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The Day the Music Died

On February 3, 1959, American rock and roll musicians Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens, "The Big Bopper" J. P. Richardson were killed in a plane crash near Clear Lake, together with pilot Roger Peterson; the event became known as "The Day the Music Died", after singer-songwriter Don McLean referred to it as such in his 1971 song "American Pie". At the time and his band, consisting of Waylon Jennings, Tommy Allsup, Carl Bunch, were playing on the "Winter Dance Party" tour across the Midwest. Rising artists Valens and Dion and the Belmonts had joined the tour as well; the long journeys between venues on board the cold, uncomfortable tour buses adversely affected the performers, with cases of flu and frostbite. After stopping at Clear Lake to perform, frustrated by such conditions, Holly chose to charter a plane to reach their next venue in Moorhead, Minnesota. Richardson, suffering from flu, swapped places with Jennings, taking his seat on the plane, while Allsup lost his seat to Valens on a coin toss.

Soon after takeoff, late at night and in poor, wintry weather conditions, the pilot lost control of the light aircraft, a Beechcraft Bonanza, which subsequently crashed into a cornfield. Everyone on board was killed; the event has since been mentioned in various films. A number of monuments have been erected at the crash site and in Clear Lake, where an annual memorial concert is held at the Surf Ballroom, the venue that hosted the artists' last performance. Buddy Holly terminated his association with the Crickets in November 1958. For the start of the "Winter Dance Party" tour, he assembled a band consisting of Waylon Jennings, Tommy Allsup, Carl Bunch, with the opening vocals of Frankie Sardo; the tour was set to cover 24 Midwestern cities in as many days. New hit artist Ritchie Valens, "The Big Bopper" J. P. Richardson and Dion DiMucci and his band The Belmonts joined the tour to promote their recordings and make an extra profit; the tour began in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, on January 23, 1959 and the performance at Clear Lake on February 2 was the 11th of 24 scheduled locations.

The amount of travel soon became a logistical problem. The distances between venues had not been properly considered. General Artists Corporation, the organization that booked the tour received considerable criticism for their total disregard for the conditions they forced the touring musicians to endure: They didn't care, it was like they threw darts at a map... The tour from hell – that's what they named it – and it's not a bad name; the entire company of musicians traveled together in one bus, although the buses used for the tour were wholly inadequate, breaking down and being replaced frequently. Griggs estimates that five separate buses were used in the first 11 days of the tour – "reconditioned school buses, not good enough for school kids." The artists themselves were responsible for loading and unloading equipment at each stop, as no road crew assisted them. Adding to the disarray, the buses were not equipped for the weather, which consisted of waist-deep snow in several areas and varying temperatures from 20 °F to as low as −36 °F.

One bus had a heating system that broke down shortly after the tour began, in Wisconsin. Richardson and Valens began experiencing flu-like symptoms and drummer Bunch was hospitalized for frostbitten feet, after the tour bus broke down in the middle of the highway in subzero temperatures near Ironwood, Michigan; the musicians replaced that bus with another school bus, kept traveling. After Bunch was hospitalized, Carlo Mastrangelo of The Belmonts took over the drumming duties; when Dion and The Belmonts were performing, the drum seat was taken by either Holly. As Holly's group had been the backing band for all of the acts, Valens, DiMucci took turns playing drums for each other at the performances in Green Bay and Clear Lake, Iowa. On Monday, February 2, the tour arrived in Clear Lake, having driven 350 miles from the previous day's concert in Green Bay; the town had not been a scheduled stop, but the tour promoters, hoping to fill an open date, called the manager of the local Surf Ballroom, Carroll Anderson, offered him the show.

He accepted, they set the show for that night. By the time Holly arrived at the venue that evening, he was frustrated with the ongoing problems with the bus; the next scheduled destination after Clear Lake was Moorhead, Minnesota, a 365 miles drive north and northwest No let up after, in sight, as the following day, they were scheduled to travel back directly south to Sioux City, Iowa, a 325 miles trip. Holly chartered a plane to take himself and his band to Fargo, North Dakota, adjacent to Moorhead; the rest of the party would have picked him up in Moorhead, saving him the journey in the bus and leaving him time to get some rest. Anderson called Hubert Jerry Dwyer, owner of the Dwyer Flying Service, a company in Mason City, to charter the plane to fly to Hector Airport in Fargo, the closest one to Moorhead. Flight arrangements were made with Roger Peterson, a 21-year-old local pilot described as a "young married man who built his life around flying"; the flying service charged a fee of $36 per passenger for the flight on the 1947 single-engined, V-tailed Beechcraft 35 Bonanza, which could seat three passengers plus the pilot.

