SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

The Ellipse

The Ellipse is a 52-acre park located south of the White House fence and north of Constitution Avenue and the National Mall. Properly, the Ellipse is the name of the five-furlong circumference street within the park; the entire park, which features various monuments, is open to the public and is part of President's Park. The Ellipse is the location for a number of annual events. D. C. locals can be heard to say they are "on the Ellipse." Which is understood to mean that the individual is on the field, bounded by Ellipse Road. In 1791, the first plan for the park was drawn up by Pierre Charles L'Enfant; the Ellipse was known as "the White Lot" due to the whitewashed wooden fence. During the American Civil War, the grounds of the Ellipse and incomplete Washington Monument were used as corrals for horses and cattle, as camp sites for Union troops. In 1860, the Ellipse was the regular playing field for the DC baseball team the Washington Senators and was the site of the first match between the Senators and the Washington Nationals.

In 1865, the Nationals hosted a baseball tournament with the Philadelphia Athletics, for which stands were built and admission was charged. Black baseball teams such as the Washington Mutuals and the Washington Alerts used the White Lot until Blacks were banned from using the Ellipse in 1874; the Army Corps of Engineers began work on the Ellipse in 1867. The park was landscaped in 1879, American Elms were planted around the existing portion of roadway. In 1880, grading was begun and the Ellipse was created from what had been a common dump. In 1894, the Ellipse roadway was lit with electric lamps. In the 1890s, Congress authorized the use of the Ellipse grounds to special groups, including religious meetings and military encampments; as late as 1990, baseball fields and tennis courts existed in the park. Sporting events and demonstrations are still held on the Ellipse. President's Park South came under the jurisdiction of the National Park Service in 1933. On Christmas Eve 1923, President Calvin Coolidge started an unbroken tradition by lighting the first "National Christmas Tree".

The first tree, a cut balsam fir, was placed on the Ellipse by the District of Columbia Public Schools. From 1924 to 1953, live trees in various locations around and on the White House grounds were lit on Christmas Eve. In 1954, the ceremony returned to the Ellipse and with an expanded focus: the "Christmas Pageant of Peace". From 1954 through 1972, cut trees were used, but in 1973 a Colorado blue spruce from York, Pennsylvania was planted on the Ellipse. A replacement was planted in 1978. On August 10, 1933, the Ellipse was transferred to the National Park Service, the legal successor of three federal commissioners appointed by the President under an act of July 16, 1790, which directed initial construction, their authority developed through acts of May 1, 1802. Under act of September 22, 1961, "the White House shall be administered pursuant to the act of August 25, 1916" and supplementary and amendatory acts; this NPS area was referred to as "The White House". In 1942, during World War II, the National Park Service granted permission for the construction of barracks as a special emergency war-time measure.

The temporary barracks were erected on the south side of the Old Executive Office Building and the entire First Division Monument grounds. The "White House Barracks" were demolished in 1954; the Ellipse Visitor Pavilion was opened for visitors in May 1994. The facility is used to distribute free tickets for special events at the White House such as the Easter Egg Roll and the fall and spring Garden Tours. There is an information window, concession area, telephones, water fountains, a first aid area, all accessible. Boy Scout Memorial by Donald De Lue Bulfinch Gatehouses by Charles Bulfinch Butt-Millet Memorial Fountain by Daniel Chester French Enid Haupt Fountains by James Hunolt and Gordon Newell First Division Monument by Daniel Chester French Second Division Memorial by James Earle Fraser Settlers of the District of Columbia Memorial by Carl Mose National Menorah National Christmas Tree Zero Milestone by Horace W. Peaslee Ellipse Visitor PavilionAnnual events on the Ellipse include the Christmas Pageant of Peace, the "Twilight Tattoo" military pageant, the graduation ceremony for The George Washington University.

It is the queueing location for the annual White House Easter Egg Roll and the White House garden tours. Under the auspices of the National Park Service, the Capital Alumni Network and a number of neighborhood and military sports leagues play softball and flag football games on the grounds of the Ellipse. A number of ultimate competitions are held by various groups throughout the warmer months; the Ellipse Meridian Stone, located under the surface near the center of the Ellipse, commemorates President Thomas Jefferson's idea of an American prime meridian. The White House White House Historical Association The Shape and History of The Ellipse in Washington, D. C. by Clark Kimberling

Wiley Post Airport

Wiley Post Airport is a city-owned public-use airport located seven nautical miles northwest of the central business district of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The facility has three runways, it was named after Wiley Post, the first pilot to fly solo around the world, who died in the same 1935 crash as the namesake of the city's other major airport, Will Rogers World Airport. It is the FAA-designated reliever airport for Will Rogers World Airport and serves business and corporate air travelers and functions as a center for general aviation. In addition, the northwest Oklahoma City airport provides an environment for aviation-related industry. In the year ending December 5, 2017, Wiley Post logged 70,027 flight operations; this figure accounts for only those operations logged by the air traffic control tower, open daily from 7 A. M. until 10 P. M; the airport provides a base for over 300 aircraft in its leased hangars. These range from twin engine planes to turboprop and jet aircraft. FAA Airport Diagram, effective February 27, 2020 FAA Terminal Procedures for PWA, effective February 27, 2020 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for PWA AirNav airport information for KPWA ASN accident history for PWA FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS weather observations: current, past three days SkyVector aeronautical chart, Terminal Procedures

