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The Cider House Rules

The Cider House Rules is a novel by American writer John Irving, a Bildungsroman, adapted into a film and a stage play by Peter Parnell. The story, set in the pre– and post–World War II era, is about a young man, Homer Wells, growing up under the guidance of Dr. Wilbur Larch, an obstetrician and abortionist; the story relates his early life at Larch's orphanage in Maine and follows Homer as he leaves the nest and comes of age in the world. The story about Wally being shot down over Burma was based in part on that of Irving's biological father, shot down over Burma and survived. Homer Wells grows up in an orphanage where he spends his childhood trying to be "of use" as a medical assistant to the director, Dr. Wilbur Larch, whose history is told in flashbacks: After a traumatic misadventure with a prostitute as a young man, Wilbur turns his back on sex and love, choosing instead to help women with unwanted pregnancies give birth and keeping the babies in an orphanage, he makes a point of maintaining an emotional distance from the orphans, so that they can more make the transition into an adoptive family, but when it becomes clear that Homer is going to spend his entire childhood at the orphanage, Wilbur trains the orphan as an obstetrician and comes to love him like a son.

Wilbur's and Homer's lives are complicated by Wilbur secretly being an abortionist. Wilbur came to this work reluctantly, but he is driven by having seen the horrors of back-alley operations. Homer, upon learning Wilbur's secret, considers it morally wrong; as a young man, Homer befriends a young couple, Candy Kendall and Wally Worthington, who come to St. Cloud's for an abortion. Homer leaves the orphanage, returns with them to Ocean View Orchards in Heart's Rock, near the Maine coast. Wally and Homer become best Homer develops a secret love for Candy. Wally goes off to serve in the Second World War and his plane is shot down over Burma, he is presumed missing by the military, but Homer and Candy both believe he is dead and move on with their lives, which includes beginning a romantic relationship. When Candy becomes pregnant, they go back to St. Cloud's Orphanage, where their son is born and named Angel. Subsequently, Wally is found in Burma and returns home, paralyzed from the waist down, he is sterile due to an infection caught in Burma.

They lie to the family about Angel's parentage. Wally and Candy marry shortly afterward, but Candy and Homer maintain a secret affair that lasts some 15 years. Many years teenaged Angel falls in love with Rose. Rose, the daughter of the head migrant worker at the apple orchard, becomes pregnant by her father, Homer performs an abortion on her. Homer decides to return to the orphanage after the death of Wilbur. Though he maintains his distaste for abortions, he continues Dr. Larch's legacy of honoring the choice of his patients, he dreams of the day when abortions are free and safe, so he'll no longer feel obliged to offer them; the name "The Cider House Rules" refers to the list of rules that the migrant workers are supposed to follow at the Ocean View Orchards. However, none of them can read, they are unaware of the rules - which have been posted for years. A subplot follows the character Melony, she was Homer's first girlfriend in a relationship of circumstances. After Homer leaves the orphanage, so does she in an effort to find him.

She becomes an electrician and takes a female lover, Lorna. Melony is an stoic woman, who refuses to press charges against a man who brutally broke her nose and arm so that she can take revenge herself, she is the catalyst that transforms Homer from his comfortable but not admirable position at the apple orchard to becoming Dr. Larch's replacement at the orphanage; the film was adapted into a film of the same name released in 1999 directed by Lasse Hallström and starring Tobey Maguire as Homer Wells

Ni Zan

Ni Zan was a Chinese painter during the Yuan and early Ming periods. Along with Huang Gongwang, Wu Zhen, Wang Meng, he is considered to be one of the Four Masters of the Yuan Dynasty. Ni Zan was born into a wealthy family in Wuxi, his courtesy name was Yuan Zhen, his art names were Yun Lin Zi, Huan Xia Sheng, Jing Man Min. He was born after the death of the Kublai Khan, the Mongol ruler who defeated the Song and established dominance over all the areas that had traditionally been considered China; the Yuan rulers did not trust many of the Confucian scholars and instead preferred to appoint Mongolians and Muslims to administrative positions. Ni Zan was born into an elite family who could afford the cost of a rigorous Confucian education for him in spite of the unavailability of high-paying governmental jobs that traditionally were the reward for such an education, he was one of a number of wealthy scholars and poets who were part of a movement that radically altered traditional conceptions of Chinese painting.

