Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, at the mouth of the River Liffey, is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains, it has an urban area population of 1,173,179, while the population of the Dublin Region, as of 2016, was 1,347,359, the population of the Greater Dublin area was 1,904,806. There is archaeological debate regarding where Dublin was established by the Gaels in or before the 7th century AD. Expanded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin, the city became Ireland's principal settlement following the Norman invasion; the city expanded from the 17th century and was the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800. Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State renamed Ireland. Dublin is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts and industry; as of 2018 the city was listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of "Alpha −", which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world.
The name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, from dubh meaning "black, dark", lind "pool", referring to a dark tidal pool. This tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, Irish rhymes from County Dublin show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn; the original pronunciation is preserved in the names for the city in other languages such as Old English Difelin, Old Norse Dyflin, modern Icelandic Dyflinn and modern Manx Divlyn as well as Welsh Dulyn. Other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin. Scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b, rendering Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn; those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh, part of Loch Linnhe.
It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements; the Viking settlement of about 841, a Gaelic settlement, Áth Cliath further up river, at the present day Father Mathew Bridge, at the bottom of Church Street. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning "town of the hurdled ford", is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliath is a place name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street occupied by Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church. There are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, Anglicised as Hurlford; the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, but the writings of Ptolemy in about AD 140 provide the earliest reference to a settlement there.
He called it Eblana polis. Dublin celebrated its'official' millennium in 1988, meaning the Irish government recognised 988 as the year in which the city was settled and that this first settlement would become the city of Dublin, it is now thought the Viking settlement of about 841 was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements which became the modern Dublin; the subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay. The Dubhlinn was a pool on the lowest stretch of the Poddle, used to moor ships; this pool was fully infilled during the early 18th century, as the city grew. The Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library within Dublin Castle. Táin Bó Cuailgne refers to Dublind rissa ratter Áth Cliath, meaning "Dublin, called Ath Cliath". Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 10th century and, despite a number of attacks by the native Irish, it remained under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in 1169.
It was upon the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166 that Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht, proceeded to Dublin and was inaugurated King of Ireland without opposition. According to some historians, part of the city's early economic growth is attributed to a trade in slaves. Slavery in Ireland and Dublin reached its pinnacle in the 10th centuries. Prisoners from slave raids and kidnappings, which captured men and children, brought revenue to the Gaelic Irish Sea raiders, as well as to the Vikings who had initiated the practice; the victims came from Wales, England and beyond. The King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada, after his exile by Ruaidhrí, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer Dublin. Following Mac Murrough's death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. In response to Strongbow's successful invasion, King Henry II of England affirmed his ultimate sovereignty by mou
Cliff Reid known as George Clifford Reid, was an American film producer and film production studio founder during the 1930s and 1940s. In addition he directed film shorts, was the assistant director on several feature films. Reid was born and raised in Delaware and graduated from high school there, he entered the film industry in the 1910s and worked as a film distributor, before beginning to produce silent films in 1921. Reid began in the film industry at the beginning of the sound era and directing film shorts, his first film was The Suppressed Crime, a 1930 mystery short, produced by Reid's own company, George Clifford Reid Productions. During 1930 and 1931 Reid's company would produce 19 film shorts, which Reid directed, he wrote one of the shorts, 1931's The Bank Swindle. Reid began working for RKO in 1933. There is no record this film was finished; that year he was tagged by Merian C. Cooper, RKO's V. P. in charge of production, as his envoy to regional sales conventions in Chicago and San Francisco.
Reid's first involvement in a feature film being as the associate producer on John Ford's war film, The Lost Patrol. He would work as an associate producer for RKO over the next few years, before being given the producing helm in 1937 on the drama, The Man Who Found Himself, directed by Lew Landers. Reid remained at RKO through 1942 as a producer, his last film for them being an installment of the Mexican Spitfire series, Mexican Spitfire Sees a Ghost. Other notable films on which Reid worked include: the 1935 version of The Three Musketeers, he only worked on a few films at MGM, but they included the John Ford war classic, They Were Expendable, starring John Wayne and Robert Montgomery. His final producing credit would be at MGM the following year, producing the Norman Taurog drama The Hoodlum Saint, starring William Powell and Esther Williams, he retired after The Hoodlum Saint. He was married to Mary Reid, they had at least two children, Clifford Jr. and Marguerite. Clifford Jr. would follow his follow into the film industry, beginning at his father's old studio, RKO, where he was an assistant director to Edward Dmytryk on his classic 1947 Academy Award nominated film, Crossfire.