Sellwood Bridge

The Sellwood Bridge is a deck arch bridge that spans the Willamette River in Portland, Oregon, in the United States. The current bridge replaced a 1925 span that had carried the same name; the original bridge was Portland's first fixed-span bridge and, being the only river crossing for miles in each direction, the busiest two-lane bridge in Oregon. The Sellwood Bridge links the Sellwood and Westmoreland neighborhoods of Portland on the east side with Oregon Route 43/Macadam Avenue on the west side. At its east end it leads to Tacoma Street; the bridge is operated by Multnomah County. The original span of 1925 was a steel truss bridge, while its 2016 replacement is a deck-arch-type bridge. Designed by Gustav Lindenthal, the first bridge opened on December 15, 1925, at a final cost of $541,000, it was 1,971 feet long with 75 feet of vertical waterway clearance. It had all of Warren type; the two center spans were 300 feet long, the two outside spans were 246 feet each. The girders from the old Burnside Bridge were reused at each end.

The two-lane roadway was 24 feet wide, there was a sidewalk along one side. In the 2000s, discussions began to intensify over the bridge's condition, deteriorating since the 1960s. Upon discovery of cracks in both concrete approaches in January 2004, the weight limit on the bridge was lowered from 32 tons to 10 tons; this caused the diversion of about 1,400 daily truck and bus trips, including 94 daily TriMet bus trips. Over the few years that followed, there was debate on whether the bridge should be replaced, closed altogether, or closed for automotive traffic. In April 2005, Bechtel gave Multnomah County an unsolicited plan to replace the bridge through a public-private partnership. Discussions over possible replacement of the bridge considered changes that a new bridge might incorporate in order to make the structure more usable for cyclists and pedestrians than the bridge it would replace; the 1925 bridge included no designated space for bicycle traffic, which had grown in more recent decades, with only a single traffic lane in each direction, there was very little room for cars to move over when passing bicycles in the roadway.

There was a sidewalk on the north side, but its width was a narrow 4 feet 3 inches and the street light foundations shared space with the sidewalk, making the sidewalk's usable width at those points about 3 feet. Allowing for safety clearances, there was less than 2 feet of usable sidewalk; the Bicycle Transportation Alliance listed the Sellwood Bridge as one of the top ten priorities for improving Portland's bicycling. In July 2007, the Multnomah County Board of Commissioners considered several options for a replacement bridge. At the time, the top option was a 75-foot-wide bridge with two car lanes and two transit lanes, running just south of the current bridge, with a projected cost of $302 million. In November 2008, the Sellwood Bridge team issued a draft Environmental Impact Statement containing details on five different finalist designs and alignments. In February 2009, the Policy Advisory Group, based on recommendations provided by a Community Task Force and the public, selected a Locally Preferred Alternative.

The LPA included replacement of the existing bridge with a new bridge, alignment 15 feet south of Tacoma Street, allowing continuous traffic flow at the crossing during construction, a pedestrian-actuated signal at Tacoma Street and SE 6th Avenue, a signal at the west end interchange. The LPA is 64 feet wide and consists of two traffic lanes, two bike lanes, two 12-foot wide sidewalks. A final Environmental Impact Statement was published in spring 2010, it was approved by the Federal Highway Administration in July 2010. After evaluation in 2010 of several different possible designs, a two-lane steel deck arch bridge was chosen for the replacement bridge; this was approved by the Multnomah County Commission on January 27, 2011. The new bridge is strong enough to carry streetcars and the design will include some provisions intended to make the potential installation of a streetcar line across the bridge easier, should city officials decide to build such a line. Plans to include streetcar tracks were considered in late 2010, but dropped in January 2011 to reduce costs.

In an October 2011 study, the Department of Transportation wrote that the Sellwood Bridge must be replaced'immediately'. On December 15, 2011, the county received U. S. federal funding sufficient to begin immediate work on a replacement. On July 19, 2012, Multnomah County commissioners approved a $299 million design for a new bridge. On July 19, 2012, a final design was approved by Multnomah County commissioners; the design is a steel deck arch bridge with bicycle lanes on both sides. Construction was funded with $136 million from the county, $33 million from the federal government, $35 million from the state, $84.5 million from the city of Portland. Clackamas County was to provide some funding due to the bridge’s use by many residents of that county, but that plan was rejected by voters. On January 19, 2013, the 6.8-million pound bridge was moved onto temporary steel supports by contractor Omega Morgan. The moved bridge, known as a shoofly bridge, served as a temporary span until the new crossing opened.

After more than three years of use on temporary supports, the old bridge closed to traffic permanently on February 25, 2016, the new bridge opened to traffic on February 29, 2016. In bet