Their paintings depicted representations of natural settings that were localized, portraying valued vistas that reflected their individual feelings. During the 1340s a number of droughts and floods caused a famine throughout Ni Zan's region, which subsequently led to peasant revolts; these revolts peaked in 1350 due to the government’s use of forced labor to repair the dikes on the Yellow River. Throughout the 1340s, the Yuan rulers imposed heavy taxes on the rich landowners of the region in order to cover the cost of the ongoing natural disasters. There are many divergent opinions concerning Ni Zan’s reaction to these taxes, his ensuing actions are unclear. However, it has been established that he distributed all of his possessions to his friends and moved into a houseboat, he left on the eve of the millenarianist Red Turban Revolt and travelled throughout the peaceful southeast while various revolutionary parties tore through his region of origin. It was at this time. Ni Zan's landscapes after 1345 all take much the same form: ink-monochrome paintings of separated riverbanks rendered in sketch brushwork and foreground trees silhouetted against the expanse of water.

His sparse landscapes never defy many traditional concepts of Chinese painting. Many of his works hardly represent the natural settings. Indeed, Ni Zan consciously used his art as a medium of self-expression. In 1364, he said “I use bamboo painting to write out the exhilaration in my breast, all. Why should I worry whether it shows likeness or not?” Ni Zan travelled around southern China during the collapse of the Yuan Dynasty and spent his time painting. During his lifetime, his work was valued and in itself was enough to pay for the hospitality provided by his friends as he travelled, he returned to his hometown in 1371 after the establishment of the Ming Dynasty. In 1372, he painted his Rongxi Studio. Masterpieces of Chinese Art, by Rhonda and Jeffrey Cooper, Todtri Productions, 1997. ISBN 1-57717-060-1 Cahill, James. Hills Beyond a River: Chinese Painting of the Yuan Dynasty: 1279-1368. New York: Weatherhill, 1976. 114-120. Fong, Wen C. Beyond Representation: Chinese Painting and Calligraphy 8th-14th Century.

New Haven: Yale UP, 1992. Siren, Osvald. Chinese Painting: Leading masters and principles. Vol. IV. New York: Hacker Art Books, 1973. 79-84. Xin, Nie Chongzhen, Lang Shaojin, Richard M. Barnhart, James Cahill, Wu Hung. Three Thousand Years of Chinese Painting. New Haven: Yale UP, 1997. Vandier-Nicolas, Peinture chinoise et tradition lettrée, Paris: Seuil. 173-177. Ci hai bian ji wei yuan hui (辞海编辑委员会). Ci hai (辞海). Shanghai: Shanghai ci shu chu ban she (上海辞书出版社), 1979. Ni Zan and his painting gallery at China Online Museum Met Museum Sung and Yuan paintings, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries, which contains material on Ni Zan

Mehdiana Sahib

Gurdwara Mehdiana Sahib called the'School of Sikh History' is a Sikh gurdwara located in the village of Mehdiana, just outside Mallha,near Jagraon in Ludhiana district, India. Sikhs believe the site of the gurdwara to be where Guru Gobind Singh and his followers rested after the Battle of Chamkaur against the Imperial Mughal armies of Aurangzeb and where he was requested by his followers or the Sangat to write the Zafarnamah; the gurdwara is known for its uniquely coloured architecture and monuments depicting important events in Sikh history. Additionally, the Dhaab, greenery and trees made Mehdiana Sahib popular with pilgrims. Today parts of the Gurdwara have become dilapidated due to a lack of funds resulting from its isolated location and private ownership status. In 1705 Mughal armies under Aurangzeb laid siege to Anandpur Sahib intent on reducing the influence of Guru Gobind Singh and the Khalsa. During the siege Aurangzeb sent a signed letter to Guru Gobind Singh offering safe passage out of Anandpur.

Pressed by his followers and family he accepted and evacuated Anandpur on 20–21 December 1705. Guru Gobind Singh, his two eldest sons and thirty-eight followers arrived at Chamkaur, where they were granted shelter. Despite assurance from Aurangzeb of safe passage a contingent of the imperial army was sent to lay siege to the haveli. Vastly outnumbered Guru Gobind Singh was disguised as another Sikh and escaped with only three others including Bhai Daya Singh and Bhai Dharam Singh. Guru Gobind Singh reached Mehdiana after gathering support from across the Malwa region passing through the villages of Raikot, Lamme Jattpure & Manuke before reaching Mehdiana; the nearest habitation at the time was 3 miles away so Guru Gobind Singh and his followers rested by cleaned their teeth using tree twigs and bathed in the water. While Guru Gobind Singh was meditating Bhai Daya Singh asked what they should do next. Guru Gobind Singh's reply encouraged his followers to have faith in God’s will as they had done no wrong.