In 1957, Reid suffered a cerebral hemorrhage and was hospitalized at the Motion Picture House and Hospital. He remained in the hospital for the remainder of his life. Two years he suffered a heart attack, from which he did not recover, he died at the Motion Picture Hospital in Woodland Hills, California on August 22, 1959, at the age of 67. He was buried at San Fernando Mission Cemetery. Cliff Reid on IMDb
J. M. Kerrigan
Joseph Michael Kerrigan, better known as J. M. Kerrigan, was an Irish character actor. Kerrigan was born in Ireland, he worked as a newspaper reporter until 1907. There he became a stalwart, appearing in plays by Lady Gregory, William Butler Yeats and John Millington Synge (for whom he played the role of Shawn Keogh in The Playboy of the Western World, his first screen appearance was in the silent film Food of Love in 1916. By the 1920s he was appearing on Broadway in plays by Shakespeare and Sheridan, he settled permanently in Hollywood in 1935, having been recruited along with several other Abbey performers, to appear in John Ford's The Informer. In that film and in Ford's The Long Voyage Home, he plays similar roles, that of a leech who attaches himself to men until they run out of money, his best known role was in The General Died at Dawn, where he plays a character named Leach, in which he steals scenes from Gary Cooper, Madeleine Carroll and William Frawley. In it he plays a sinister little petty thief who, holding a gun on Cooper, says, "I may be fat, but I'm agile."
He had little screen time in films which he starred as minor roles, such as the "First Drayman" in Merely Mary Ann with Janet Gaynor. One of his most recognizable minor roles was in Gone with the Wind, in which he played John Gallegher, the seemly jovial mill owner who whips his convict labour in to "co-operation", he appeared in Walt Disney's 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, the famous film version of Jules Verne's Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea in a minor role at the beginning of the film. In 1946, he tried breaking into Broadway shows, playing the discombobulated leprechaun Jackeen J. O'Malley in the show "Barnaby and Mr. O'Malley", based on the Crockett Johnson comic strip. J. M. Kerrigan died in Hollywood on 29 April 1964, aged 79. Kerrigan has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6621 Hollywood Blvd. J. M. Kerrigan on IMDb J. M. Kerrigan at the Internet Broadway Database J. M. Kerrigan at Find a Grave
Irish War of Independence
The Irish War of Independence or Anglo-Irish War was a guerrilla war fought in Ireland from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army and British forces: the British Army, along with the quasi-military Royal Irish Constabulary and its paramilitary forces the Auxiliaries and Ulster Special Constabulary. It was an escalation of the Irish revolutionary period into warfare. In April 1916, Irish republicans launched the Easter Rising against British rule and proclaimed an Irish Republic. Although it was crushed after a week of fighting, the Easter Rising and the British response led to greater popular support for Irish independence. In the December 1918 election, the republican party Sinn Féin won a landslide victory in Ireland. On 21 January 1919 they declared Irish independence; that day, two RIC officers were shot dead in the Soloheadbeg ambush by IRA volunteers acting on their own initiative. The conflict developed gradually. For much of 1919, IRA activity involved capturing weaponry and freeing republican prisoners, while the Dáil set about building a state.
In September, the British government outlawed the conflict intensified. The IRA began ambushing RIC and British Army patrols, attacking their barracks and forcing isolated barracks to be abandoned; the British government bolstered the RIC with recruits from Britain—the Black and Tans and Auxiliaries—who became notorious for ill-discipline and reprisal attacks on civilians, some of which were authorized by the British government. Thus the conflict is sometimes called the Tan War; the conflict involved civil disobedience, notably the refusal of Irish railwaymen to transport British forces or military supplies. In mid-1920, republicans won control of most county councils, British authority collapsed in most of the south and west, forcing the British government to introduce emergency powers. About 300 people had been killed by late 1920. On Bloody Sunday in Dublin, 21 November 1920, fourteen British intelligence operatives were assassinated in the morning. A week seventeen Auxiliaries were killed by the IRA in the Kilmichael Ambush in County Cork.
