Cossacks were a group of predominantly East Slavic-speaking people who became known as members of democratic, self-governing, semi-military communities, predominantly located in Eastern and Southern Ukraine and in Southern Russia. They inhabited sparsely populated areas and islands in the lower Dnieper, Don and Ural river basins and played an important role in the historical and cultural development of both Ukraine and Russia; the origins of the first Cossacks are disputed, though the 1710 Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk claimed Khazar origin. The emergence of Cossacks is dated to the 14th or 15th centuries, when two connected groups emerged, the Zaporozhian Sich of the Dnieper and the Don Cossack Host; the Zaporizhian Sich were a vassal people of Poland–Lithuania during feudal times. Under increasing pressure from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, in the mid-17th century the Sich declared an independent Cossack Hetmanate, initiated by a rebellion under Bohdan Khmelnytsky. Afterwards, the Treaty of Pereyaslav brought most of the Cossack state under Russian rule.
The Sich with its lands became an autonomous region under the Russian-Polish protectorate. The Don Cossack Host, established by the 16th century, allied with the Tsardom of Russia. Together they began a systematic conquest and colonisation of lands in order to secure the borders on the Volga, the whole of Siberia and the Yaik and the Terek rivers. Cossack communities had developed along the latter two rivers well before the arrival of the Don Cossacks. By the 18th century Cossack hosts in the Russian Empire occupied effective buffer zones on its borders; the expansionist ambitions of the Empire relied on ensuring the loyalty of Cossacks, which caused tension given their traditional exercise of freedom, self-rule, independence. Cossacks such as Stenka Razin, Kondraty Bulavin, Ivan Mazepa and Yemelyan Pugachev led major anti-imperial wars and revolutions in the Empire in order to abolish slavery and odious bureaucracy and to maintain independence; the empire responded with ruthless executions and tortures, the destruction of the western part of the Don Cossack Host during the Bulavin Rebellion in 1707–08, the destruction of Baturyn after Mazepa's rebellion in 1708, the formal dissolution of the Lower Dnieper Zaporozhian Host in 1775, after Pugachev's Rebellion.
By the end of the 18th century Cossack nations had been transformed into a special military estate, "a military class". Similar to the knights of medieval Europe in feudal times or the tribal Roman auxiliaries, the Cossacks came to military service having to obtain charger horses and supplies at their own expense; the government provided only supplies for them. Cossack service was considered the most rigorous one; because of their military tradition, Cossack forces played an important role in Russia's wars of the 18th–20th centuries, such as the Great Northern War, the Seven Years' War, the Crimean War, Napoleonic Wars, the Caucasus War, numerous Russo-Persian Wars, numerous Russo-Turkish Wars and the First World War. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Tsarist regime used Cossacks extensively to perform police service, they served as border guards on national and internal ethnic borders. During the Russian Civil War and Kuban Cossacks were the first people to declare open war against the Bolsheviks.
By 1918 Russian Cossacks declared the complete independence and formed independent states, the Don Republic and the Kuban People's Republic. The Ukrainian State emerged. Cossack troops formed the effective core of the anti-Bolshevik White Army, Cossack republics became centers for the anti-Bolshevik White movement. With the victory of the Red Army, the Cossack lands were subjected to Decossackization and the Holodomor. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Cossacks made a systematic return to Russia. Many took an active part in post-Soviet conflicts. In Russia's 2002 Population Census, 140,028 people reported their ethnicity as Cossacks. There are Cossack organizations in Russia, Ukraine and the United States. Max Vasmer's etymological dictionary traces the name to the Old East Slavic word козакъ, kozak, a loanword from Cuman, in which cosac meant "free man", from Turkish/Turkic languages quazzaq rabble rouser, trouble maker, outcast rebel, from Tatar languages Kazak skinny bollard The ethnonym Kazakh is from the same Turkic root.
In modern Turkish it is pronounced as "Kazak". In written sources the name is first attested in Codex Cumanicus from the 13th century. In English, "Cossack" is first attested in 1590, it is not clear when new Slavic people apart from Brodnici and Berladniki started settling in the lower reaches of major rivers such as the Don and the Dnieper after the demise of the Khazar state. It is unlikely it could have happened before the 13th century, when the Mongols broke the power of the Cumans, who had assimilated the previous population on that territory, it is known that new settlers inherited a lifestyle that persisted there long before, such as those of the Turkic Cumans and the Circassian Kassaks. However, Slavic settlements in southern Ukraine started to appear early during the Cuman rule, with the earliest ones, like Oleshky, dating back to the 11th century. Early "Proto-Cossack" groups are reported to have come into existence within the present-day Ukraine in the mid-13th century as the influence of Cumans grew weaker, though some have ascribed their origins to as early as the tenth century.
