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The Criterion Collection

The Criterion Collection, Inc. is an American home video distribution company which focuses on licensing "important classic and contemporary films" and selling them to film aficionados. Criterion is noted for helping to standardize a number of ideas, such as performing film restoration, using the letterbox format for widescreen films, adding bonus features and commentary tracks for home video; the Criterion Collection company was founded in 1984 by Robert Stein, Aleen Stein, Joe Medjuck, who were joined by Roger Smith. In 1985, the Steins, William Becker, Jonathan B. Turell founded the Voyager Company, to publish educational multimedia CD-ROMs, during which time the Criterion Collection became a subordinate division of the Voyager Company. In March 1994, Verlagsgruppe Georg von Holtzbrinck GmbH bought 20% of Voyager for US$6.7 million. In 1997, the Voyager Company was dissolved, Holtzbrinck Publishers sold the “Voyager” brand name, 42 CD-ROM titles, the Voyager web site, associated assets, to Learn Technologies Interactive, LLC.

Robert Stein sold 42 Voyager titles to LTI from his Voyager–Criterion company share. The remaining three partners, Aleen Stein, William Becker and Jonathan Turell owned the Criterion Collection company, which has a business partnership with Janus Films, had one with Home Vision Entertainment until 2005, when Image Entertainment bought HVE. On November 4, 2013, it was announced that Sony Pictures Home Entertainment would handle distribution. In 1986, Charles Benton founded Home Vision Entertainment, the home-video division of Public Media Inc. which he had founded in 1968. The HVE company sold, advertised and distributed Criterion Collection DVDs, sold its own HVE brand of DVDs, including The Merchant Ivory Collection, the Classic Collection, a joint venture between Home Vision Entertainment and Janus Films; the latter enterprise published HVE imprint films, for which Janus Films owned the video rights, but which were unavailable from the Criterion Collection. In 2005, Image Entertainment bought HVE, thus it became the exclusive distributor of Criterion Collection products until 2013.

The Criterion Collection began to provide video-on-demand in partnership with MUBI in 2008. In February 2011, Criterion began switching its VOD offerings to Hulu Plus. In November 2016, FilmStruck, a film streaming service from Turner Classic Movies, succeeded Hulu as the exclusive streaming service for the Criterion Collection; some Criterion films were streamed by Kanopy. On October 26, 2018, Warner Bros. Digital Networks and Turner announced that FilmStruck would be shutting down on November 29. Criterion stated in a blog post that they were "trying to find ways we can bring our library and original content back to the digital space as soon as possible." On November 16, 2018, Criterion announced that they would be launching The Criterion Channel as a standalone service, wholly owned and operated by the Criterion Collection, beginning in the United States and Canada hopefully elsewhere. They announced that the service will be available through HBO Max, WarnerMedia's upcoming streaming platform when it launches in May 2020.

Criterion maintains a YouTube channel with which it markets its films. One notable feature is the "Three Reasons" playlist it has produced in which the company overlays in a few words or phrases three reasons that the film is worth watching or has entered the Criterion catalogue. In response YouTube users offer their own "Three Reasons" to promote nominations. No "Three Reasons" video has been released by Criterion since June 30, 2015. British film magazine Sight & Sound revealed in their April 2016 issue that Criterion would be expanding its releases to the United Kingdom; the first six titles were released on April 18, 2016. The Criterion Collection video company pioneered the correct aspect ratio letterboxing presentation of movies, as well as commentary soundtracks, multi-disc sets, special editions, definitive versions; these ideas and the special features introduced by the Criterion Collection have been influential, have become industry-wide standards for premium home video releases. With its 8th laserdisc release, Invasion of the Body Snatchers, Criterion introduced the letterbox format, which added black bars to the top and bottom of the 4:3 standard television set in order to preserve the original aspect ratio of the film.

Thereafter, Criterion made letterboxing the standard presentation for all its releases of films shot in widescreen aspect ratios. The Criterion Collection's second catalog title, King Kong, was the debut of the scene-specific audio commentary contained in a separate analog channel of the laserdisc, it featured US film historian Ronald Haver reporting about the production, screenplay, production design and special effects. He is the commentator for the laserdisc editions of Casablanca, Here Comes Mr. Jordan, Singin' in the Rain, The Wizard of Oz; the chapter-indexed commentaries are exclusive to the Criterion releases and their initial DVD reissues. The Criterion Collection began in 1984 with the releases of Citizen Kane and King Kong on laserdisc, the latter's source negatives courtesy of the Library of Congress; the company became known for pioneering the “special edition” DVD conce