The British government declared martial law in much of southern Ireland. The centre of Cork city was burnt out by British forces in December 1920. Violence continued to escalate over the next seven months, when 1,000 people were killed and 4,500 republicans were interned. Much of the fighting took place in Munster and Belfast, which together saw over 75 percent of the conflict deaths; the conflict in north-east Ulster had a sectarian aspect. While the Catholic minority there backed Irish independence, the Protestant majority were unionist/loyalist. A Special Constabulary was formed, made up of Protestants, loyalist paramilitaries were active, they attacked Catholics in reprisal for IRA actions, in Belfast a sectarian conflict raged in which 500 were killed, most of them Catholics. In May 1921, Ireland was partitioned under British law by the Government of Ireland Act, which created Northern Ireland. Both sides agreed to a ceasefire on 11 July 1921; the post-ceasefire talks led to the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty on 6 December 1921.
This ended British rule in most of Ireland and, after a ten-month transitional period overseen by a provisional government, the Irish Free State was created as a self-governing Dominion on 6 December 1922. Northern Ireland remained within the United Kingdom. After the ceasefire, violence in Belfast and fighting in border areas of Northern Ireland continued, the IRA launched a failed Northern offensive in May 1922. In June 1922, disagreement among republicans over the Anglo-Irish Treaty led to the ten-month Irish Civil War; the Irish Free State awarded 62,868 medals for service during the War of Independence, of which 15,224 were issued to IRA fighters of the flying columns. Since the 1880s, Irish nationalists in the Irish Parliamentary Party had been demanding Home Rule, or self-government, from Britain. Fringe organisations, such as Arthur Griffith's Sinn Féin, instead argued for some form of Irish independence, but they were in a small minority; the demand for Home Rule was granted by the British Government in 1912 prompting a prolonged crisis within the United Kingdom as Ulster unionists formed an armed organisation – the Ulster Volunteers – to resist this measure of devolution, at least in territory they could control.
In turn, nationalists formed the Irish Volunteers. The British Parliament passed the Third Home Rule Act on 18 September 1914 with an amending Bill for the partition of Ireland introduced by Ulster Unionist MPs, but the Act's implementation was postponed by the Suspensory Act 1914 due to the outbreak of the First World War in the previous month; the majority of nationalists followed their IPP leaders and John Redmond's call to support Britain and the Allied war effort in Irish regiments of the New British Army, the intention being to ensure the commencement of Home Rule after the war. But a significant minority of the Irish Volunteers opposed Ireland's involvement in the war; the Volunteer movement split, a majority leaving to form the National Volunteers under Redmond. The remaining Irish Volunteers, under Eoin MacNeill, held that they would maintain their organisation until Home Rule had been granted. Within this Volunteer movement, another faction, led by the separatist Irish Republican Brotherhood, began to prepare for a revolt a
The Informer (novel)
The Informer is a novel by Irish writer Liam O'Flaherty published in 1925. It received the 1925 James Tait Black Memorial Prize. Set in 1920's Dublin in the aftermath of the Irish Civil War, the novel centers on Gypo Nolan. Having disclosed the whereabouts of his friend Frankie McPhillip to the police, Gypo finds himself hunted by his revolutionary comrades for this betrayal. Gypo Nolan - The informer of the novel's title, he is an ex-policeman and member of the Revolutionary Organization. Frankie McPhillip - Gypo Nolan's "bosom friend" and a member of the Revolutionary Organization, he is wanted for a murder committed during a farm labourers' strike and is betrayed to the police by Gypo. Dan Gallagher - A commandant of the Revolutionary Organization bent on finding and killing the informer. Most famously, the novel was made into a film of the same name by John Ford in 1935 starring Victor McLaglen as Gypo Nolan. An earlier film adaptation named The Informer was directed by Arthur Robison in 1929
John Ford was an American film director. He is renowned both for Westerns such as Stagecoach, The Searchers, The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance, as well as adaptations of classic 20th-century American novels such as the film The Grapes of Wrath, his four Academy Awards for Best Director remain a record. One of the films for which he won the award, How Green Was My Valley won Best Picture. In a career that spanned more than 50 years, Ford directed more than 140 films and he is regarded as one of the most important and influential filmmakers of his generation. Ford's work was held in high regard by his colleagues, with Orson Welles and Ingmar Bergman among those who have named him one of the greatest directors of all time. Ford made frequent use of location shooting and long shots, in which his characters were framed against a vast and rugged natural terrain. Ford was born John Martin "Jack" Feeney in Cape Elizabeth, Maine, to John Augustine Feeney and Barbara "Abbey" Curran, on February 1, 1894.
