click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

The Fifty-three Stations of the Tōkaidō

The Fifty-Three Stations of the Tōkaidō, in the Hōeidō edition, is a series of ukiyo-e woodcut prints created by Utagawa Hiroshige after his first travel along the Tōkaidō in 1832. The Tōkaidō road, linking the shōgun's capital, Edo, to the imperial one, Kyōto, was the main travel and transport artery of old Japan, it is the most important of the "Five Roads" —the five major roads of Japan created or developed during the Edo period to further strengthen the control of the central shogunate administration over the whole country. Though the Hōeidō edition is by far the best known, The Fifty-Three Stations of the Tōkaidō was such a popular subject that it led Hiroshige to create some 30 different series of woodcut prints on it, all different one from the other by their size, their designs or their number; the Hōeidō edition of the Tōkaidō is Hiroshige's best known work, the best sold ukiyo-e Japanese prints. Coming just after Hokusai's Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji series, it established this new major theme of ukiyo-e, the landscape print, or fūkei-ga, with a special focus on "famous views".

These landscape prints took full advantage of the new possibilities offered by the Western representation of perspective, that Japanese artists had by now assimilated. Hiroshige's series met with full success, not only in Japan, but in Western countries; the Tōkaidō was one of the Five Routes constructed under Tokugawa Ieyasu, a series of roads linking the historical capital of Edo with the rest of Japan. The Tōkaidō connected Edo with the then-capital of Kyoto; the most important and well-traveled of these, the Tōkaidō travelled along the eastern coast of Honshū, thus giving rise to the name Tōkaidō. Along this road, there were 53 different post stations, which provided stables and lodging for travelers. In 1832, Hiroshige traveled the length of the Tōkaidō from Edo to Kyoto, as part of an official delegation transporting horses that were to be presented to the imperial court; the horses were a symbolic gift from the shōgun, presented annually in recognition of the emperor's divine status. The landscapes of the journey made a profound impression on the artist, he created numerous sketches during the course of the trip, as well as his return to Edo via the same route.

After his arrival at home, he began work on the first prints from The Fifty-Three Stations of the Tōkaidō. He would produce 55 prints in the whole series: one for each station, plus one apiece for the starting and ending points; the first of the prints in the series was published jointly by the publishing houses of Hōeidō and Senkakudō, with the former handling all subsequent releases on its own. Woodcuts of this style sold as new for between 12 and 16 copper coins apiece the same price as a pair of straw sandals or a bowl of soup; the runaway success of The Fifty-Three Stations of the Tōkaidō established Hiroshige as the most prominent and successful printmaker of the Tokugawa era. Hiroshige followed up on this series with The Sixty-nine Stations of the Kiso Kaidō in cooperation with Keisai Eisen, documenting each of the post stations of the Nakasendō; the Hōeidō edition is properly titled Tōkaidō Gojūsan-tsugi no uchi. Besides the fifty-three stations themselves, the series includes one print for the departure, a final one, the 55th print, Kyoto, the imperial capital.

During his time in Paris, Vincent van Gogh was an avid collector of ukiyo-e, amassing with his brother a collection of several hundred prints purchased in the gallery of S. Bing; this collection included works from The Fifty-Three Stations of the Tōkaidō, Van Gogh incorporated stylistic elements from his collection into his own work, such as bright colors, natural details, unconventional perspectives. In his personal correspondence, he stated, "all of my work is founded on Japanese art", described the Impressionists as "the Japanese of France". Architect Frank Lloyd Wright was an enthusiastic collector of Hiroshige's prints, including those of The Fifty-Three Stations of the Tōkaidō. In 1906, he staged the first retrospective of Hiroshige's work at the Art Institute of Chicago, describing them in the exhibition catalog as some of "the most valuable contributions made to the art of the world". Two years he contributed elements of his collection to another exhibition of ukiyo-e at the Art Institute.