"Bhai Daya have become victorious. Singh and Tiger are kings of the same jungle. Singhs should keep faith in the Almighty." Still distressed Bhai Daya Singh again repeated his requested, on behalf of all Sikhs. Guru Gobind Singh's reply showed that despite being Guru to the Sikhs Guru Gobind Singh was only a mortal man and that in reality he was a servant to God and the Sangat; the quote refers to the execution Guru Gobind Singh’s farther and proceeding Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur for opposing forced conversion to Islam of Kashmiris by Aurangzeb "Sangat is bigger than Guru. Sent father to Delhi on Kashmiri Pandits plea. On Sangat's request left Anandpur Sahib, left Chamkaur Garhi on Sangat's request, now you are asking me on Sangat's behalf." Discussions about the future of the Sikhs continued until on Sangat's request Guru Gobind Singh began to prepare his mind to begin writing the Zafarnamah. Guru Gobind Singh went to the village Chakkar that night and the next day travelled to Deena Sahib to stay with Lakhmir and Shamir.

In Chakkar he wrote the Zafarnamah and sent it to Aurangzeb in Aurangabad with Bhai Daya Singh and Bhai Dharam Das. For this reason pilgrims claim that Mehdiana Sahib has Guru Gobind Singh’s blessing and that visiting will mean their prayers will not go unanswered. Before the late 1960s the Mehdiana complex looked like a forest with dense trees and bushes growing all around the place of worship; the gurdwara was not developed and maintained properly and there was no habitation within a distance of two to three miles. Jathedar Jora Singh Lakha took the responsibility for its development and made Mehdiana Sahib a popular destination for pilgrims. In 1972, when Lakha started the work, only a few acres were attached to the gurdwara but the gurdwara complex covered 25 acres. In the vicinity of this gurdwara are the sculptures and statues of Sikh warriors who not only laid their lives for the sake of the religion but endured torture at the hands of the Mughals; these statues depict soldiers and children being cut to pieces.

Some sculptures show Bhai Kanhaiya, one of the soldiers of Guru Gobind Singh, serving water not only to the wounded soldiers in their own army but to wounded enemy soldiers. Through these sculptures Lakha not only aimed to depict history but to educate people that religion was more important than their lives, he felt it was better to sacrifice one's life than to accept injustice and cruelty and lose one's self-respect. He has tried to show that the Sikh religion was born from the sacrifices of our ancestors and that religion should not be taken for granted; the importance of preserving one's self-respect and the triumph of good over evil have been beautifully depicted in the sculptures and paintings. The gurdwara is a fine specimen of Sikh architecture. Crores of rupees have been spent on its construction. Exquisite meenakari work can be seen here. On the door of the eighth floor of the building is engraved a picture of Bhai Gurdas, dictating the bagtan di bani to the fifth guru. On the walls of the gurdwara are engraved images of Guru Gobind Singh's deeds along with his hymns and on the main door is shown Bhai Daya Singh Hura holding the horse of the Guru.

Inside the main building of gurdwara a beautifully decorated Guru Granth Sahib is kept. The gurdwara complex has its own Dasmesh Public School. Around 500 children from surrounding villages come in this school. To the right of the gurdwara building is a museum which houses beautiful paintings depicting the journey of Guru Gobind Singh from Patna to Anandpur Sahib. Near the main buildin

Predator (franchise)

Predator is a science-fiction action horror media franchise centered on the film series depicting mankind's encounters with a race of extraterrestrial trophy hunters known as "the Predator". Produced and distributed by 20th Century Studios, the series began with Predator, directed by John McTiernan, was followed by three sequels, Predator 2, The Predator, directed by Stephen Hopkins, Nimród Antal, Shane Black, respectively; the series has led to numerous novels and video game spin-offs such as Predator: Concrete Jungle released in 2005 to mixed reviews. The Alien vs. Predator franchise combines the continuities of the Alien franchise with the Predator franchise and consists of two films as well as varying series of comics and video games; the Predator franchise depicts a series of deadly encounters between humanity and a hostile, trophy hunting, extraterrestrial species known as the Predators. Predominantly transpiring in the present day of the 20th and 21st century, the series comprises films that, while independent, portray human confrontations with Predators in different locations and time zones.