Frank Maher (stuntman)

Francis James "Frank" Maher was a British stuntman, best known for his roles as a stuntman or stunt coordinator in a vast range of British TV shows including Danger Man and The Prisoner. He was born in London on 18 June 1929, he was a gold medal winning boxer at school. Before his career as a stuntman/actor he served in World War II in the Parachute Regiment of the British Army, he lied about his age to join the regiment which meant that he was only 15 when he took part in the battle of Arnhem. His first stunt role was as a Roman Centurion in the film Caesar And Cleopatra starring Stewart Granger, his other movie stunt roles included work on The Crimson Pirate doubling for Burt Lancaster and as a riding double in The Devil’s Disciple. His movie stunt roles included work on The Italian Job in 1969; as a stuntman on The Avengers, he played opposite both Honor Diana Rigg. After working on Man in a Suitcase, he became stunt coordinator on Department S and Randall and Hopkirk. Following his work on Danger Man, he again doubled for Patrick McGoohan in 1966-67 in the TV series The Prisoner.

He had a large role in the episode "The Schizoid Man", which required a doppelganger of McGoohan’s Number Six character to have a lot of screen time alongside the "real" Number Six. He appeared as “Third Gunman” in The Prisoner western/cowboy style episode "Living in Harmony", he claimed to have suggested the idea of having a western/cowboy style episode to McGoohan. Maher served as a stuntman / stunt coordinator / stunt arranger on a number of other TV programmes, including: Blake's 7, The Persuaders!, The Champions, Robin Hood, The Saint and Space 1999. On The Saint, he replaced Les Crawford. Moore nicknamed him "Mrs Maher" because of his careful planning of each stunt sequence, he worked as the fight arranger in the first of the BBC Northern Ireland Billy Plays "Too Late to Talk to Billy" in 1982, in which Billy was played by Kenneth Branagh. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, he wrote a number of thriller style novels including The Capricorn Run in 1979, Wipe Out in 1980 and Sahara Strike in 1980.

He wrote action sequences for films, including Die Hard. He married four times, his first marriage being to actress Dilys Laye. He had one son and one daughter, with his second wife Jackie, a dancer, he died on 13 July 2007 at St Mary's Hospital in Newport on the Isle of Wight after a long battle with emphysema. Frank Maher on IMDb Jones, Dave. "Frank Maher - Stunt Arranger & Double". The Unmutual

Lwów Voivodeship

Lwów Voivodeship was an administrative unit of interwar Poland. Because of the Nazi-Soviet invasion of Poland in accordance with the secret Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, it became occupied by both the Wehrmacht and the Red Army in September 1939. Following the conquest of Poland however, the Polish underground administration existed there until August 1944; the Voivodeship was not returned to Poland. It was split diagonally just east of Przemyśl. Voivodeship's capital, the biggest and its most important city was Lwów, it consisted of 58 towns and 252 villages. In 1921 it was inhabited by 2,789,000 people. Ten years this number rose to 3,126,300. In 1931, the population density was 110 per km²; the majority of the population was Polish in western counties. Ukrainians made up about 33% and Jews - around 7%. There were smaller communities of Armenians and other nationalities. In 1931, the illiteracy rate of the Voivodeship's population was 23.1%, about the same as national average and, at the same time, the lowest in the Polish Eastern Borderlands.

The Voivodeship's area was 28,402 square kilometres. It was located in southern Poland, bordering Czechoslovakia to the south, Kraków Voivodeship to the west, Lublin Voivodeship to the north and Volhynian Voivodeship, Stanisławów Voivodeship and Tarnopol Voivodeship to the east. Landscape was mountainous. Forest covered 23.3% of the Voivodeship area. Lwów, the voivodeship's capital, was by far its biggest city, with the population of 318,000, it was the biggest city in south-eastern Poland and the third biggest city in the country, before Kraków. Other important centers in the voivodeship were: Przemyśl, Borysław, Rzeszów, Jarosław, Sanok and Gródek Jagielloński. Bobrka county, Brzozów county, Dobromil county, Drohobycz county, Gródek Jagielloński county, Jarosław county, Jaworów county, Kolbuszowa county, Krosno county, Lesko county, Lubaczów county, city of Lwów county, Lwów county, Łańcut county, Mościska county, Nisko county, Przemyśl county, Przeworsk county, Rawa Ruska county, Rudki county, Rzeszów county, Sambor county, Sanok county, Sokal county, Tarnobrzeg county, Turka county, Żółkiew county.