Some historians suggest that the Cossack people were of mixed ethnic origins, descending from Russians, Belarusians, Turks and others who settled or passed through the vast Steppe. However some Turkologists arg
Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American film studio based in Hollywood, a subsidiary of the American media conglomerate Viacom since 1994. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world, the second oldest in the United States, the sole member of the "Big Five" film studios still located in the Los Angeles neighborhood of Hollywood. In 1916, film producer Adolph Zukor put 22 actors and actresses under contract and honored each with a star on the logo. In 2014, Paramount Pictures became the first major Hollywood studio to distribute all of its films in digital form only; the company's headquarters and studios are located at 5555 Melrose Avenue, California, United States. Paramount Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world after the French studios Gaumont Film Company and Pathé, followed by the Nordisk Film company, Universal Studios, it is the last major film studio still headquartered in the Hollywood district of Los Angeles.
Paramount Pictures dates its existence from the 1912 founding date of the Famous Players Film Company. Hungarian-born founder Adolph Zukor, an early investor in nickelodeons, saw that movies appealed to working-class immigrants. With partners Daniel Frohman and Charles Frohman he planned to offer feature-length films that would appeal to the middle class by featuring the leading theatrical players of the time. By mid-1913, Famous Players had completed five films, Zukor was on his way to success, its first film was Les Amours de la reine Élisabeth. That same year, another aspiring producer, Jesse L. Lasky, opened his Lasky Feature Play Company with money borrowed from his brother-in-law, Samuel Goldfish known as Samuel Goldwyn; the Lasky company hired as their first employee a stage director with no film experience, Cecil B. DeMille, who would find a suitable site in Hollywood, near Los Angeles, for his first feature film, The Squaw Man. Starting in 1914, both Lasky and Famous Players released their films through a start-up company, Paramount Pictures Corporation, organized early that year by a Utah theatre owner, W. W. Hodkinson, who had bought and merged several smaller firms.
Hodkinson and actor, producer Hobart Bosworth had started production of a series of Jack London movies. Paramount was the first successful nationwide distributor. Famous Players and Lasky were owned while Paramount was a corporation. In 1916, Zukor maneuvered a three-way merger of his Famous Players, the Lasky Company, Paramount. Zukor and Lasky bought Hodkinson out of Paramount, merged the three companies into one; the new company Lasky and Zukor founded, Famous Players-Lasky Corporation, grew with Lasky and his partners Goldwyn and DeMille running the production side, Hiram Abrams in charge of distribution, Zukor making great plans. With only the exhibitor-owned First National as a rival, Famous Players-Lasky and its "Paramount Pictures" soon dominated the business; because Zukor believed in stars, he signed and developed many of the leading early stars, including Mary Pickford, Marguerite Clark, Pauline Frederick, Douglas Fairbanks, Gloria Swanson, Rudolph Valentino, Wallace Reid. With so many important players, Paramount was able to introduce "block booking", which meant that an exhibitor who wanted a particular star's films had to buy a year's worth of other Paramount productions.
It was this system that gave Paramount a leading position in the 1920s and 1930s, but which led the government to pursue it on antitrust grounds for more than twenty years. The driving force behind Paramount's rise was Zukor. Through the teens and twenties, he built the Publix Theatres Corporation, a chain of nearly 2,000 screens, ran two production studios, became an early investor in radio, taking a 50% interest in the new Columbia Broadcasting System in 1928. In 1926, Zukor hired independent producer B. P. Schulberg, an unerring eye for new talent, to run the new West Coast operations, they purchased the Robert Brunton Studios, a 26-acre facility at 5451 Marathon Street for US$1 million. In 1927, Famous Players-Lasky took the name Paramount Famous Lasky Corporation. Three years because of the importance of the Publix Theatres, it became Paramount Publix Corporation. In 1928, Paramount began releasing Inkwell Imps, animated cartoons produced by Max and Dave Fleischer's Fleischer Studios in New York City.