The franchise's sole recurring plot detail has mercenaries and corporations, including the OWLF headed by CIA agent Peter Keyes and its successor Project Stargazer headed by his son Sean Keyes, tracking the Predators whenever they appear. Both groups pursue them for different reasons, the former to eliminate them because they are seen as terrible threats, the latter to capture them for scientific and military purposes. Predator was John McTiernan's first studio film as director; the studio hired screenplay writer Shane Black to not only play a supporting role in the film, but to keep an eye on McTiernan due to the director's inexperience. Jean-Claude Van Damme was cast as the film's creature, the idea being that the physical action star would use his martial arts skills to make the creature an agile, ninja-esque hunter; when compared to Arnold Schwarzenegger, Carl Weathers, Jesse Ventura, actors known for their bodybuilding regimes, it became apparent a more physically imposing man was needed to make the creature appear threatening.

Van Damme was removed from the film and replaced by the actor and mime artist Kevin Peter Hall. A Van Damme easter egg was featured in The Predator; the Predator creature's design is credited to special effects artist Stan Winston. While flying to Japan with Aliens director James Cameron, hired to design the Predator, was doing concept art on the flight. Cameron saw what he was drawing and said, "I always wanted to see something with mandibles", Winston subsequently included them in his designs. Schwarzenegger recommended Winston after his experience working on The Terminator; the film's creature was designed with a long neck, a dog-like head and a single eye. This design was abandoned when it became apparent that the jungle locations would make shooting the complex design too difficult; the studio contracted the makeup effects for the alien from Richard Edlund's Boss Film Creature Shop. However, with problems filming the creature in Mexico and attempts to create a convincing monster of Van Damme, wearing a much different body suit, makeup effects responsibilities were given to Winston and his studio, R/Greenberg Associates.

According to former Boss Film Creature Shop makeup supervisor Steve Johnson, the makeup failed because of an impractical design by McTiernan that included 12-inch-length extensions that gave the creature a backward bent satyr-leg. The design did not work in the jungle locations. After six weeks of shooting in the jungles of Palenque, the production had to shut down so that Winston could make the new creature; this took eight months and filming resumed for five weeks. The clicking sound of the creature was provided by Peter Cullen. Despite his resolution not to voice any more monsters following injuries to his throat sustained during the ADR of King Kong, his agent convinced him to audition; the clicking sound was inspired by a mixture of the visual of the creature and his recollection of a dying horseshoe crab. R/Greenberg Associates created the film's optical effects, including the creature's ability to become invisible, its thermal vision point-of-view, its glowing blood, the electric spark effects.

The invisibility effect was achieved by having someone in a bright red suit the size of the creature. The take was repeated without the actors using a 30% wider lens on the camera; when the two takes were combined optically, a vague outline of the alien could be seen with the background scenery bending around its shape. For the thermal vision, infrared film could not be used because it did not register in the range of body temperature wavelengths; the glowing blood was achieved by green liquid from chem-lite sticks used by campers. The electrical sparks were rotoscoped animation using white paper pin registered on portable light tables to black-and-white prints of the film frames; the drawings were composited by the optical crew for the finished effects. In an interview on Predator Special Edition, actor Carl Weathers said many of the actors would secretly wake up as early as 3 a.m. to work out before the day's shooting, in order to look "pumped" during the scene. Weathers stated that he would act as if his physique was given to him, would work out only after all the other actors were nowhere to be seen.

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Terry Lewis (police officer)

Terence Murray Lewis, GM is a former Commissioner of the Queensland Police Service, convicted and jailed for corruption and forgery as a result of the Fitzgerald Inquiry. He was stripped of two other awards in consequence. Lewis has continued to protest his innocence, sued his former lawyers and pursued appeals; the last of his appeals failed in August 2005. Lewis was inducted as a police officer in 1949; as a senior constable, Lewis was in charge of the Juvenile Aid Bureau. He was implicated in the National Hotel scandal. Lewis was a close associate of the corrupt former Police Commissioner Francis Bischof and was one of his bagmen. Informant, Shirley Brifman, said: "the collect boys were Lewis and Hallahan; that went to Bischof ". In late 1975 Inspector Lewis was transferred to Charleville, at the same time Tony Murphy was posted to Longreach. However, with Joh Bjelke-Petersen unhappy with Commissioner Whitrod, he made not one but two trips to Charleville in March and May 1976 to talk with Lewis, mentioned to him as a possible future commissioner.

