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The Crown

The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions. Ill-defined, the term has different meanings depending on context, it is used to designate the monarch in either a personal capacity, as Head of the Commonwealth, or as the king or queen of his or her realms. It can refer to the rule of law. A corporation sole, the Crown is the legal embodiment of executive and judicial governance in the monarchy of each country; these monarchies are united by the personal union of their monarch. The concept of the Crown developed first in England as a separation of the literal crown and property of the kingdom from the person and personal property of the monarch, it spread through English and British colonisation and is now rooted in the legal lexicon of the United Kingdom, its Crown dependencies, the other 15 independent realms. It is not to be confused with any physical crown, such as those of the British regalia; the term is found in various expressions such as "Crown land", which some countries refer to as "public land" or "state land".

The concept of the Crown took form under the feudal system. Though not used this way in all countries that had this system, in England, all rights and privileges were bestowed by the ruler. Land, for instance, was granted by the Crown to lords in exchange for feudal services and they, in turn, granted the land to lesser lords. One exception to this was common socage—owners of land held as socage held it subject only to the Crown; when such lands become owner-less they are said to escheat. Bona vacantia is the royal prerogative; the monarch is the living embodiment of the Crown and, as such, is regarded as the personification of the state. The body of the reigning sovereign thus holds two distinct personas in constant coexistence: that of a natural-born human being and that of the state as accorded to him or her through law; the terms the state, the Crown, the Crown in Right of, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of, similar are all synonymous and the monarch's legal personality is sometimes referred to as the relevant jurisdiction's name.

As such, the king or queen is the employer of all government officials and staff, the guardian of foster children, as well as the owner of all state lands and equipment, state owned companies, the copyright for government publications. This is all in his or her position as sovereign, not as an individual; the Crown represents the legal embodiment of executive and judicial governance. While the Crown's legal personality is regarded as a corporation sole, it can, at least for some purposes, be described as a corporation aggregate headed by the monarch. Whilst the Crown refers to the monarch, this reference is to the monarch in his or her capacity as monarch, does not refer to that individual in his or her totality of ownership interests and actions; the monarch can act in a private capacity. This duality of characterisation can be illustrated in several ways. In property ownership for example, although both are royal residences, Buckingham Palace is the property of the Crown via the Crown Estate whilst Balmoral Castle is the property of Elizabeth II and not of the Crown.

The latter property can be alienated by the Queen, whereas any disposition of the former property would need to be done via instrument of government as an act of state. The Queen's bank accounts at Coutts contain components of her private wealth only, whilst the resources of the monarch acting as the Crown are dispensed from HM Treasury and the Crown Estate to the Royal Household. A third example is in employment relationships; however those who assist as employees of the monarch as the Crown do so on employment from the Royal Household, the official department charged with supporting the monarch. Those who are directly appointed to official positions by the monarch (commission

Big Day Out lineups by year

This is a listing of artists and bands who have performed at a Big Day Out music festival, listed by year. Big Day Out began in 1992 in Sydney and has expanded since to include several Australian venues and Auckland, New Zealand; each year, the line-up of artists changes maintaining rock as the focus, but featuring hip-hop and blues and roots artists. The line ups have included. Notes A ^ The Welcome Mat were the first band to perform for the day, thus became the first band to perform at any Big Day Out festival. Notes A ^ Oasis were named in the lineup, but cancelled after Liam Gallagher lost his voice. Notes A ^ Sepultura were named in the lineup, but cancelled after Max Cavalera left the band in December 1996. Sepultura were replaced by Fear Factory. Plus - The Porkers Big Day Out was not held in 1998. Notes A ^ Mr. Bungle was going to appear, but was "kicked off" the festival due to an ongoing dispute with Red Hot Chili Peppers. Notes A ^ Originally, Limp Bizkit was scheduled to headline the tour and appear at all locations, however after the death of a crowd member at the Sydney show, the group chose to withdraw from the remaining shows of the tour.