The Fleischers, veterans in the animation industry, were among the few animation producers capable of challenging the prominence of Walt Disney. The Paramount newsreel series Paramount News ran from 1927 to 1957. Paramount was one of the first Hollywood studios to release what were known at that time as "talkies", in 1929, released their first musical, Innocents of Paris. Richard A. Whiting and Leo Robin composed the score for the film. By acquiring the successful Balaban & Katz chain in 1926, Zukor gained the services of Barney Balaban, his brother A. J. Balaban, their partner Sam Katz (who would run the Paramount-Publix theatre chain in New York City from the thirty-five-stor
Thomas Antonio Conti is a Scottish actor, theatre director and novelist. He won a Tony Award for Best Actor in a Play in 1979 for his performance in Whose Life Is It Anyway? He was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actor for the 1983 film, Reuben. Conti was born in Paisley, the son of hairdressers Mary and Alfonso Conti, he was brought up Roman Catholic. Conti's father was Italian and his mother was Scottish, of Irish ancestry. Conti was educated at Hamilton Park, an independent Catholic boys' school, at the Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama, both in Glasgow. Conti is a theatre and television actor, he began working with the Dundee Repertory in 1959. He appeared on Broadway in Whose Life Is It Anyway? in 1979, in London he played the lead in Jeffrey Bernard is Unwell at the Garrick Theatre. Besides taking the leading role in the TV versions of Frederic Raphael's The Glittering Prizes and Alan Ayckbourn's The Norman Conquests, Conti appeared in the "Princess and the Pea" episode of the family television series Faerie Tale Theatre, guest-starred on Friends and Cosby, played opposite Nigel Hawthorne in a long-running series of Vauxhall Astra car advertisements in the United Kingdom during the mid-1990s.
Conti has appeared in such films as Mr. Lawrence. Conti's novel The Doctor, about a former secret operations pilot for intelligence services, was published in 2004. According to the foreword, his friend Lynsey De Paul recommended the manuscript to publisher Jeremy Robson, he appeared in the hit BBC sitcom Miranda alongside Miranda Hart and Patricia Hodge, as Miranda's father, in the 2010 seasonal episode "The Perfect Christmas". Conti has been married to Scottish actress Kara Wilson since 1967 and their daughter Nina is an actress and a ventriloquist. According to Nina, her parents have an open marriage. Conti is a prominent resident of Hampstead in northwest London, having lived in the area for several decades. Conti was part of a campaign against the opening of a Tesco supermarket in nearby Belsize Park. Conti put his Hampstead house up for sale in 2015 for £17.5 million after his long-running opposition to the building plans of his neighbour, the footballer Thierry Henry. Conti had opposed development plans for Hampstead's Grove Lodge, the 18th-century Grade II listed former home of novelist John Galsworthy.
Conti participated in a genetic-mapping project conducted by the company ScotlandsDNA. In 2012 Conti and the company announced. Conti has said that he "burst out laughing" when told he was directly related to Napoléon on his father's side. Conti considered running as the Conservative candidate in the 2008 London mayoral election, but did not, in the following election in 2012 he supported unsuccessful independent candidate Siobhan Benita. In the run up to the 2015 general election, Conti said in an interview published in several newspapers that he had come to view socialism as a religion with a "vicious, hostile spirit" and that "conservatism was about enabling people to improve their lives." National Board of Review for Best Actor Academy Award nomination as Best Actor Golden Globe nominations for Reuben and Nazi Hunter: The Beate Klarsfeld Story Tony Award for Best Actor Laurence Olivier Award for Actor of the Year in a New Play Variety Club Award for Best Actor Tom Conti on IMDb
David Terence Puttnam, Baron Puttnam, is a British film producer and educator. His productions include Chariots of Fire, he sits on the Labour benches in the House of Lords. Puttnam was born in Southgate, England, the son of Marie Beatrix, a homemaker of Jewish origin, Leonard Arthur Puttnam, a photographer. Educated at Minchenden Grammar School in London, Puttnam had an early career in advertising, including five formative years at Collett Dickenson Pearce, as agent acting for the photographers David Bailey and Brian Duffy, he turned to film production in the late 1960s, working with Sanford Lieberson's production company Goodtimes Enterprises. The first feature he produced was Melody based on a script by Alan Parker, a minor hit, he and Lieberson produced the documentaries Peacemaking 1919, Glastonbury Fayre, Bringing It All Back Home. Puttnam and Lieberson's second film, The Pied Piper, directed by Jacques Demy was not a success, but That'll Be the Day with David Essex was a hit, they produced The Final Programme, a science fiction film, made some more documentaries, Double Headed Eagle: Hitler's Rise to Power 1918-1933, Swastika.