His father, John Augustine, was born in Spiddal, County Galway, Ireland, in 1854. Barbara Curran was born in the town of Kilronan on the island of Inishmore. John A. Feeney's grandmother, Barbara Morris, was said to be a member of a local gentry family, the Morrises of Spiddal. John Augustine and Barbara Curran arrived in Boston and Portland in May and June 1872, they married in 1875 and became American citizens five years on September 11, 1880. They had eleven children: Mamie, born 1876. John Augustine lived in the Munjoy Hill neighborhood of Portland, with his family, would try farming, working for the gas company, running a saloon, being an alderman. Feeney attended Portland High School, Maine, where he was a successful fullback and defensive tackle, he earned the nickname "Bull" because of the way he would charge the line. A Portland pub is named Bull Feeney's in his honor, he moved to California and in 1914 began working in film production as well as acting for his older brother Francis, adopting "Jack Ford" as a professional name.
In addition to credited roles, he appeared uncredited as a Klansman in D. W. Griffith's 1915 The Birth of a Nation, he married Mary McBride Smith on July 3, 1920, they had two children. His daughter Barbara was married to singer and actor Ken Curtis from 1952 to 1964; the marriage between Ford and Smith lasted for life despite various issues, one of which could have proved problematic from the start, this being that John Ford was Catholic while she was a non-Catholic divorcée. What difficulty was caused by the two marrying is unclear as the level of John Ford's commitment to the Catholic faith is disputed. A strain would have been Ford's many extramarital relationships. John Ford began his career in film after moving to California in July 1914, he followed in the footsteps of his multi-talented older brother Francis Ford, twelve years his senior, who had left home years earlier and had worked in vaudeville before becoming a movie actor. Francis played in hundreds of silent pictures for filmmakers such as Thomas Edison, Georges Méliès and Thomas Ince progressing to become a prominent Hollywood actor-writer-director with his own production company at Universal.
John Ford started out in his brother's films as an assistant, handyman and occasional actor doubling for his brother, whom he resembled. Francis gave his younger brother his first acting role in The Mysterious Rose. Despite an combative relationship, within three years Jack had progressed to become Francis' chief assistant and worked as his cameraman. By the time Jack Ford was given his first break as a director, Francis' profile was declining and he ceased working as a director soon after. One notable feature of John Ford's films is that he used a'stock company' of actors, far more so than many directors. Many famous stars appeared in at least two or more Ford films, including Harry Carey Sr. Will Rogers, John Wayne, Henry Fonda, Maureen O'Hara, James Stewart, Woody Strode, Richard Widmark, Victor McLaglen, Vera Miles and Jeffrey Hunter. Many of his supporting actors appeared in multiple Ford films over a period of several decades, including Ben Johnson, Chill Wills, Andy Devine, Ward Bond, Grant Withers, Mae Marsh, Anna Lee, Harry Carey Jr.