Wright designed the gallery space of the exhibit, which at that time was the largest display of its kind in history. Appreciating the prints on a professional level as well as an aesthetic one, Wright mined his prints for insights into the nature of designing structures, modifying damaged prints by adding lines and shadow in an effort to understand their operating principles. In 2012, British contemporary artist Carl Randall created paintings of the people and places along the contemporary Tokaido Highway, walking in the footsteps of the Japanese ukiyo-e printmaker Andō Hiroshige; the project resulted in a group of 15 paintings exhibited at the National Portrait Gallery in London as part of The 2013 BP Portrait Award exhibition, under the title "In the Footsteps of Hiroshige - The Tokaido Highway and Portraits of Modern Japan". The exhibition subsequently toured to The Aberdeen Art Gallery Scotland, formed his solo exhibition in Japan ‘Portraits from Edo to the Present’ at The Shizuoka City Tokaido Hiroshige Museum, where the paintings were exhibited alongside Hiroshige's original The Fifty-three Stations of the Tōkaidō woodblock prints.

The Sixty-nine Stations of the Kiso Kaidō by Hiroshig

Rafael Iruzubieta Fernandez

Rafael Iruzubieta Fernández is a Spanish academician and Indologist. The Government of India honored him with the fourth-highest civilian award of Padma Shri. Rafael Iruzubieta Fernández was born on 13 January 1940 in the Spanish capital of Madrid, he secured his doctoral degree in Law from the Complutense University of Madrid and joined the university as a faculty member. He taught at the University of Malaga. Iruzubieta met Professor Vasant Gadre, a professor of Spanish language, at the Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi, in 1969 and developed a fascination for Indology, he has since founded the Institute of Indology, a nonprofit organization for cultural exchanges between Spain and India. The institute conducts bi-annual courses on India studies at the Complutense University of Madrid, he has instituted two student awards at JNU, Rafael Iruzubieta Award and Irene Peláez de Iruzubieta Award, for excellence in Spanish studies. Rafael Iruzubieta has published many books, two of the notables ones are: Rafael Iruzubieta Fernández.

La Constitución de la India: presentación y coordinación de Rafael Iruzubieta Fernández. Editorial Universitaria Ramon Areces. P. 684. ISBN 9788499611198. Rafael Iruzubieta Fernández. El abuso del derecho y el fraude de ley en el derecho del trabajo. Colex. P. 319. ISBN 978-8486123833

Ferenc Molnár

Ferenc Molnár anglicized as Franz Molnar, was a Hungarian-born author, stage-director and poet regarded as Hungary’s most celebrated and controversial playwright. His primary aim through his writing was to entertain by transforming his personal experiences into literary works of art, he was never connected to any one literary movement but he did utilize the precepts of naturalism, Neo-Romanticism and the Freudian psychoanalytical concepts, but only as long as they suited his desires. “By fusing the realistic narrative and stage tradition of Hungary with Western influences into a cosmopolitan amalgam, Molnár emerged as a versatile artist whose style was uniquely his own.” As a novelist, Molnár may best be remembered for The Paul Street Boys, the story of two rival gangs of youths in Budapest. It has been adapted for the stage and film, it has been considered a masterpiece by many. It was, however, as a playwright that he made his greatest contribution and how he is best known internationally. "In his graceful, sophisticated drawing-room comedies, he provided a felicitous synthesis of naturalism]] and fantasy and romanticism, cynicism and sentimentality, the profane and the sublime."

Out of his many plays, The Devil, The Swan, The Guardsman and The Play's the Thing endure as classics. He was influenced by the likes of Oscar Wilde, George Bernard Shaw, Gerhart Hauptmann, he immigrated to the United States to escape persecution of Hungarian Jews during World War II and adopted American citizenship. Molnár's plays are performed all over the world, his national and international fame has inspired many Hungarian playwrights including Elemér Boross, László Fodor, Lajos Bíró, László Bús-Fekete, Ernő Vajda, Attila Orbók, Imre Földes, among others. Ferenc Molnár was born in Budapest on January 12, 1878 to Dr. Mór Neumann, a prosperous and popular gastroenterologist, Jozefa Wallfisch; the home in which he lived was gloomy. Though he was born into wealth, "It was not a friendly atmosphere for the lively and precocious Ferenc, who had to be warned to keep quiet." Just a year before his birth, Molnar's brother, László, died. His mother was frail and bedridden. Illness spread throughout the rooms of his house, young Ferenc was being told to keep quiet.