Puttnam and Lieberson executive produced the Ken Russell biopic Mahler, did a sequel to That'll Be The Day, directed by Michael Apted. There were more documentaries: Radio Wonderful, Brother Can You Spare a Dime, James Dean: The First American Teenager and The Memory of Justice. A second film with Russell, was a box office disaster and led to the end of the Puttnam-Lieberson partnership. Puttnam had a box office success with Bugsy Malone, a musical he executive produced and directed by Alan Parker and produced by Alan Marshall, it was the last film. He set up Enigma Films. Puttnam produced Ridley Scott's debut as The Duellists. More successful was Midnight Express which he produced with Marshall, directed by Parker from a script by Oliver Stone, it was a notable box office success. Puttnam made his first film in America, the directorial debut of Adrian Lyne, it was a box office flop. Puttnam's next film was his most successful yet. Chariots of Fire, the first feature directed by Hugh Hudson, became a massive hit and won the Academy Award for Best Picture.
It was produced in association with Goldcrest Pictures. Puttnam set up a TV company, Enigma TV, made a series of TV movies in association with Goldcrest which carry Puttnam's name as executive producer. Six were made as a series called "First Love" for the fledgling Channel Four: P'tang, Kipperbang, directed by Apted, but Not Essential. Other films produced for television were Forever Young. Puttnam continued to produce features, he had another success with Local Hero and directed by Bill Forsythe. He did the acclaimed Cal, directed by Pat O'Connor and The Killing Fields, directed by Roland Joffe, he continued to executive produce TV movies like The Frog Prince, Mr. Love, Defense of the Realm, Knights & Emeralds, he produced The Mission directed by Joffe from a script by Robert Bolt which won the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival in 1986). Puttnam was chairman and CEO of Columbia Pictures from June 1986 until September 1987. Puttnam returned to producing individual films with Memphis Belle, Meeting Venus, A Dangerous Man: Lawrence After Arabia, Being Human, War of the Buttons, The Confessional, My Life So Far.
He executive produced The Josephine Baker Story, Without Warning: The James Brady Story, The Burning Season. In 1998, he retired from film production to focus on his work in the environment. In 1983, Puttnam was appointed as a Commander of The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire. In 1995 Puttnam was appointed as a Knight Bachelor. In 1997, Puttnam was created as a life peer and was granted Letters Patent to become Baron Puttnam, of Queensgate in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. In 1998, Puttnam was named in a list of financial donors to the British Labour Party. In 2002, he chaired the joint scrutiny committee on the Communications Bill, which recommended an amendment to prevent ownership of British terrestrial TV stations by companies with a significant share of the newspaper market; this was interpreted as being aimed at stopping Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation from buying channel Five. When the government opposed the amendment, Puttnam brokered a compromise – the introduction of a "public interest" test to be applied by the new regulator Ofcom, but without explicit restrictions.
From 2004 to 2005, Puttnam chaired the Hansard Society Commission on Communication of Parliamentary Democracy, the final report of which urged all political parties to commit to a renewal of parliamentary life in an attempt to reinvigorate representative democracy. In 2007, he chaired the Joint Parliamentary Committee on the Draft Climate Change Bill. Since November 2012, he has been the Prime Ministerial Trade Envoy to Vietnam, Laos and Myanmar. In December 2012, who lives in Skibbereen, County Cork, was named Ireland’s Digital Champion by Communications Minister Pat Rabbitte, TD. In August 2014, Puttnam was one of 200 public figures who were signatories to a letter to The Guardian oppo
Alan Armstrong, known professionally as Alun Armstrong, is an English actor. Armstrong grew up in County Durham in North East England, he first became interested in acting through Shakespeare productions at his grammar school. Since his career began in the early 1970s, he has played, in his words, "the full spectrum of characters from the grotesque to musicals... I always play colourful characters a bit crazy, psychotic", his numerous credits include several Charles Dickens adaptations and the eccentric ex-detective Brian Lane in New Tricks. Armstrong is an accomplished stage actor who spent nine years with the Royal Shakespeare Company, he originated the role of Thénardier in the London production of Les Misérables and he won an Olivier Award for playing the title role in Sweeney Todd. Born Alan Armstrong in Annfield Plain, County Durham, his father was a coal miner and both his parents were Methodist lay preachers, he attended Annfield Plain Junior School and went on to Consett Grammar School, where a teacher inspired him to try acting.