Two opportunities came to overthrow Commissioner Whitrod: the Premier shifting Police Minister Max Hodges into another portfolio, replaced by Tom Newbery and the retirement on 15 September of Assistant Commissioner Norm Gulbransen. On 15 November 1976, the State Cabinet had rejected Whitrod’s proposed candidates to replace Assistant Commissioner Gulbransen and instead selected Lewis, who had beaten 122 equal or more senior officers for the role. Former Royal Commissioner, Donald Stewart, observed that in 1976, Lewis "was plucked from well-deserved obscurity by Premier Bjelke-Petersen to be his vassal, to do his bidding, lawful or otherwise". Lewis was promoted to the rank of Assistant Police Commissioner to Ray Whitrod, Whitrod refused to work with him and resigned in protest when Bjelke-Petersen insisted on Lewis's appointment. Lewis served as Police Commissioner from 1976 to 1987, receiving a knighthood, but was stood down by police minister Bill Gunn on 21 September 1987, before being dismissed on 19 April 1989.

By 1980, Detective Jack Herbert had become Lewis' bagman, but he became a major informant against Lewis and others at the Fitzgerald Inquiry. Assistant Commissioner Graeme Parker confessed to corruption and implicated Lewis on 16 September 1987. Following the end of the Fitzgerald Inquiry, Lewis was charged in 1989 with 23 counts of perjury and forgery. After hearing evidence over five months, having deliberated for five days, a District Court jury found that although Lewis had not lied to the inquiry, he had accepted bribes totalling $700,000 to protect brothels, SP bookmakers, illegal casinos and in-line machine operators, to prevent poker machines being introduced in Queensland, he was found to have forged Bjelke-Petersen's signature on an official police document in 1981. Judge Healy sentenced Lewis to the maximum prison term possible – 14 years on the 15 corruption charges and 10 years on the forgery charge – to be served concurrently, fixed a non-parole period of 9½ years, fined Lewis $50,000 on each of the corruption charges.

Lewis was paroled in 2002 after serving 10½ years. He has continued suing his former lawyers and pursuing further appeals; the last of his appeals failed in August 2005. Lewis received the following honours: Churchill Fellowship in 1968 for his work with the Juvenile Aid Bureau. In March 1993 the Queen stripped Lewis of the awards of Knight Bachelor, Officer of the Order of the British Empire and Queen's Police Medal for Merit. Lewis became only the 14th person since the 14th century to be stripped of his knighthood, he retained the George Medal, awarded for gallantry. Domenico Cacciola Francis Bischof Leisha Harvey Don Lane Brian Austin Whitton, Evan; the hillbilly dictator: Australia's police state. Sydney: ABC Enterprises. ISBN 0-642-12809-X. Bishop, Steve; the Most Dangerous Detective: the Outrageous Glen Patrick Hallahan and the Rat Pack, Amazon.com. ISBN 9781480253797 Condon, Matthew Three Crooked Kings, University of Queensland Press ISBN 9780702238918 Two books about crime and corruption in the Queensland police – Gold Coast Writers Association, 2014.

"Resignation at root of inquiry", News Limited, 1 January 2007 "The State of Play in Acquisition of Property: Theophanous v The Commonwealth" PDF, Sean Brennan, 16 February 2007, The Courier Mail 2 March 2013 "Last Man Standing: Condemned former state police commissioner Terence Lewis decides it's time to tell his side of the story", Matthew Condon

Robert of Arbrissel

Robert of Arbrissel was an itinerant preacher, founder of the abbey of Fontevrault. He was died at Orsan; the first Vita was written by Baudri of Dol, bishop of Dol-en-Bretagne, shortly after Robert's death in 1116. A second Life was commissioned a few years by Petronilla, Abbess of Fontevrault to support her authority as abbess. Robert was born around 1045 at Arbrissel in the son of Domalioch and Orguende, his father was a parish priest. Married clergy were not uncommon prior to the Gregorian reform, he succeeded his father as priest to the parish. Seeking to improve his education, he went to Paris where he spent some years in study under Anselm of Laon and displayed considerable theological knowledge; the date and place of his ordination are unknown. Sometime prior to 1076, Robert returned to his parish. In 1078, Bishop Sylvester de La Guerche, was deposed by a legate of Gregory VII, as Robert had supported Sylvester's election, Robert was compelled to leave the diocese. Robert resumed his studies in Paris.

