The Goonies is a 1985 American adventure comedy film co-produced and directed by Richard Donner from a screenplay by Chris Columbus, based on a story by executive producer Steven Spielberg. In the film, a band of kids who live in the "Goon Docks" neighborhood of Astoria, attempt to save their homes from foreclosure and in doing so, they discover an old treasure map that takes them on an adventure to unearth the long-lost fortune of One-Eyed Willy, a legendary 17th-century pirate. During the entire adventure they are chased by a family of criminals who want the treasure for themselves. Produced by Spielberg's Amblin Entertainment, Warner Bros. released the film theatrically on June 7, 1985 in the United States. The film has since become a cult film. In 2017, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant". Facing foreclosure of their homes in the Goon Docks area of Astoria, Oregon to an expanding country club, a group of children who call themselves "the Goonies" gather for a final weekend together.
The Goonies include optimist Mikey Walsh, his older brother Brandon, the inventive Data, the talkative Mouth and the overweight klutz Chunk. Rummaging through the Walshes' attic, they come across a 1632 doubloon and an old treasure map purporting to lead to the famous pirate "One-Eyed" Willy's hoard located somewhere nearby, whom Mikey considers to be the original "Goonie"; the kids evade Brandon and make their way to an abandoned restaurant on the coast that coincides with the map. The group discovers the derelict restaurant is a hideout of the Fratelli crime family: Francis and their mother Mama; the Goonies find a tunnel in the basement and follow it, but Chunk is captured by the Fratellis and imprisoned with their deformed and immensely strong younger brother Sloth. The Fratellis intimidate Chunk until he reveals where the Goonies have gone, begin pursuit. Chunk befriends him. After Sloth frees both of them, Chunk calls the police and he and Sloth follow the Fratellis; the Goonies evade several deadly booby traps along the tunnels while staying ahead of the Fratellis.
They reach the grotto where Willy's pirate ship, the Inferno, is anchored. The group discovers the ship is filled with treasure and they start filling their pockets, but Mikey warns them not to take any on a set of scales in front of Willy by considering that to be their tribute to him; as they leave the ship, the Fratellis strip them of their loot. They make the Goonies walk the plank until Chunk arrives with Sloth and distracts the Fratellis long enough for the Goonies to jump overboard; the Fratellis proceed to grab all the treasure, including those on Willy's scales. With Sloth's help, the Goonies and Fratellis escape; the two groups emerge on Astoria's beach, where they reunite with the Goonies' families and the police. The Fratellis are arrested, but Chunk prevents Sloth from being taken; as the kids describe their adventure to their parents, Mikey discovers that his marble bag, filled with gems he took from the ship, had not been taken by the Fratellis. Mikey's father triumphantly rips up the foreclosure papers, declaring they have enough money to negate the foreclosure.
As the Goonies celebrate, they see the Inferno, having broken free of the grotto, sailing off on its own in the distance. Sean Astin as Michael "Mikey" Walsh Josh Brolin as Brandon "Brand" Walsh Jeff Cohen as Lawrence "Chunk" Cohen Corey Feldman as Clark "Mouth" Devereaux Kerri Green as Andrea "Andy" Carmichael Martha Plimpton as Stephanie "Stef" Steinbrenner Jonathan Ke Huy Quan as Richard "Data" Wang John Matuszak as Sloth Fratelli Robert Davi as Jake Fratelli Joe Pantoliano as Francis Fratelli Anne Ramsey as Mama Fratelli Mary Ellen Trainor as Irene Walsh Keith Walker as Irving Walsh Steve Antin as Troy Perkins Lupe Ontiveros as Rosalita Michael Paul Chan as Mr. Wang Charles McDaniel as Mr. Cohen Paul Tuerpe as the SheriffDirector Richard Donner makes a cameo appearance as a sheriff's deputy; the film's cinematographer, Nick McLean has a cameo as Mouth's father. The part of the dead FBI agent was performed by stuntman Ted Grossman. Principal photography on The Goonies lasted five months.