In the lower sixth, he played Petruchio in The Taming of the Shrew – a role he would perform with the Royal Shakespeare Company. He took part in the National Youth Theatre summer school in 1964, but his background and his northern accent made him feel out of place. Armstrong was not accepted, he instead studied fine art at Newcastle University. He found the course pretentious and felt that he did not fit in, he was expelled after two years because he stopped attending classes. Armstrong had jobs with a bricklayer and as a gravedigger, he started out by working as an assistant stage manager at the Cambridge Arts Theatre. He went on to a Theatre in Education company affiliated with the Sheffield Repertory Theatre, he performed in several Radio 4 dramas. Armstrong made his screen debut in the film Get Carter, he wrote a letter to MGM, the studio making the film, upon learning that they were making the film in Newcastle and was invited to meet director Mike Hodges, keen to cast local actors. Armstrong has appeared in a number of films, although in this medium he has played supporting roles.
In A Bridge Too Far, he had a small role as one of the British troops at the Battle of Arnhem. He had a supporting role as the bandit leader Torquil in the 1983 fantasy film Krull, his first cinematic lead role was as Maxwell Randall, the titular green baize vampire in the Alan Clarke directed snooker musical Billy the Kid and the Green Baize Vampire. Armstrong sang "I Bite Back". In Patriot Games, Armstrong played an SO-13 officer. In Braveheart, he played the Scottish noble Mornay, he was the villainous Egyptian cult leader Baltus Hafez in The Mummy Returns, he portrayed Saint Peter with a Geordie accent in Millions. He had small roles as the High Constable in Sleepy Hollow, Cardinal Jinette in Van Helsing, Magistrate Fang in Roman Polanski's Oliver Twist and Uncle Garrow in Eragon. Armstrong has played over 80 roles in television productions in the course of his career. During the 1970s, he appeared in various TV series, including episodes of Whatever Happened to the Likely Lads?, Porridge and The Sweeney.
He was cast in two mini-series dealing with coal miners in North East England. He played Joe Gowlan in The Stars Look Down based on the novel by A. J. Cronin and he appeared in Ken Loach's Days of Hope set in his native County Durham. In a 2007 interview, Armstrong singled out Days of Hope as a favourite: "I loved that because it was my own history and background, being dramatised and, in a way, nothing gets better than that". In the comedy series A Sharp Intake of Breath, he played a variety of characters who complicate the life of the main character played by David Jason. In 1977, he was the strict Deputy Headmaster in Willy Russell's Our Day Out, a television play about a group of poor schoolchildren on a daytrip, he starred in the 1981 Yorkshire Television drama Get Lost! Armstrong has portrayed characters from the works of Charles Dickens, he played Wackford Squeers and Mr. Wagstaff in the eight-hour Royal Shakespeare Company stage adaptation of The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby, filmed for television in 1982.
He has appeared in two versions of Oliver Twist: the 1999 ITV mini-series as Agnes Fleming's father Captain Fleming and the 2005 Roman Polanski film as Magistrate Fang. He has had roles as Daniel Peggotty in David Copperfield. Armstrong has been a fan of Dickens since reading David Copperfield aloud in school, he remembered Dan Peggotty's houseboat on the beach, in order to play the role he turned down an offer from Clint Eastwood, with whom he had worked on White Hunter Black Heart. In the BBC drama series Our Friends in the North, he played Austin Donohue, a character based on the politician T. Dan Smith. Armstrong portrayed 18th century politician Henry Fox in the BBC serial Aristocrats. In the 2000 TV film This Is Personal: The Hunt for the Yorkshire Ripper, he portrayed George Oldfield, the Assistant Chief Constable for Crime at West Yorkshire Police whose health deteriorated during the investigation as he received messages purportedly from the killer, he was nominated for a Royal Television Society award for his role in This Is Personal.
