The Hague

The Hague is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands on the North Sea and the capital of the province of South Holland. It is the seat of government of the Netherlands and hosts the International Court of Justice, one of the most important courts in the world. With a metropolitan population of more than 1 million, it is the third-largest city in the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam; the Rotterdam–The Hague metropolitan area, with a population of 2.7 million, is the 13th-largest in the European Union and the most populous in the country. Located in the west of the Netherlands, The Hague is in the centre of the Haaglanden conurbation and lies at the southwest corner of the larger Randstad conurbation; the Hague is the seat of the Cabinet, the States General, the Supreme Court, the Council of State of the Netherlands, but the city is not the constitutional capital of the Netherlands, Amsterdam. King Willem-Alexander lives in Huis ten Bosch and works at the Noordeinde Palace in The Hague, together with Queen Máxima.

Most foreign embassies in the Netherlands are located in the city. The Hague is home to the world headquarters of Royal Dutch Shell and other Dutch companies; the Hague is known as the home of international arbitration. The International Court of Justice, the main judicial arm of the United Nations, is located in the city, as well as the International Criminal Court, the Permanent Court of Arbitration, 200 other international governmental organisations; the Hague was first mentioned as Die Haghe in 1242. In the 15th century, the name des Graven hage came into use "The Count's Wood", with connotations like "The Count's Hedge, Private Enclosure or Hunting Grounds". "'s Gravenhage" was used for the city from the 17th century onward. Today, this name is only used in some official documents like marriage certificates; the city itself uses "Den Haag" in all its communications. The area was part of the Roman province of Germania Inferior and was close to the border of the empire, the Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes.

In 1997, four Roman milestones were discovered at Wateringse Veld. The originals are in the "Museon" museum; the milestones indicate the distance from the nearest Roman city, Forum Hadriani and can be dated to the reign of the emperors Antoninus Pius, Gordian III, Decius. Little is known about the origin of The Hague. There are no contemporary documents describing it, sources are of dubious reliability. What is certain is that The Hague was founded by the last counts of the House of Holland. Floris IV owned two residences in the area, but purchased a third court situated by the present-day Hofvijver in 1229 owned by a woman called Meilendis. Floris IV intended to rebuild the court into a large castle, but he died in a tournament in 1234, before anything was built, his son and successor William II lived in the court, after he was elected King of the Romans in 1248, he promptly returned to The Hague, had builders turn the court into a "royal palace", which would be called the Binnenhof. He died in 1256 before this palace was completed but parts of it were finished during the reign of his son Floris V, of which the Ridderzaal, still intact, is the most prominent.

It is still used for political events, such as the annual speech from the throne by the Dutch monarch. From the 13th century onward, the counts of Holland used The Hague as their administrative center and residence when in Holland; the village that originated around the Binnenhof was first mentioned as Die Haghe in a charter dating from 1242. It became the primary residence of the Counts of Holland in 1358, thus became the seat of many government institutions; this status allowed the village to grow. In its early years, the village was located in the ambacht, or rural district, of Monster, governed by the Lord of Monster. Seeking to exercise more direct control over the village, the Count split the village off and created a separate ambacht called Haagambacht, governed directly by the Counts of Holland; the territory of Haagambacht was expanded during the reign of Floris V. When the House of Burgundy inherited the counties of Holland and Zeeland in 1432, they appointed a stadtholder to rule in their stead with the States of Holland and West Friesland as an advisory council.

Although their seat was located in The Hague, the city became subordinate to more important centres of government such as Brussels and Mechelen, from where the sovereigns ruled over the centralised Burgundian Netherlands. At the beginning of the Eighty Years' War, the absence of city walls proved disastrous, as it allowed Spanish troops to occupy the town. In 1575, the States of Holland, temporarily based in Delft considered demolishing the city but this proposal was abandoned, after mediation by William the Silent. In 1588, The Hague became the permanent seat of the States of Holland as well as the States General of the Dutch Republic. In order for the administration to maintain control over city matters, The Hague never received official city status, although it did have many of the privileges granted only to cities. In modern administrative law, "city rights" have no place anymore. In 1806, when the Kingdom of Holland was a puppet state of the First French Empire, the settlement was granted city rights by Louis Bonaparte.

After the Napoleonic Wars, modern

The Association for the Study of Play

The Association for the Study of Play is a multidisciplinary organization of scholars and practitioners in the field of play. The Association promotes the study of play, forges alliances with organizations advancing play, organizes yearly meetings to disseminate play research, publishes a newsletter and monograph series; the Association for the Study of Play emerged from a meeting of scholars of play held in Minneapolis, Minnesota, on April 14, 1973. The meeting was organized and chaired by Alyce Taylor Cheska, Head of the Department of Women's Physical Education at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign and an affiliate professor in the Department of Anthropology; the scholars who met there formed the Cultural Anthropology of Play Reprint Society. The next year, Michael Salter organized the first formal meeting of the new organization at the University of Western Ontario during the North American Society for Sport History convention. Participants renamed the organization "The Association for the Anthropological Study of Play" and elected B. Allan Tindall as president.