In 1887, Molnár entered the Református Gimnázium, a secondary school located in Miskolc, where he was inspired to learn foreign languages and where his talent as a writer began to take shape. At the age of 14, he started a periodical titled Haladás which sold only four copies and a secondary publication titled É letképek selling only 20 copies, his first dramatic work was Kék barlang, a controversial play written and staged in the basement of a friend's house. Upon completing secondary school, Molnár studied law at the University of Budapest in 1895, shortly thereafter, he was sent to Geneva by his father to continue his studies at the Swiss University. While living in Geneva, he began writing often sending his work to various papers. Molnár wrote the short novella Magdolna during this time, he traveled to Paris to see some of the popular new plays. "The fashionable boulevard comedies of Bernstein, Bataille and others left a deep impression on him and greatly influenced his dramatic style." In 1896, he abandoned a legal career to pursue a full-time career as a journalist.

He covered a variety of topics during his time as a journalist, but his primary focus was the court trials for Vészi's Budapesti Napló, a newspaper edited and published by József Vészi, a Jewish intellectual who dominated Hungarian political journalism. Molnár's first wife was one of Vészi's daughters, his mother died in 1898. Molnár served as a proud and jingoistic supporter of the Austro-Hungarian Empire while working as a war correspondent during World War I. So positive were his war reports that he was decorated by the Habsburg emperor, but criticized by some of his pacifist peers, he wrote Reflections of a War Correspondent, describing his experiences. In 1901, Molnár published; this novel made Molnár's name familiar throughout Hungary. It was "a relentless exposé of the evil effect of money, viewed by a young, idealistic newspaperman." The year following the release of Az éhes város, Molnár began writing for the theatre. It was in this medium, his early works as a playwright were influenced by his journalistic work.

Molnár's first play, A doctor úr, the play that followed, Józsi, are both comedies that were a dramatization of newspaper sketches about a spoiled rich child and published as a collection of short dialogues. His personal life inspired a lot of his writing. After his separation from his first wife, he became involved with the famous Hungarian actress Irén Szécsi, married to a wealthy manufacturer at the time; some of his more critically successful works were influenced by this affair. In 1907, Molnár wrote Az ördög for Irén, it was performed all over Europe and In New York. The Devil was adapted into a film by the Hungarian-born American director Michael Curtiz and three years into an English language version directed by James Young. In 1907, Molnár wrote three

Christian Cappek

Christian Cappek is a German footballer who plays as a forward. Cappek played as youth for FC Augsburg and TSV 1860 Munich before joining SV Wacker Burghausen in 2008, where he made his senior debut in a 3–1 3. Liga win over Kickers Emden, he scored Burghausen's third goal in the 88th minute. After three years with Wacker, he signed for 2. Bundesliga side FC Erzgebirge Aue in July 2011, he was released on a free transfer in November 2012 after six appearances for the club, the last of which had come a year earlier. Two months he signed for FC Augsburg II, where he spent half a season before joining Kickers Offenbach. In the summer 2015, Cappek joined Chemnitzer FC. Christian Cappek at fussballdaten.de

Colina, Chile

Colina is a Chilean city and commune, capital of the Chacabuco Province, in the northern part of the Santiago Metropolitan Region 30 kilometers north of Santiago Centro. According to the 2002 census of the National Statistics Institute, Colina spans an area of 52,769 km2 and has 77,815 inhabitants. Of these, 62,811 lived in 15,004 in rural areas; the population grew by 47.5 % between the 2002 censuses. Average household income: US$19,783; as a commune, Colina is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde, directly elected every four years. The 2012-2016 alcalde is Mario Olavarría Rodríguez; the communal council has the following members: Gonzalo Torres Ferrari Alejandra Bravo Hidalgo Andrés Vásquez Medina Máximo Larraín Geisse Jorge Boher Ferrada Pablo Atenas Valenzuela The regional intendant, appointed by the president, is Fernando Echeverría. Belonging to Province of Chacabuco, whose actual governor is Mrs. Angélica Antimán. Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Colina is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Mr. Patricio Melero and Mr. Gabriel Silber as part of the 16th electoral district.