In the second series of Bedtime, he played a widower concerned about his son's suspicious behaviour. He and Brenda Blethyn co-starred in Between the Sheets as a frustrated marr
Sir Ridley Scott is an English film director and producer. Following his commercial breakthrough with the science fiction horror film Alien, further works include the neo-noir dystopian science fiction film Blade Runner, historical drama Gladiator, science fiction film The Martian. Scott's work has an atmospheric concentrated visual style. Though his films range in setting and period, they showcase memorable imagery of urban environments, whether 2nd century Rome, 12th century Jerusalem, Medieval England, contemporary Mogadishu, the future cityscapes of Blade Runner, or the distant planets in Alien, The Martian and Alien: Covenant. Several of his films are known for their strong female characters. Scott has been nominated for three Academy Awards for Directing. In 1995, both Ridley and his brother Tony received a BAFTA for Outstanding British Contribution To Cinema. In 2003, Scott was knighted for his "services to the British film industry". In a 2004 BBC poll Scott was named the tenth most influential person in British culture.
In 2015 he received an honorary doctorate from the Royal College of Art in London. In 2018 Scott received the BAFTA Fellowship for lifetime achievement. Scott was born in South Shields, County Durham, North East England, to Elizabeth and Colonel Francis Percy Scott. Scott's great uncle Dixon Scott was a pioneer of the cinema chain. One of Dixon's cinemas, Tyneside cinema, is still operating in Newcastle, it is the last remaining open newsreel cinema operating in the United Kingdom. Ridley Scott was born shortly before the Second World War, he was brought up in an army family, his father – an officer in the Royal Engineers – was absent for most of his early life. His elder brother, joined the British Merchant Navy when he was still young, the pair had little contact. During this time the family moved around, living in Cumberland in North West England and Germany, he had a younger brother, who became a film director. After World War II, the Scott family moved back to their native North East settling on Greens Beck Road in Hartburn, County Durham, whose industrial landscape would inspire similar scenes in Blade Runner.
His interest in science fiction began by reading the works of H. G. Wells as a child, he studied at Grangefield Grammar School and West Hartlepool College of Art from 1954 to 1958, obtaining a diploma in design. Scott went on to study at the Royal College of Art in London, contributing to college magazine ARK and helping to establish the college film department. For his final show, he made a black and white short film and Bicycle, starring both his younger brother and his father. In February 1963 Scott was named in title credits as "Designer" for the BBC television programme Tonight, about the severe winter of 1963. After graduation in 1963, he secured a job as a trainee set designer with the BBC, leading to work on the popular television police series Z-Cars and science fiction series Out of the Unknown, he was assigned to design the second Doctor Who serial, The Daleks, which would have entailed realising the serial's eponymous alien creatures. However, shortly before Scott was due to start work, a schedule conflict meant he was replaced by Raymond Cusick.
In 1965, he began directing episodes of television series for the BBC, only one of which, an episode of Adam Adamant Lives!, is available commercially. In 1968, Ridley and Tony Scott founded Ridley Scott Associates, a film and commercial production company. Working alongside Alan Parker, Hugh Hudson and cinematographer Hugh Johnson, Ridley Scott made many commercials at RSA during the 1970s, including a notable 1973 Hovis advertisement, "Bike Round", set in the north of England but filmed in Gold Hill, Dorset. A nostalgia themed television advertisement that captured the public imagination, it was voted the UK's all-time favourite commercial in a 2006 poll. In the 1970s the Chanel No. 5 brand needed revitalisation having run the risk of being labelled as mass market and passé. Directed by Scott in the 1970s and 1980s, Chanel television commercials were inventive mini-films with production values of surreal fantasy and seduction, which "played on the same visual imagery, with the same silhouette of the bottle."Five members of the Scott family are directors, all have worked for RSA.
His brother Tony was a successful film director. Jake and Jordan both work from Los Angeles. In 1995, Shepperton Studios was purchased by a consortium headed by Ridley and Tony Scott, which extensively renovated the studios while expanding and improving its grounds; the Duellists marked Ridley Scott's first feature film as director. Shot in Europe, it was nominated for the main prize at the Cannes Film Festival, won an award for Best Debut Film; the Duellists had limited commercial impact internationally. Set during the Napoleonic Wars, it follows two French Hussar officers, D'Hubert and Feraud whose quarrel over an minor incident turns into a bitter extended feud spanning fifteen years, interwoven with the larger conflict that provides its backdrop; the film has been acclaimed for providing a authentic portrayal of Napoleonic u
Louis XVIII of France
Louis XVIII, known as "the Desired", was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days. He spent twenty-three years in exile, from 1791 to 1814, during the French Revolution and the First French Empire, again in 1815, during the period of the Hundred Days, upon the return of Napoleon I from Elba; until his accession to the throne of France, he held the title of Count of Provence as brother of King Louis XVI. On 21 September 1792, the National Convention abolished the monarchy and deposed Louis XVI, executed by guillotine; when his young nephew Louis XVII died in prison in June 1795, the Count of Provence succeeded as king Louis XVIII. Following the French Revolution and during the Napoleonic era, Louis XVIII lived in exile in Prussia and Russia; when the Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814, Louis XVIII was placed in what he, the French royalists, considered his rightful position. However, Napoleon restored his French Empire.
