymond accused the Ada Initiative and other women in tech groups of attempting to entrap male open source leaders and accuse them of rape, saying "Try to avoid being alone because there is a chance that a'women in tech' advocacy group is going to try to collect your scalp."Raymond is known for claiming that “Gays experimented with unfettered promiscuity in the 1970s and got AIDS as a consequence” and that “Police who react to a random black male behaving suspiciously who might be in the critical age range as though he is an near-imminent lethal threat, are being rational, not racist.” Progressive campaign The Great Slate was successful in raising funds for candidates in part by asking for contributions from tech workers in return for not posting similar quotes by Raymond. Matasano Security employee and Great Slate fundraiser Thomas Ptacek said, “I’ve been torturing Twitter with lurid Eric S. Raymond quotes for years.
Every time I do, 20 people beg me to stop.” It is estimated that as of March 2018 over $30,000 has been raised in this way