The commune is represented in the Senate by Guido Girardi Lavín and Jovino Novoa Vásquez as part of the 7th senatorial constituency. The Chamisero campus of the Lycée Antoine-de-Saint-Exupéry de Santiago is in Colina; the campus opened on May 21, 2013 although the maternelle opened in February of that year. Municipality of Colina

Willow Harris

Willow Harris is a fictional character from the Australian television soap opera Home and Away, played by Sarah Roberts. The character made her first screen appearance on 14 November 2017. Roberts had auditioned for the roles of both Kat Scarlett Snow prior to playing Willow, she auditioned and attended screen testing with James Stewart who play's Willow's love interest Justin Morgan. Willow was going to be named Amber, she is characterised as a tough female, raised in a broken home and has subsequently learned to look after herself. Roberts has said. Willow is introduced into the show wearing leather and riding a motorbike; this added to her image as a powerful female character. Writers paired her with Justin and their relationship is marred by a feud with gang member Boyd Easton, his family kidnap Justin's daughter Ava Gilbert. Producers introduced Willow's ex-boyfriend Dean Thompson and they resume their relationship. A gambling addiction story was written for Willow and she ends up stealing, loaning money, scamming people and squatting.

Roberts found the gambling story challenging and carried out extensive research to portray the issue. The character has been well received by critics of the genre who analysed her strong personality and dramatic introduction into the series. Prior to securing the role of Willow, actress Sarah Roberts auditioned for both Kat Chapman and Scarlett Snow. Roberts recorded her first audition for the part while residing in Los Angeles, she flew up from Melbourne to Sydney for the on-set audition and had a chemistry reading with James Stewart, who plays Justin Morgan. Roberts did not think; the character was supposed to be named Amber but this was changed to Willow. Roberts remembered her first day playing Willow as "awesome", recalling dressing in leather and transforming into character. Willow made her first on screen appearance during the episode broadcast on 14 November 2017. Willow is characterised as "a tough and powerful" female and is surrounded by male characters. Roberts made sure she was strong on set to "do justice to her character" in the male dominated scenes.

She was raised by her father, a single parent, which made Willow learn how to look after herself early in life. Roberts has described Willow as a "strong female character", independent and fierce; the actress said Willow would bring "a bit of trouble" to Summer Bay. Willow's introduction into Home and Away showcased her characteristion. Roberts said that Willow proves herself to be "a tough cookie – she's a total firecracker", as she rides into Summer Bay on a motorbike, she makes herself known to Justin and accuses him of stealing $15,000. Roberts said that Willow validates her tough persona in the scenes where she attacks Justin, ties him up and locks him in his garage overnight. Roberts told Tamara Cullen from TV Week that Willow "rode into town with a lot of power, she's going to cause some mischief!"Roberts told a journalist from New Idea that Willow was "definitely a bad girl. But for all the right reasons, she has taken wrong turns and made decisions that some people would consider'bad', but only to help the people that she loves."

In another interview the actress described Willow as "very fun. She's got attitude. I think she's a woman who knows what she wants and won't stop until she gets it, but is fiercely loyal and will do anything for the people she loves." Roberts liked her character's "really strong" and "feisty" side and believed the character would stop at nothing to get what she wants. Willow had a difficult life and upbringing, as a result she "put a guard up" not allowing others to connect with her. Willow has a "tougher" wardrobe than that of a traditional feminine one; this helped Roberts to get into character, with her explaining that "I put on her costume and feel like her." Willow was introduced into the show as a new love interest for Justin Morgan. Her first story follows her getting into trouble with Boyd Easton, he pushes him down stairs. He vandalises Justin's garage to serve as a warning to help Willow return the missing money. Justin tries to reason with Boyd and his biker gang but the meeting turns violent, leaving Justin bruised.

He reports the incident to the police. Ash tries warn Justin to stay away from Willow, he fear for her safety and convinces Willow to move into the local caravan park. Claire Crick from Soaplife reported that Justin assumes the role of Willow's "knight in shining armour", she added. Stewart told Sarah Ellis from Inside Soap that "Justin is becoming quite protective of Willow" and his character "is thrilled" when he gets to spend time with her. Roberts and Stewart soon began a relationship off screen. Roberts believed, she told Fiona Byrne from the Herald Sun that "i did not have to create any chemistry when I was on screen with Jimmy, it was all just there, it was not a job."On screen their relationship burgeons when Justin helps Willow secure employment in Summer Bay. Willow competes against Mason Morgan for a job at the gym; the gym's manager John Palmer asks Justin to make the decision about hiring staff. They impress him and both receive a job. Willow thanks Justin for his help and they soon end up ha