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Team JVA

Team John Village Automotive is a British motor racing team founded by the former Formula Ford champion John Village in 1980 and headquartered in Chesterfield, England. The team was founded as a race preparation business. In the 1980s JVA ran in Formula Ford, winning the Spanish championship with Victor López Ferraz and at international level, by winning the Formula Ford Festival with Vincenzo Sospiri in 1988. In the 1990s, the team entered Formula Vauxhall Lotus. Kelvin Burt won the 1991 championship and Oliver Gavin was runner-up in 1992. JVA ran in Formula Vauxhall Junior and won the championship in 1996 with Tim Mullen. Team JVA have been involved in Italian Formula 3000/Euro Formula 3000 since 1999, at first in collaboration with Edenbridge Racing, Arden Team Russia, B&C Competition, on its own since 2002. In 2005, it ran in the rival Pro Series. Since 2005–06, the team has worked with A1 Team Canada in A1 Grand Prix. D. C. = Drivers' Championship position, T. C. = Teams' Championship position., Team JVA official website

Habitat (horse)

Habitat was an American-bred British-trained Thoroughbred racehorse and sire. In a racing career which lasted from April until October 1969, the colt ran eight times and won five races. Unraced as a two-year-old, he proved to be the best European miler of 1969, winning the Lockinge Stakes and the Wills Mile in England and travelling to France to win the Prix Quincey and the Prix du Moulin, he was retired to stud where he became an outstandingly successful sire of racehorses and broodmares. Habitat was a bay horse standing 16.1 hands high bred in Kentucky by Nuckols Bros. He was sired by Sir Gaylord, a half brother to Secretariat and a successful racehorse and sire in his own right: at the time of Habitat's racing career he was at the height of his reputation as a breeding stallion, having sired the 1968 Epsom Derby winner Sir Ivor. Habitat's dam. Little Hut, won five races and produced several other winners including Northfields who won the Louisiana Derby and became a successful sire in Europe and South Africa.

As a yearling, Habitat was sent to the Keeneland Sales where he was bought for $105,000 by the American businessman Charles Engelhard. The colt was sent to England to be trained by Fulke Johnson Houghton at Blewbury in Berkshire. Habitat was slow to mature and did not appear as a two-year-old in 1968. In April 1969 he made his debut in the Royal Stakes, a trial race for The Derby at Sandown Park and finished unplaced, he next finished second in a minor race at Windsor Racecourse and recorded his first win when taking the Willows Plate at Haydock Park by five lengths in May. That month, Habitat was moved up in class and matched against older horses in the Lockinge Stakes over one mile at Newbury Racecourse. Ridden by the Australian jockey Ron Hutchinson, he started at odds of 10/1 and won by one and a half lengths from a strong field which included, Jimmy Reppin, Tower Walk and Wolver Hollow. In June at Royal Ascot, Habitat was matched against the 2000 Guineas winner Right Tack in the St. James's Palace Stakes.

Ridden by Lester Piggott, he was beaten half a length by the classic winner in a rough and unsatisfactory race which resulted in Piggott receiving a seven-day suspension from riding. In August Habitat was sent to France for the Prix Quincey over 1600 metres at Deauville Racecourse and won from the Cheveley Park Stakes winner Mige. Less than a week he returned to England to contest the Wills Mile at Goodwood Racecourse. Ridden again by Piggott, he won at odds of 9/2 from Jimmy Reppin. On his final start, Habitat returned to France for the Prix du Moulin at Longchamp Racecourse on 5 October, he won by two lengths with Right Tack and Welsh Pageant among the unplaced runners. At the end of the year, Habitat was sold to a syndicate of breeders for £400,000 and retired to stud. In 1969 Habitat was awarded a rating of 134 by the independent Timeform organisation, making him their highest-rated horse of the season, they chose however, to give their Horse of the Year Award to the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe winner Levmoss, rated on 133.

Habitat stood as a stallion at the Grangewilliam Stud in County Kildare Ireland and was an immediate success. His Group One winners included Bassenthwaite, Distant Relative, Flying Water, Habibti, Hittite Glory, Rose Bowl, Steinlen, Double Form, Smokey Lady and Steel Heart. Habitat was an outstandingly successful sire of broodmares, being the damsire of Reference Point, Barathea, Grand Lodge and Las Meninas, he was the Leading broodmare sire in Great Britain & Ireland in 1987, 1994 and 1996. Despite his success as a stallion, Habitat has not been considered an enduring influence as few of his sons made any impact at stud. Habitat was euthanised at Grangewilliam on 23 June 1987

Na Kae District

Na Kae is a district in the province Nakhon Phanom in northeast Thailand. Neighboring districts are: Wang Yang, Pla Pak, Renu Nakhon, That Phanom of Nakhon Phanom Province; the district dates back to Mueang Kabin, deserted after it was invaded by an enemy army. It was resettled by Lao people. In 1917 the district's name was changed from Nong Sun to Na Kae; the name means ` field of Kae trees'. Na Kae is divided into 12 sub-districts, which are further subdivided into 143 administrative villages. Missing numbers are tambons. There are two sub-district municipalities in the district: Na Kae consisting of parts of sub-district Na Kae. Phra Song consisting of sub-district Phra Song. There are 11 subdistrict administrative organizations in the district: Na Kae consisting of parts of sub-district Na Kae. Nong Sang consisting of sub-district Nong Sang. Na Khu consisting of sub-district Na Khu. Phiman consisting of sub-district Phiman. Phum Kae consisting of sub-district Phum Kae. Kan Lueang consisting of sub-district Kan Lueang.