Interwar Poland was unofficially divided into two parts - Poland "A" and Poland "B". Lwów Voivodeship was located on the boundary line of these, with two main centres - the city of Lwów itself and the rich in oil southern region of Borysław and Drohobycz. Starting in the mid-1930s, the Polish government decided to start a massive public works project, known as Centralny Okreg Przemyslowy; the project covered western counties of the Voivodeship. This was a huge boost for overpopulated rural areas; the project was still incomplete at the beginning of the Second World War. The railroad network was well-developed only in the area of Lwów, as the city itself was an important hub with as many as eight lines coming from it. Apart from this, some counties lacked rail connections, while others were underdeveloped. Other rail hubs were Rawa Ruska, Rzeszów, Rozwadów, Drohobycz, Chodorów, Przemyśl; as for January 1, 1938, total length of railroads within Voivodeship's boundaries was 1,534 kilometers, 5.4 km. per 100 km².

Kazimierz Grabowski, 23 April 1921 – 30 June 1924 Stanisław Zimny, 10 March 1924 – 4 December 1924 Paweł Garapich, 30 December 1924 – 28 July 1927 Piotr Dunin-Borkowski, 28 July 1927 – 30 April 1928 Wojciech Agenor Gołuchowski, 9 July 1928 – 29 August 1930 Bronisław Nakoniecznikoff-Klukowski, 29 August 1930 – 6 July 1931 Józef Rożniecki, 22 July 1931 – 30 January 1933 Władysław Belina-Prażmowski, 31 January 1933 – 14 April 1937 Alfred Biłyk, 16 April 1937 – 17 September 1939 Following the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and the subsequent Russo-German conquest of Poland, the voivodeship was divided by the victors in late September 1939. The western part of the voivodeship was annexed by Germany and added to the General Government, while the eastern part was incorp

Notoreas ortholeuca

Notoreas ortholeuca is a species of moth in the family Geometridae. It is endemic to New Zealand; this species was first described in 1923 by George Hudson using material collected by F. S. Oliver at Stoney Peak, Glenorchy near Lake Wakatipu. Hudson discussed and illustrated this species in his 1928 book The Butterflies and Moths of New Zealand; the genus Notoreas was reviewed in 1986 by R. C. Craw and the placement of this species within it was confirmed; however species within the genus Notoreas are regarded as being in need of revision. The holotype specimen has since been lost. Hudson described the species as follows: The expansion of the wings is ​1 5⁄8 inches; the fore-wings are broad, with the termen waved and hardly oblique, pale brownish-ochreous tinged with grey, with the principal veins marked in ochreous. The hind-wings are broad, with the termen hardly waved, pale greyish-ochreous clouded with grey on the terminal third; the cilia of all the wings are grey-ochreous. The head and thorax are greyish-ochreous speckled and dotted with blackish-brown, the latter with a broad brownish-black band and on each side.

The abdomen is brownish-ochreous. The antennae of the male are bipectinated, with the apex simple. N. ortholeuca is endemic to New Zealand. Along with its type locality of Stoney Peak, N. ortholeuca has been found in other mountainous areas in Central Otago including at the Obelisk Station and in the Dansey Ecological District including in the Kakanui Mountains. The female moth lays her eggs within the flower buds of their host plant; when the larvae emerge from their eggs, they eat into the leaves or buds of their host, hiding from predators. Once they are large enough, they emerge to feed from the fresh growth of the plant. N. ortholeuca pupate in a loose cocoon on the ground under their host. N. ortholeuca are day-flying moths. They are low but fast flyers and vibrate their wings to enable them to take off rapidly. Adults are on the wing in January and March; this moth species prefers to have been found in fellfields. The host plants for the larvae of N. ortholeuca are endemic species within the genus Kelleria including Kelleria childii

History of Castel Goffredo

Events in the history of Castel Goffredo, in Italy. The territory of Castel Goffredo has been inhabited since the Bronze Age; the area was therefore affected by both Etruscan civilization, as evidenced by the discovery of some everyday utensils such as cups and jugs for water, which from Roman civilization starting from 1st century, with the discovery of some votive altar and of a sepulchral tombstone. This area was affected by the centuriation of Mantua and on the romanization of the historical center some scholars suppose that this was divided into twelve blocks and characterized by cardo and Decumanus Maximus and that at the intersection of "cardo maximum" and "decumanus maximus" were placed the forum, today represented by Mazzini Square; the first mention of Castellum Vifredi as an urban agglomeration is from 8 July 1107. Between 800 and 1115 Castel Goffredo belonged to county of Brescia up to 1190; the city gave the status of free commune and when Brescia was not able to offer its defense, in 1337 preferred to place itself under the protection of Mantua and Gonzaga.