Louis XVIII fled, a Seventh Coalition declared war on the French Empire, defeated Napoleon again, again restored Louis XVIII to the French throne. Louis XVIII ruled as king for less than a decade; the government of the Bourbon Restoration was a constitutional monarchy, unlike the Ancien Régime, absolutist. As a constitutional monarch, Louis XVIII's royal prerogative was reduced by the Charter of 1814, France's new constitution. Louis had no children, so upon his death the crown passed to his brother, Charles X. Louis XVIII was the last French monarch to die while still reigning, as Charles X abdicated and both Louis Philippe I and Napoleon III were deposed. Louis Stanislas Xavier, styled Count of Provence from birth, was born on 17 November 1755 in the Palace of Versailles, a younger son of Louis, Dauphin of France, his wife Maria Josepha of Saxony, he was the grandson of the reigning King Louis XV. As a son of the Dauphin, he was a Fils de France, he was christened Louis Stanislas Xavier six months after his birth, in accordance with Bourbon family tradition, being nameless before his baptism.
By this act, he became a Knight of the Order of the Holy Spirit. The name of Louis was bestowed. At the time of his birth, Louis Stanislas was fourth in line to the throne of France, behind his father and his two elder brothers: Louis Joseph Xavier, Duke of Burgundy, Louis Auguste, Duke of Berry; the former died in 1761, leaving Louis Auguste as heir to their father until the Dauphin's own premature death in 1765. The two deaths elevated Louis Stanislas to second in the line of succession, while his brother Louis Auguste acquired the title of Dauphin. Louis Stanislas found comfort in his governess, Madame de Marsan, Governess of the Children of France, as he was her favourite among his siblings. Louis Stanislas was taken away from his governess when he turned seven, the age at which the education of boys of royal blood and of the nobility was turned over to men. Antoine de Quélen de Stuer de Caussade, Duke of La Vauguyon, a friend of his father, was named as his governor. Louis Stanislas was an intelligent boy.
His education was of the same quality and consistency as that of his older brother, Louis Auguste, despite the fact that Louis Auguste was heir and Louis Stanislas was not. Louis Stanislas's education was quite religious in nature. La Vauguyon drilled into young Louis Stanislas and his brothers the way he thought princes should "know how to withdraw themselves, to like to work," and "to know how to reason correctly". In April 1771, when he was 15, Louis Stanislas's education was formally concluded, his own independent household was established, which astounded contemporaries with its extravagance: in 1773, the number of his servants reached 390. In the same month his household was founded, Louis was granted several titles by his grandfather, Louis XV: Duke of Anjou, Count of Maine, Count of Perche, Count of Senoches. During this period of his life he was known by the title Count of Provence. On 17 December 1773, he was inaugurated as a Grand Master of the Order of St. Lazarus. On 14 May 1771, Louis Stanislas married Princess Maria Giuseppina of Savoy.
Marie Joséphine was a daughter of Victor Amadeus, Duke of Savoy, his wife Maria Antonia Ferdinanda of Spain. A luxurious ball followed the wedding on 20 May. Louis Stanislas found his wife repulsive; the marriage remained unconsummated for years. Biographers disagree about the reason; the most common theories propose Louis Stanislas' alleged impotence or his unwillingness to sleep with his wife due to her poor personal hygiene. She never plucked her eyebrows, or used any perfumes. At the time of his marriage, Louis Stanislas was waddled instead of walked, he never continued to eat enormous amounts of food. Despite the fact that Louis Stanislas was not infatuated with his wife, he boasted that the two enjoyed vigorous conjugal relations – but such declarations were held in low esteem by courtiers at Versaill