Nong Bo consisting of sub-district Nong Bo. Na Liang consisting of sub-district Na Liang. Ban Kaeng consisting of sub-district Ban Kaeng. Kham Phi consisting of sub-district Kham Phi. Si Chomphu consisting of sub-district Si Chomphu. Na Kae District is the site of a shuttered 72 million baht solid waste facility built in 2011 and abandoned in 2013. In Ban Phon Sawan, the facility occupies 70 rai, it was designed to serve four districts: Na Kae, That Phanom, Renu Nakhon, Wang Yang. It suspended operations two years after its launch due to high costs; the facility was designed to separate organic waste from other materials to be turned into fertiliser for sale. Absent the facility, local authorities are struggling to cope with 20 tonnes of garbage per day. Based on an auditor's findings, the facility cannot operate as intended and cannot be fixed or amended for other uses; the auditor recommended that an investigation be carried out to identify those responsible for the problem and seek the return of 72 million baht.


In mathematics, in geometry, geometrography is the study of geometrical constructions. The concepts and methods of geometrography were first expounded by Émile Lemoine, a French civil engineer and a mathematician, in a meeting of the French Association for the Advancement of the Sciences held at Oran in 1888. Lemoine expanded his ideas in another memoir read at the Pau meeting of the same Association held in 1892, it is well known in elementary geometry that certain geometrical constructions are simpler than certain others. But in many case it turns out that the apparent simplicity of a construction does not consist in the practical execution of the construction, but in the brevity of the statement of what has to be done. Can any objective criterion be laid down by which an estimate may be formed of the relative simplicity of several different constructions for attaining the same end? Lemoine developed the ideas of geometrography to answer this question. In developing the ideas of geometrography, Lemoine restricted himself to Euclidean constructions using rulers and compasses alone.

According to the analysis of Lemoine, all such constructions can be executed, as a sequence of operations selected form a fixed set of five elementary operations. The five elementary operations identified by Lemoine are the following: Elementary operations in a geometrical construction In a geometrical construction the fact that an operation X is to be done n times is denoted by the expression nX; the operation of placing a ruler in coincidence with two points is indicated by 2R1. The operation of putting one point of the compasses on a determinate point and the other point of the compasses on another determinate point is 2C1; every geometrical construction can be represented by an expression of the following form l1R1 + l2R2 + m1C1 + m2C2 + m3C3. Here the coefficients l1, etc. denote the number of times. The number l1 + l2 + m1 +m2 + m3 is called the coefficient of simplicity, or the simplicity of the construction, it denotes the total number of operations. The number l1 + m1 + m2 is called the coefficient of exactitude, or the exactitude of the construction.

Lemoine applied his scheme to analyze more than sixty problems in elementary geometry. The construction of a triangle given the three vertices can be represented by the expression 4R1 + 3R2. A certain construction of the regular heptadecagon involving the Carlyle circles can be represented by the expression 8R1 + 4R2 + 22C1 + 11C3 and has simplicity 45. Hess, Adrien L. "Certain topics related to constructions with straight edge and compasses". Mathematics Magazine. 29: 217–221. JSTOR 3029638. Newton, Guy Thornwel. Geometrography with applications to the instruments of the draftsman. University of Texas. P. 190. DeTemple, Duane W.. "Carlyle circles and Lemoine simplicity of polygon constructions". The American Mathematical Monthly. 98: 97–208. Doi:10.2307/2323939. Archived from the original on 2015-12-21. Retrieved 6 November 2011

Toudao Street station

Toudao Street Station is a station on Line 1 of Wuhan Metro, opened upon completion of Line 1, Phase 2 on July 29, 2010. It is an elevated station located on Jiefang Avenue, close to Second Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge. There are two tracks at Toudao Street Station. A prefabricated bridge was installed south of the station to pass over railroad traffic at the Jiang'an Rail Yard, a freight yard which has since been demolished and redeveloped. Toudao Street Station is a three-story elevated station built along Jiefang Avenue; the station is equipped with attended customer service concierges, automatic ticket vending machines, accessible lifts, restrooms in the non-fared zone. There are three exits in service, all of which are accessible to Jiefang Avenue. Bus transfers to Route 4,408,508, 509, 551,577, 582,583, 622, 707, 727, 793,212, 313,346 and Trolleybus Route 3 are available at Toudao Street Station