There were an additional six weeks of audio dubbing recording. The shooting script was lengthy, at more than 120 pages, to which several sequences were cut from the final theatrical version. During the film's dénouement, mention is made of an octopus which refers to a scene, excised from the final cut. In the documentary The Making of The Goonies, Richard Donner noted both the difficulties and pleasures of working with so many child actors, he praised them for their energy and excitement, but said that they were unruly when brought together. As a result, the documentary showed him coaching the actors and revealing some techniques he used to create realistic performances. One of these tricks involved One-Eyed Willy's pirate ship, a full-sized replica of a pirate ship created under the direction of production designer J. Michael Riva. Donner restricted the actors from seeing the ship until they filmed the scene wherein it is revealed to their characters. However, that particular scene in the final cut was the second take, due to the cast fee
Gerhard von der Lippe Gran was a Norwegian literary historian, magazine editor and biographer. Gran was born in Bergen as the son of merchant Christen Knagenhjelm Gran and his wife Constance Mowinckel, he was the paternal grandson of politician Jens Gran, a second cousin of botanist Haaken Hasberg Gran and aviator Tryggve Gran. On the maternal side was a first cousin of Wenche von der Lippe Mowinckel, a granddaughter of Jacob von der Lippe and mother of Arthur and Gerhard C. Kallevig. Wenche lived with Gerhard Gran's family. In October 1887 he married Maren Elisabeth Bull Sømme, a daughter of merchant and politician Jacob Jørgen Kastrup Sømme and his wife Johanne Margrethe "Hanna" Bull Kielland, granddaughter of Jacob Kielland and first cousin of novelist Alexander Lange Kielland and painter Kitty Lange Kielland; as such Gerhard Gran was the brother-in-law of painter Jacob Kielland Sømme. Through his sisters he was a brother-in-law of art historian Johan Bøgh and physician Gerhard Armauer Hansen.
Gran finished his secondary education at Bergen Cathedral School in 1874, graduated from the Royal Frederick University in Kristiania with the cand.mag. Degree in 1881, he returned to Bergen to work as a school teacher. He was hired at Bergen Cathedral School in 1895. In 1898 the post as professor of literary history at the Royal Frederick University had become vacant. Gran applied for the post, a contest between Gran and Hjalmar Christensen ensued. Gran delivered a thesis, considered inferior, but he was deemed the better lecturer. In 1899 he received the appointment, the assessment committee noting that Gran would fill "the holes present in his knowledge" with time. Gran left Bergen Cathedral School, formally took the professor seat in 1900, he remained in this position until 1919, when he resigned to concentrate on his various writing endeavors. Gran had co-founded the Samtiden periodical in 1890 with Jørgen Brunchorst, was the editor of this magazine until his death in 1925; the periodical touched upon a number of subjects, including philosophical, social and scientific topics.
When the magazine changed its house of publishing to H. Aschehoug & Co in 1900, Gran profited from his professional relationship with publisher William Martin Nygaard. In 1914, much due to the support of Nygaard, he started the magazine Edda. Scandinavian Journal of Literary Research, was this magazine's first editor-in-chief, from 1914 to 1925, he was the Norwegian editor of the Scandinavian Nordisk Tidsskrift from 1904. He initiated the first edition of the encyclopedia Norsk biografisk leksikon, was co-editor for the first two volumes, he wrote biographies of the writers Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Henrik Ibsen, Alexander Kielland, Charles Dickens. He published the book Det Kongelige Fredriks universitet 1811–1911, chronicling the history of the University of Kristiania during its first hundred years. Collections of his essays were published as well. Gran was appointed Officer of the French Légion d'honneur and a Knight, First class of the Royal Norwegian Order of St Olav in 1905.