He served as Sylvester's archpriest running the diocese of Rennes. Bishop Sylvester attempted, with Robert's assistance, to introduce reforms, which provoked antagonism on the part of the Breton clergy. Upon the death of Sylvester around 1093, Robert fled to Angers and there commenced ascetic practices which he continued throughout his life. In 1095 he became a hermit in the forest of Craon, living a life of severe penance in the company of Bernard of Thiron, afterwards founder of the Congregation of Tiron, founder of Savigny Abbey, others of considerable note, his piety and asceticism attracted many followers, for whom in 1096 he founded the monastery of La Roé of Canons Regular, becoming himself the first abbot. In the same year Urban II summoned him to Angers and appointed him an apostolic missionary authorized to preach anywhere, his eloquence, heightened by his strikingly ascetic appearance, drew crowds everywhere. Those who desired to embrace the monastic state under his leadership he sent to La Roé, but the Canons objected to the number and diversity of the postulants.

Robert resigned the abbacy, in 1099 founded the double monastery of Fontevrault. He appointed Hersende of Champagne, kinswoman to the Duke of Brittany as abbess, Petronilla, baroness of Chemille, as coadjutress. Fontrevault followed the Rule of St. Benedict. Robert's legend has long alluded to the presence of converted prostitutes and there is indeed considerable contemporary evidence for this assertion. Baldric of Dol writes of the presence amongst Robert's disciples of meretrices – a Latin word used at the time to refer to prostitutes, or at the least, morally loose women; the almost-certainty of prostitutes being amongst Robert's followers is confirmed by a text discovered at the monastery of Vaux-de-Cernay. In the text, Robert speaks of sin to the prostitutes there. Robert aimed to “attract adulterers and prostitutes to the medicine of repentance”, the text avers; the story it relates may not be true in the matters of its facts, but it relates the essential truth that Robert had prostitute followers – by virtue of showing that such a story was in common currency at the time.

Robert dedicated one of the houses at his abbey of Fontevrault to Mary Magdalene. Robert continued his missionary journeys over the whole of Western France till the end of his life, but little is known of this period, he was, accused by Abbot Geoffrey of Vendôme and Bishop Marbod of Rennes for sleeping with some of his female followers. It is more that Robert was mimicking the practice of syneisaktism, an early church practice in which male and female religious would live together in a form of chaste marriage. At the Council of Poitiers, November 1100, he supported the papal legates in excommunicating Philip I of France on account of his lawless union with Bertrade de Montfort. Knowledge of his approaching death caused him to take steps to ensure the permanence of his foundation at Fontevrault, he summoned a Chapter to settle the form of government. From Hautebruyère a priory founded by the penitent Bertrade, he went to Orsan, another priory of Fontevrault, where he died; the "Vita Andreæ" gives a detailed account of his last year of life.

Robert was never canonized, but was beatified: thus is Blessed Robert's feast day in the Western Church February 24. The accusation made against him by Geoffrey of Vendôme of extreme indiscretion in his choice of exceptional ascetic practices was the source of much controversy during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Other evidence of eccentric actions on Robert's part and scandals among his mixed followers may have helped to give rise to these rumors; the Fontevrists did everything in their power to discredit the attacks on their founder. The accusatory letters of bishop Marbodius of Rennes and Geoffrey of Vendôme were without sufficient cause declared to be forgeries and the MS. Letter of Peter of Saumur was made away with at the instigation of Jeanne Baptiste de Bourbon, Abbess of Fontevrault; this natural daughter of Henry IV of France applied to Pope Innocent X for the beatification of Robert, her request being supported by Louis XIV and Henrietta of England. Both this attempt and one made about the middle of the nineteenth century failed, but Robert is given the title of "Blessed".

The original recension of the