Ken Curtis, Frank Baker, Dolores del Río, Pedro Armendáriz, Hank Worden, John Qualen, Barry Fitzgerald, Arthur Shields, John Carradine, O. Z. Whitehead and Carleton Young. Core members of this extended'troupe', including Ward Bond, John Carradine, Harry Carey Jr. Mae Marsh, Frank Baker and Ben Johnson, were informally known as the John Ford Stock Company. Ford enjoyed extended working relationships with his production team, many of his crew worked with him for decades, he made numerous films with the same major collaborators, including producer and business partner Merian C. Cooper, scriptwriters Nunnally Johnson, Dudley Nichols and Frank S. Nugent, cinematographers Ben F. Reynolds, John W. Brown and Georg
Heather Angel (actress)
Heather Grace Angel, born Heather Grace Angel, was a British actress. Angel was born 9 February 1909 in Headington, England. In the 1911 UK Census, the family is shown as living at 17 Banbury Road, Oxford along with three servants, she was the younger of two sisters. And the daughter of Mary Letitia Stock and Andrea Angel, an Oxford University chemistry lecturer and a don at Brasenose College and at Christ Church, they were married in 1904 and, after the wedding, they moved to the Banbury Road. Andrea Angel was killed in the Silvertown explosion in January 1917, posthumously awarded the Edward Medal. In his Will, he left his wife £374 and shortly thereafter, his wife moved to London with the two daughters. By 1929, when Heather was 19, she was appearing with an overseas touring theatre company managed by Charles Bradbury-Ingles; the same record shows that she was living at London W4, when she left. Angel began her stage career at the Old Vic in 1926 and appeared with touring companies, her Broadway debut came in Love of Women at the Golden Theatre.
She appeared in The Wookey. Angel appeared in many British films, she made her first screen appearance in City of Song. She had a leading role in Night in Montmartre, followed this success with The Hound of the Baskervilles, she decided to move to Hollywood. She sailed on the Majestic to New York on 21 December 1932 with her mother. Over the next few years, she played strong roles in such films as The Mystery of Edwin Drood, The Three Musketeers, The Informer and The Last of the Mohicans. In 1937 she made the first of five appearances as Phyllis Clavering in the popular Bulldog Drummond series, she was cast as the maid, Ethel, in Suspicion. Angel was the leading lady in the first screen version of Raymond Chandler's The High Window, released in 1942 as Time to Kill, she was one of the passengers of Alfred Hitchcock's Lifeboat. Her film appearances in the following years were few, but she returned to Hollywood to provide voices for the Walt Disney animated films Alice in Wonderland and Peter Pan. From 1964 until 1965, she played a continuing role in the television soap opera Peyton Place.
After that role, she played Miss Faversham, a nanny and female friend of Sebastian Cabot's character of Giles French in the situation comedy Family Affair. Angel married actor Ralph Forbes in Arizona in a union that lasted less than ten years. Angel had acted with Henry Wilcoxon in Self Made Lady; when she heard Wilcoxon was in Hollywood, she contacted him. She invited him to polo matches at the home of Will Rogers and taught him horseback riding, they acted together in two other films: The Last of the Mohicans and Lady Hamilton. Though they remained lifelong friends, they never married. Heather and her husband were both present at the wedding of Wilcoxon to his first wife, they had intended to host the wedding at their house in Coldwater Canyon. Angel married Robert B. Sinclair, a film and television director, in 1944. On 4 January 1970, Billy McCoy Hunter, broke into their home; when Sinclair attempted to protect Angel, Hunter killed him in her presence fled. He was found with a knife and pistol when arrested.
The incident is believed to have been a failed burglary. Angel had one son with Sinclair in 1947 Angel has a motion pictures star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for her contributions to the film industry, her star is located at 6301 Hollywood Boulevard. Angel died from cancer in Santa Barbara and was buried in Santa Barbara Cemetery. Wilcoxon, Henry. Lionheart in Hollywood: the autobiography of Henry Wilcoxon. Metuchen, NJ and London: The Scarecrow Press, Inc. ISBN 0-8108-2476-0. Heather Angel on IMDb Heather Angel at AllMovie Heather Angel at the TCM Movie Database Heather Angel at the Internet Broadway Database Photographs and literature Heather Angel at Find a Grave