Notes A ^ American band A Perfect Circle withdrew from the lineup, while the group Fear Factory appeared as a mystery artist playing in place of all of A Perfect Circle's scheduled performances. Notes A ^ AFI, Mylo and Jean Grae withdrew from all scheduled performances in Big Day Out 2006. Notes A ^ Tool's performance in Auckland featured Serj Tankian of System of a Down for the song "Sober" Notes A ^ Björk was forced to pull out her performance at the Sydney Big Day Out under doctor's orders following swelling on her vocal cords. Notes A ^ Fantômas appeared at all shows performing their album The Director's Cut in its entirety. B ^ The Vines were forced to cancel all shows due to singer Craig Nicholls state of mental health; the first official line-up for the 2010 installment was posted on the Big Day Out website just before midnight 28 September 2009. The second official line-up for the 2010 installment was posted on the Big Day Out website just before midnight 11 November 2009; the full line-up was.

- incorrect - they played Friday 22nd on the Hot Produce stage as they did the next day Saturday 23 January 2010. B ^ Beenie Man was withdrawn from lineup by organizers; the first line-up for the 2011 Big Day Out was released via the Big Day Out website at 12:01am 28 September. The second announcement was completed the 2011 line-up. For the second year in a row Sydney held two festivals due to increasing popularity of the event. Official line-up is as follows: Notes A ^ At the Adelaide performance, Tool were joined by Till Lindemann and Christoph Schneider of Rammstein for an extended performance and pyrotechnics display during Lateralus. B ^ The Black Keys withdrew from the Big Day Out lineup. C ^ Primal Scream appeared at all shows performing their 1991 album Screamadelica in its entirety. D ^ New Zealand band Shihad performed their hit album from 1999, The General Electric in its entirety; the lineup was announced on 29 September 2011. The first 17 artists were announced over the Big Day Out Twitter page from 8 until 10pm.

The three main headliners were announced on 30 September 2011 on Triple J. Tony Hawk was announced as a non-musical special guest. Bold indicates headline act. Notes A ^ Kanye West was announced to play all shows, but was withdrawn from the Auckland and Adelaide line-ups. B ^ Hilltop Hoods were withdrawn from the Perth show. C ^ Odd Future were withdrawn from the Auckland show after complaints concerning their homophobic lyrics, they still performed in Auckland. D ^ Tony Hawk appeared at all Big Day Out festivals in 2012 performing skate demonstrations; the first lineup was announced at midnight on 16 July. The Red Hot Chili Peppers were announced shortly before the first lineup announcement. Lucha VaVOOM was announced as a non-musical special guest. Bold indicates headline act. Kaskade cancelled Adelaide and Perth on the festival. Nicky Romero instead played the first four shows on the 2013 tour; the first lineup was announced at 8:00PM AEST on 31 July. Bold indicates headline act. Blur and DIIV withdrew from the 2014 lineup.

Notes A ^ With no event in 2015, Cosmic Psychos are the only band to play both the first Big Day Out and the last. There was no Big Day Out in 2015, it was announced on 26 June 2014. The announcement came after long-running speculation over the future of the summer festival and revelations the day before from Sydney Showground executives that festival organisers had cancelled their 2015 venue booking. Big Day Out Official Website

Jonathon Crawford

Jonathon Neal Crawford is an American professional baseball pitcher, a free agent. Crawford attended Okeechobee High School in Florida, he enrolled at the University of Florida, where he played college baseball for the Florida Gators. On June 1, 2012 he threw a no-hitter against Bethune-Cookman. In the summer of 2012, he played for the United States collegiate national team. In his three years at Florida, he went; the Detroit Tigers drafted Crawford in the first round of the 2013 Major League Baseball draft. He signed on June 14, 2013. Crawford made his professional debut that season with the Connecticut Tigers, he finished the year with a 1.89 ERA over eight starts. In 2014, Crawford pitched for the West Michigan Whitecaps, he started 23 games. On December 11, 2014, the Tigers traded Crawford and Eugenio Suárez to the Cincinnati Reds for Alfredo Simón, he began 2015 on the disabled list before beginning to rehab with the AZL Reds in late June, pitching three games for them. He pitched two games for the Daytona Tortugas, giving up five runs in 5.1 innings, but was placed on the disabled list again, missed the remainder of the season.

In 2016, Crawford once again began the season on the disabled list, did not begin rehabbing in the AZL until June. He returned to Daytona in August and spent the last half of the season there, pitching to a 1–3 record and 6.35 ERA in six starts. He spent 2017 back with Daytona. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference Florida Gators bio