In 1987, the organization changed its name to The Association for the Study of Play. The proceedings of the Association's first conference were published in The Anthropological study of play: problems and prospects, a collection edited by edited by David F. Lancy and B. Allan Tindall; the Association for the Study of Play publishes the quarterly TASP Newsletter, Play Review, the annual edited Play & Culture Studies Series. The Play & Culture journal series replaced TASP's yearly publication of conference proceedings in 1988. TASP's official journal is the International Journal of Play, published by Francis. TASP conducts holds a scholarly conference each year; these multidisciplinary meetings have been held in North America and Europe, draw a range of scholars from the fields of anthropology, communication studies, cultural studies, ecology, ethology, history, leisure studies, philosophy, recreation and the arts. Strong National Museum of Play Play Official website American Journal of Play

The Raggy Dolls

The Raggy Dolls is a 1980s–1990s British cartoon series which aired on ITV from 1986 until 1994. The series is set in Mr Grimes' Toy Factory. While unobserved by human eyes, the dolls come to life and climb out of the reject bin to have adventures; the series was designed to encourage children to think positively about physical disabilities, as well as teaching kindness and humility towards others. The series was produced for Yorkshire Television from 3 April 1986 to 20 December 1994, it was created by Melvyn Jacobson, with scripts and music by Neil Innes. Yorkshire Television produced the first two series of The Raggy Dolls before awarding the commission to Orchid Productions Limited in 1987; this was the first programme Yorkshire Television commissioned from an independent production company, Orchid Productions went on to produce over 100 more episodes of the series. The initial animator for Yorkshire TV was Roy Evans, after the move to Orchid Productions Mark Mason took over the role and storyboarding 26 episodes, storyboarding and directing other animators on a further 26 episodes before moving onto work on other children's shows and being replaced by Peter Hale from the 7th series onwards.

The series was sold abroad to a number of other countries. Sad Sack – A sample of a design, deemed too expensive to mass-produce, he is the oldest of the seven Raggy Dolls in the Reject Bin. As his name suggests, he is gloomy and cynical, but he still values his friendship with the other dolls. Dotty - As the oldest next to the lethargic Sad Sack, she sees herself as the leader of the group and is very bossy, she is so named because she accidentally had paint spilt on her clothing. Dotty's main catchphrase is: "Good thinking!" Hi-Fi – He converses with stammer due to him being dropped during testing. It was stated in episode "The Trouble with Claude" that he was wired incorrectly, hence the stammer, he always wears headphones, which allow him to tune into radio and communication signals from any source. Lucy – Her limbs are inadequately attached with nylon thread, she is shy and frightened, but always kind-hearted and loyal to her friends. She can be brave on occasion, as first seen in the episode "Ghosts".

She speaks with a Derbyshire accent. Back-To-Front – He is a handyman doll with a backward-facing head and a love of machines. Always calm in a crisis, Back-To-Front's catchphrase is "No problem!". Claude – A French doll, unlike his companions, is perfect in every way, he fell out of a box of dolls being shipped to France and was left behind, being put in the bin out of a lack of other places. He speaks with a French accent, sometimes alternates between speaking English and French, he has a notable talent for cooking. Princess – She should have been a beautiful princess doll, but the machine accidentally cut her hair and left her dress in rags. In the manner of a typical aristocrat, her voice is characterised by H-adding; as the opening titles indicate, Princess is the youngest of the original seven Raggy Dolls. Ragamuffin – A wandering traveller doll who had lost his owner and decided to spend his life taking in new sights and experiences. Introduced in the fifth series. Pumpernickle – A Scarecrow, a friend to the Raggy Dolls.

Edward – Mr Grimes's lost teddy bear who becomes a good friend to the Raggy Dolls. Mr Marmalade – Mr Grimes's pet cat who has a playful trait. Hercules – An old farmhorse. Rupert the Roo – An Australian toy kangaroo, mailed from Australia until he had become a new friend to the Raggy Dolls. Natasha – A Russian Doll bought by Mrs Grimes. Mr Oswald "Ozzie" Grimes – The owner of the toy factory. Cynthia – Appeared in the series to be Mr Grimes's love interest, wife. Florrie Fosdyke – A kind cafeteria lady who's very forgetful. Farmer Brown – The farmer of One Pin Farm. Ethel Grimes – Mr Grimes's sister. Oz and Boz – Ethel's sons, known as the Terrible Twins. Series 1a: 6 editions from 3 April 1986 – 8 May 1986 Series 1b: 7 editions from 20 November 1986 – 26 February 1987 Series 2a: 6 editions 13 November 1987 – 8 January 1988 Series 2b: 7 editions from 19 August 1988 – 28 September 1988 Series 3a: 6 editions from 16 November 1988 – 21 December 1988 Series 3b: 7 editions from 19 July 1989 – 30 August 1989 Series 4a: 3 editions from 6 September 1989 – 20 September 1989 Series 4b: 10 editions from 28 June 1990 – 30 August 1990 Series 5: 13 editions from 6 September 1990 – 20 December 1990 Series 6: 13 editions from 6 September 1991 – 13 December 1991 Series 7: 13 editions from 8 September 1992 – 8 December 1992 Series 8: 10 editions from 28 September 1993 – 7 December 1993 Series 9: 10 editions from 11 October 1994 – 20 December 1994 After the series ended, The Raggy Dolls aired on digital television on the defunct children's network Carlton Kids along with other ITV programmes for children such as Mopatop's Shop, Worzel Gummidge, The Dreamstone and Jim and Tots TV and a number of CBBC programmes such as Willo the Wisp and Puppydog Tales and on free for air satellite television on Tiny Pop.

It was exported to many countries worldwide such as Iceland, Pakistan, Sweden, South Africa, Hungary, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Poland, Belarus, Australia and parts of Asia and on military television in Germany, the Falkland Islands and Cyprus. Three videos were released during the late 80s by Castle Communications Plc, each featuring a selection of e