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The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire is a six-volume work by the English historian Edward Gibbon. It traces Western civilization from the height of the Roman Empire to the fall of Byzantium. Volume I went through six printings. Volumes II and III were published in 1781; the six volumes cover the history, from 98 to 1590, of the Roman Empire, the history of early Christianity and of the Roman State Church, the history of Europe, discusses the decline of the Roman Empire among other things. Gibbon offers an explanation for the fall of the Roman Empire, a task made difficult by a lack of comprehensive written sources, though he was not the only historian to attempt it. According to Gibbon, the Roman Empire succumbed to barbarian invasions in large part due to the gradual loss of civic virtue among its citizens, he began an ongoing controversy about the role of Christianity, but he gave great weight to other causes of internal decline and to attacks from outside the Empire. The story of its ruin is obvious.

The victorious legions, who, in distant wars, acquired the vices of strangers and mercenaries, first oppressed the freedom of the republic, afterwards violated the majesty of the purple. The emperors, anxious for their personal safety and the public peace, were reduced to the base expedient of corrupting the discipline which rendered them alike formidable to their sovereign and to the enemy. Like other Enlightenment thinkers and British citizens of the age steeped in institutional anti-Catholicism, Gibbon held in contempt the Middle Ages as a priest-ridden, superstitious Dark Age, it was not until his own era, the "Age of Reason", with its emphasis on rational thought, it was believed, that human history could resume its progress. Gibbon's tone was detached and yet critical, he can lapse into moralisation and aphorism: s long as mankind shall continue to bestow more liberal applause on their destroyers than on their benefactors, the thirst of military glory will be the vice of the most exalted characters.

The influence of the clergy, in an age of superstition, might be usefully employed to assert the rights of mankind. Istory is, little more than the register of the crimes and misfortunes of mankind. If we contrast the rapid progress of this mischievous discovery with the slow and laborious advances of reason and the arts of peace, a philosopher, according to his temper, will laugh or weep at the folly of mankind. Gibbon provides the reader with a glimpse of his thought process with extensive notes along the body of the text, a precursor to the modern use of footnotes. Gibbon's footnotes are famous for their idiosyncratic and humorous style, have been called "Gibbon's table talk." They provide an entertaining moral commentary on both ancient Rome and 18th century Great Britain. This technique enabled Gibbon to compare ancient Rome to his own contemporary world. Gibbon's work advocates a progressive view of history. Gibbon's citations provide in-depth detail regarding his use of sources for his work, which included documents dating back to ancient Rome.

The detail within his asides and his care in noting the importance of each document is a precursor to modern-day historical footnoting methodology. The work is notable for research. John Bury, following him 113 years with his own History of the Later Roman Empire, commended the depth and accuracy of Gibbon's work. Unusually for 18th century historians, Gibbon was not content with second-hand accounts when primary sources were accessible. "I have always endeavoured", Gibbon wrote, "to draw from the fountain-head. The Decline and Fall is a massive step forward in historical method. Numerous tracts were published criticising his work. In response, Gibbon defended his work with the 1779 publication of A Vindication... of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. His remarks on Christianity aroused vigorous attacks, but in the mid-twentieth century, at least one author claimed that "church historians allow the substantial justness of main positions." Gibbon's comments on the Quran and Muhammad reflected his view of the secular origin of the text.

He outlined in chapter 33 the widespread tale of the Seven Sleepers, remarked "This popular tale, which Mahomet might learn when he drove his camels to the fairs of Syria, is introduced, as a divine revelation, into the Quran." His presentation of Muhammad's life again reflected his secular approach: "in his private conduct, Mahomet indulged the appetites of a man, abused the claims of a prophet. A special revelation dispensed him from the laws which he had imposed on his nation: the female sex, without reserve, was abandoned to his desires. Gibbon described the Jews as "a race of fanatics, whose dire and credul

East Hampshire (UK Parliament constituency)

East Hampshire is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2010 by Damian Hinds of the Conservative Party. East Hampshire as a seat was created in 1983 to replace the Petersfield constituency; the first MP for the seat was Michael Mates, who held the seat from 1983 until the 2010 election when he retired. 1983–1997: The District of East Hampshire wards of Binsted and Liphook, Clanfield and Buriton, East Meon and Langrish and Bentley, Froxfield and Steep, Headley, Horndean Catherington, Horndean Hazleton, Horndean Kings, Horndean Murray, Petersfield Heath, Petersfield St Mary's, Petersfield St Peter's, Rowlands Castle, The Hangers, Whitehill Bordon and Whitehill, Whitehill Lindford, the District of Hart wards of Church Crookham, Fleet Courtmoor, Fleet Pondtail, Fleet West, Long Sutton, Odiham. 1997–2010: The District of East Hampshire wards of Alton Holybourne, Alton North East, Alton North West, Alton South East, Alton South West and Beech and Buriton, East Meon and Langrish, Four Marks and Steep, Horndean Catherington, Horndean Hazleton, Horndean Kings, Horndean Murray, Medstead, North Downland, Petersfield Heath, Petersfield St Mary's, Petersfield St Peter's, Ropley and West Tisted, Rowlands Castle, The Hangers, the Borough of Havant wards of Cowplain, Hart Plain, Waterloo.

2010–present: The District of East Hampshire wards of Alton Amery, Alton Ashdell, Alton Eastbrooke, Alton Westbrooke, Alton Whitedown, Alton Wooteys and Bentley, Bramshott and Liphook, East Meon, Four Marks and Medstead and Steep, Headley and Froyle, Liss, Petersfield Bell Hill, Petersfield Causeway, Petersfield Heath, Petersfield Rother, Petersfield St Mary's, Petersfield St Peter's, Ropley and Tisted, The Hangers and Forest, Whitehill Chase, Whitehill Deadwater, Whitehill Hogmoor, Whitehill Pinewood, Whitehill Walldown. The constituency is based on a similar area to that of the East Hampshire district, which it does not fill completely. Much of the seat is the East Hampshire Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Results to date suggest the seat is a Conservative Party safe seat and on national opinion-poll adjusted results, Hinds has the 28th highest share of the vote for the party in the country; the Liberal Democrats or its predecessor the Liberals have finished second in every election bar 2015, where UKIP finished second with 12.3% of the vote, 2017 where Labour came second.

List of Parliamentary constituencies in Hampshire Notes References

Latvian Special Tasks Unit

The Special Tasks Unit is a special operations unit of the National Armed Forces. It was established in September 1991; the unit is specially organized and equipped for the performance of high-danger tasks. The soldiers in the unit continuously train to enhance their professional preparedness and are provided with specialized equipment in order to carry out their tasks efficiently; as a Special forces group most information about its actions are based on speculation and rumors. The motto depicted in the unit's crest translates as "the brave man wins". Headquarters Staff Company Combat Squadron A Combat Squadron B Combat Squadron C Combat Support Squadron Training SquadronThe Special Tasks Unit consists of trained professional soldiers who are specialized in certain areas, e.g. airborne troops, combat divers, dog handlers and other. The unit is developed in a way, which allows it to provide assistance to state security and law-enforcement institutions in counter-terrorist operations and perform special tasks within the entire range of military operations: defense and detention operations, sea landing and underwater operations, operations in a special environment, as well as search and rescue operations in collaboration with the Naval and Air Forces.

The main mission of The Special Tasks Unit is to: Perform special operations for national defense and security interests. The Special Tasks Unit's equipment and weaponry includes the Heckler & Koch MP5, Heckler & Koch G36, Steyr AUG, Glock 17, M249 SAW, L96A1 and many other weapons. National Armed Forces site