After alternate dominations of the Visconti, of the Gonzagas, again of the Visconti, of Malatesta, of the Republic of Venice and of the Gonzagas, in 1466 with Alessandro Gonzaga the village became an imperial fief autonomous and he saw the birth of Marquess of Castel Goffredo. During his term the village was enlarged, the second city walls was erected and the "Alessandrini Statutes" were issued, which bears his name and remained in force until 1796. With the marquis Aloisio Gonzaga in 1511 began the cadet branch of "Gonzaga of Castel Goffredo" and Castel Goffredo became capital of the small state. In his palace of residence he created a magnificent court, frequented by poets, artists and ambassadors. In 1516 passed through Castel Goffredo the emperor Maximilian I of Habsburg while he pursued the French troops, another emperor, Charles V, he was a guest of Aloisio Gonzaga on June 28, 1543 and obtained the keys to the citadel; the marquis commissioned the school of Giulio Romano to fresco his domus: remain in the loggia of the palace important pictorial evidence of that period.

Aloisio Gonzaga died on July 19, 1549 and his was a troubled succession. He was first succeeded by the eldest son Alfonso Gonzaga, who ruled the city from 1549 to 1592, when he died assassinated, for hereditary reasons, to Corte Gambaredolo by the hand of the nephew's assassins Rodolfo Gonzaga, brother of Aloysius Gonzaga. Rodolfo ruled Castel Goffredo in terror; the castellan people did not accept the abuses and organized a conspiracy that led to the assassination of the marquis on January 3, 1593, while going to the religious services in the St. Erasmus church]]. With his death, without male sons, the history of the locality as an autonomous Gonzaga fief and the short lordship of the "Gonzaga di Castel Goffredo" ended. After a long dispute at the imperial court of Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor between the third marquis of Castiglione Francesco Gonzaga and the duke of Mantua Vincenzo I Gonzaga, in which he intervened in 1602 as ambassador, without result, Lorenzo da Brindisi, the city was definitively aggregated by imperial decree in 1603 to Duchy of Mantua and it followed its destiny until 1707 when the last of the Gonzagas, the duke Ferdinando Carlo Gonzaga, was deposed by the emperor Joseph I of Habsburg and forced into exile.

The Austrian domination determined the occupation of the city and the requisition of the warehouses of supplies and between the 1705 and 1706 Austrian soldiers sacked Castel Goffredo, taking hostage some inhabitants. In 1796 Napoleon Bonaparte pushed the Austrians beyond Mincio and in 1797 Austria ceded Lombardy to the French. On May 13 of that year, Castel Goffredo was occupied by French troops; the Austrian governments followed in 1799, French from 1801 to 1814 and again Austrians until 1866. In the years of 1848 Castel Goffredo was the anti-Austrian conspiratorial center of the Upper Mantovano and counted the presence of numerous patriots, led by the Castellano Giovanni Acerbi, who became the intendant of Expedition of the Thousand of Garibaldi; the conspiracy was resulted in the tragic page of Belfiore martyrs. In 1859, after the Battle of Solferino and San Martino which involved the territory of Castel Goffredo being here deployed the 3rd corps of the general François Certain de Canrobert, the city was aggregated to Kingdom of Sardinia and in 1861 became part of Kingdom of Italy.

In 1871 was founded "Società di Mutuo Soccorso" which in 1900 counted three hundred members. 1925 marked the economic and industrial turnaround of Castel Goffredo: in fact, he opened the first sock factory, the NO. E. MI. Destined to write the history of the industrialization of the area. On 19 September 1926 Castel Goffredo was devastated by the assassination by the fascists of the catholic master Anselmo Cessi. After the second world war Castel Goffredo had a great economic development, becoming an industrial center of primary importance for the textile industry, thanks to the consistent production of socks for women and yarns, he acquired the title of city in 2002. Costante Berselli, Castelgoffredo nella storia, Mantua, 1978. Francesco Bonfiglio, Notizie storiche di Castelgoffredo, 1ª ed. Brescia, 1922. Leandro Zoppè, Itinerari gonzagheschi, Milan, 1988, ISBN 88-85462-10-3

Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala

Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala is a Nigerian-born economist and international development expert. She sits on the Boards of Standard Chartered Bank, Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization, the African Risk Capacity. Okonjo-Iweala spent a 25-year career at the World Bank as a development economist, scaling the ranks to the Number 2 position of Managing Director, Operations, she served two terms as Finance Minister of Nigeria under the leadership of President Olusegun Obasanjo and President Goodluck Jonathan respectively. Okonjo-Iweala was born in Ogwashi-Ukwu, Delta State, Nigeria where her father Professor Chukwuka Okonjo is the Eze from the Obahai Royal Family of Ogwashi-Ukwu. Okonjo-Iweala was educated at Queen's School, Enugu, St. Anne's School, Molete and the International School Ibadan, she arrived in the US in 1973 as a teenager to study at Harvard University, graduating magna cum laude with an AB in Economics in 1976. In 1981, she earned her Ph. D in regional economics and development from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with a thesis titled Credit policy, rural financial markets, Nigeria's agricultural development.

She received an International Fellowship from the American Association of University Women, that supported her doctoral studies. She is married to Dr. Ikemba Iweala, a neurosurgeon, they have four children - one daughter, Onyinye Iweala and three sons, Uzodinma Iweala, Okechukwu Iweala and Uchechi Iweala. Okonjo-Iweala spent a 25-year career at the World Bank in Washington DC as a development economist, rising to the No. 2 position of Managing Director. As Managing Director, she had oversight responsibility for the World Bank’s $81 billion operational portfolio in Africa, South Asia and Central Asia. Okonjo-Iweala spearheaded several World Bank initiatives to assist low-income countries during the 2008 – 2009, food crises and during the financial crisis. In 2010, she was Chair of the IDA replenishment, the World Bank’s successful drive to raise $49.3 billion in grants and low interest credit for the poorest countries in the world. During her time at the World Bank, she was a member of the Commission on Effective Development Cooperation with Africa, set up by the Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen of Denmark and held meetings between April and October 2008.

Okonjo-Iweala served twice as Nigeria’s Finance Minister and as Minister of Foreign Affairs. She was the first female to hold both positions. During her first term as Minister of Finance under president Obasanjo’s Administration, she spearheaded negotiations with the Paris Club of Creditors that led to the wiping out of US$30 billion of Nigeria’s debt, including the outright cancellation of US$18 billion. In 2003 she led efforts to improve Nigeria’s macroeconomic management including the implementation of an oil-price based fiscal rule where revenues accruing above a reference benchmark oil price were saved in a special account, “The Excess Crude Account” which helped to reduce macroeconomic volatility, she introduced the practice of publishing each state's monthly financial allocation, from the Federal Government of Nigeria in the newspapers. This action went a long way in increasing transparency in governance. With the support of the World Bank and the IMF to the Federal Government of Nigeria, she helped build an electronic financial management platform-the Government Integrated Financial Management and Information System, including the Treasury Single Account and the Integrated Payroll and Personnel Information System, helping to curtail corruption in the process.

As at 31 December 2014, the IPPIS platform had eliminated 62,893 ghost workers from the system and saved the Nigerian government about $1.25 billion in the process. Okonjo-Iweala was instrumental in helping Nigeria obtain its first sovereign credit rating from Fitch Ratings and Standard & Poor's in 2006. Following her first term as Minister of Finance, she returned to the World Bank as a Managing Director in December 2007. In 2011, Okonjo-Iweala was re-appointed as Minister of Finance in Nigeria with the expanded portfolio of the Coordinating Minister for the Economy by President Goodluck Jonathan, her legacy includes strengthening Nigeria’s public financial systems and stimulating the housing sector with the establishment of the Nigerian Mortgage Refinance Corporation. She empowered Nigeria’s women and youth with the Growing Girls and Women in Nigeria Programme; this program has been evaluated by the World Bank as one of the most effective programmes of its kind globally. Under her leadership, the National Bureau of Statistics carried out a re-basing exercise of the Gross Domestic Product,.

She took a lot of heat for the fuel subsidy removal policy by the Nigerian government, which led to protests in January 2012. In May 2016, the new Nigerian administration removed the fuel subsidy after it became apparent that it was unsustainable and inefficient. In September 2015, she joined Lazard as a senior advisor and in January 2016 she was appointed Chair of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization; as at 2019, Gavi has immunized 700 million children globally and saved 10 million livesShe is co-chair of the Global Commission for the Economy and Climate, with Nicholas Stern and Paul Polman. In July 2017, she became an independent non-executive director at Sta