He was a member of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. He died in 1925 in Oslo
1991 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1991st year of the Common Era and Anno Domini designations, the 991st year of the 2nd millennium, the 91st year of the 20th century, the 2nd year of the 1990s decade. The year 1991 was the 20th year after the independence of Bangladesh, it was the first year of the first term of the Government of Khaleda Zia. President: Shahabuddin Ahmed Prime Minister: Khaleda Zia Chief Justice: Shahabuddin Ahmed The 1991 Bangladesh cyclone was among the deadliest tropical cyclones on record. On the night of 29 April 1991, it struck the Chittagong district of southeastern Bangladesh with winds of around 250 km/h; the storm forced a 6-metre storm surge inland over a wide area, killing at least 138,866 people and leaving as many as 10 million homeless. During 22 April 1991, a circulation formed in the southern Bay of Bengal from a persistent area of convection, or thunderstorms, near the equator in the eastern Indian Ocean. Within two days, the cloud mass encompassed most of the Bay of Bengal, focused on an area west of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
On 24 April, the India Meteorological Department designated the system as a depression, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center labeled the system as Tropical Cyclone 02B. Ships in the region reported winds of around 55 km/h around this time. From its genesis, the storm moved northwestward, being strengthened, amplified by a wind surge from the south. By 26 April, wind shear had decreased to near zero. Around this time, the cyclone rounded the western periphery of a large subtropical ridge over Thailand, the storm turned northward between the ridge to the northeast and northwest. On 28 April, the flow of the southwesterlies caused the cyclone to accelerate to the north-northeast; this flow amplified the storm's outflow, the cyclone intensified further. By 12:00 UTC on 28 April, or about 31 hours before landfall, the JTWC was forecasting a landfall in southeastern Bangladesh. Early on 29 April, the IMD upgraded the system to a super cyclonic storm – the highest category – and estimated peak winds of 240 km/h.
The JTWC estimated peak winds of 160 mph, the equivalent to a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson scale or a super typhoon. The cyclone's high winds and low pressure, a rarity for the Bay of Bengal, ranked it among the most intense cyclones in the basin. At 19:00 UTC on 29 April, the cyclone made landfall about 55 km south of Chittagong in southeastern Bangladesh while below its peak strength. Moving through the mountainous terrain of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, the cyclone weakened and crossed into northeast India, where it degenerated into a remnant low-pressure area. Note: For the year 1991 average official exchange rate for BDT was 36.60 per US$. 27 February – 1991 Bangladeshi general election, Bangladesh Nationalist Party emerges victorious. 29 April – 1991 Bangladesh cyclone kills more than 138,000. 10 May – President Bush directed the US military to provide humanitarian assistance to Bangladesh under the umbrella of Operation Sea Angel. A Contingency Joint Task Force under the command of Lieutenant General Henry C.
Stackpole, consisting of over 400 Marines and 3,000 sailors, was subsequently sent to Bangladesh to provide food and medical care to nearly two million people. 17 July – Government raised the maximum age limit for entering government job from 27 years to 30 years. 15 September – A constitutional referendum was held where voters were asked "Should or not the President assent to the Constitution Bill, 1991 of the People's Republic of Bangladesh?" The amendments would lead to the reintroduction of parliamentary government, with the President becoming the constitutional head of state, but the Prime Minister the executive head. The result saw 83.6% vote in favour, with a turnout of 35.2%. South Asian Games: Bangladesh participated in the fifth South Asian Federation Games held in Colombo, Sri Lanka from 22–31 December. With 4 golds, 8 silvers and 28 bronzes Bangladesh ended the tournament at the fourth position in overall points table. Domestic football: Brothers Union won Bangladesh Federation Cup title.
12 February – Shahidul Yousuf Sohel, footballer 29 May – Rumana Ahmed, cricketer 5 August – Sohag Gazi, cricketer 30 November – Nasir Hossain, cricketer 11 March – Principal Abul Kashem, academician 31 March – Abul Kashem Khan, industrialist 23 April – Lokman Hossain Fakir, musician 21 June – Rudra Mohammad Shahidullah, poet 3 July – Dolly Anwar, actor 11 October – Golam Samdani Koraishi, author 3 December – Badruddin Ahmed Siddiky, jurist 7 December – Ataur Rahman Khan, politician 22 December – Mirza Nurul Huda, politician 1990s in Bangladesh List of Bangladeshi films of 1991 Timeline of Bangladeshi history