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The Jay Leno Show

The Jay Leno Show is an American talk show created by and starring Jay Leno. Premiering on NBC on September 14, 2009, the program aired on weeknights at 10:00 p.m. ET/PT through February 9, 2010; the program was modeled upon the format of a late night talk show—specifically, Jay Leno's incarnation of The Tonight Show, opening with a comedic monologue, followed by interviews with celebrity guests and other comedy segments. Sketches from The Tonight Show were carried over to The Jay Leno Show, along with new sketches; the program was the result of a compromise by NBC Universal's then-CEO Jeff Zucker to keep Jay Leno with the company following his retirement from The Tonight Show and replacement with Conan O'Brien. The Jay Leno Show was intended to provide NBC with an alternative to the high-cost scripted dramas aired by competing networks in its time slot. NBC hoped to attract Leno's existing fans, as well as a larger primetime audience than that of his late-night program; the Jay Leno Show was met with mixed reception from critics, who felt that the series had little differentiation from Leno's Tonight Show.

Others were critical of NBC's decision to give up an hour of its weeknight lineup to Leno, due to the network's past success with dramas airing in the time slot, while one NBC affiliate notably planned not to air the show at all, although this decision was retracted due to complaints by the network. Although viewership of The Jay Leno Show was on par with NBC's projections, by November, the program's ratings began to fall significantly. NBC's affiliates complained that the declining viewership of The Jay Leno Show had a ripple effect on the viewership of their late local newscasts. In an effort to address the concerns, NBC announced in January 2010 that it would, following the 2010 Winter Olympics, shorten The Jay Leno Show to a half-hour, move it to 11:35 p.m—the timeslot, occupied by The Tonight Show for nearly 60 years, bump Tonight to 12:05 a.m. NBC's decision resulted in a major public conflict between the network and Conan O'Brien, who asserted that the move would damage the respected Tonight Show franchise, that he would not participate in the program if it were moved to 12:05.

Despite much support for O'Brien from both the public and media professionals alike, NBC maintained its plan to move Leno to 11:35. On January 21, 2010, NBC reached a $45 million settlement with O'Brien; the Jay Leno Show ended on February 9, 2010, after being on the air for only four months, with Entertainment Weekly calling the program television's "Biggest Bomb of All Time." Leno resumed his duties as host of The Tonight Show on March 1, 2010, for his second and final stint that lasted until his February 2014 succession by Jimmy Fallon. NBC announced in 2004 that Jay Leno would leave The Tonight Show in 2009, with Conan O'Brien as his replacement. Leno—who wanted to avoid an acrimonious transition like what he experienced when he inherited Tonight from Johnny Carson—said at the announcement, "You can do these things until they carry you out on a stretcher, or you can get out when you’re still doing good." He began to regret his decision to retire in 2007, several networks and studios including ABC, Fox and Tribune expressed interest in his services after leaving Tonight.

Jeff Zucker, then-President and CEO of NBCUniversal, sought to keep Leno from defecting to a competitor. Leno rejected several NBC offers for broadcast network daytime slots or subscription TV slots, a series of recurring specials, a half-hour show at 8 pm five nights a week featuring Leno's Tonight monologue; the network had in 1981 considered moving The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson to 10 pm. Leno was announced on December 9, 2008. At least one station, then-affiliate WHDH-TV in Boston, stated that it would not carry the program, claiming that Leno would be detrimental to the station's 11 pm news and that it would instead launch a local news program in the time slot. NBC said that such plans would amount to a flagrant violation of the network contract—a claim which WHDH disputed—and said that it would remove its programming from WHDH if the station followed through with the plan. WHDH backed down on April 13, 2009, announced that it would air Leno instead of the proposed program. Though Leno was the first to move the entire five-day-a-week late night talk show to prime time, he was not the first Tonight alumnus to move from late night to a prime time talk show.

Steve Allen hosted Tonight Starring Steve Allen from 1954 to 1957. Jack Paar, who hosted Tonight from 1957 to 1962, next hosted a weekly talk show known as The Jack Paar Program that ran until 1965 on NBC. In January 2010, several news outlets reported that The Jay Leno Show would be shortened to 30 minutes and begin airing weeknights at 11:35 pm ET, with Conan O'Brien and Jimmy Fallon's shows following it beginning at 12:05 am; the scheduling change would have been implemented on February 28 after the 2010 Winter Olympics. Leno himself commented on the rumors during his January 7 monologue, joking that NBC stands for "Never Believe your Contract." According to Broadcasting & Cable, "most are hopeful Jay

Earthworm eel

Chaudhuriidae, is a family of small freshwater eel-like fish related to the swamp eels and spiny eels known as the earthworm eels. The known species are the size and shape of earthworms, thus the family name. While one species, Chaudhuria caudata was reported from the Inle Lake by Nelson Annandale in 1918, the others have been only reported, all in the eastern Asia area, from India to Korea. Neither the dorsal nor anal fins have spines, in Nagaichthys and Pillaia they have fused with the caudal fin, their bodies have no scales. The few specimens found to date have been no longer than 8 cm, Nagaichthys filipes is only known to reach 3.1 cm. The eyes are small. Nothing is known of the habits and biology of the earthworm eels; the family name "Chaudhuriidae" comes from a Burmese local name for a fish

Ciphertext indistinguishability

Ciphertext indistinguishability is a property of many encryption schemes. Intuitively, if a cryptosystem possesses the property of indistinguishability an adversary will be unable to distinguish pairs of ciphertexts based on the message they encrypt; the property of indistinguishability under chosen plaintext attack is considered a basic requirement for most provably secure public key cryptosystems, though some schemes provide indistinguishability under chosen ciphertext attack and adaptive chosen ciphertext attack. Indistinguishability under chosen plaintext attack is equivalent to the property of semantic security, many cryptographic proofs use these definitions interchangeably. A cryptosystem is considered secure in terms of indistinguishability if no adversary, given an encryption of a message randomly chosen from a two-element message space determined by the adversary, can identify the message choice with probability better than that of random guessing. If any adversary can succeed in distinguishing the chosen ciphertext with a probability greater than ​1⁄2 this adversary is considered to have an "advantage" in distinguishing the ciphertext, the scheme is not considered secure in terms of indistinguishability.

This definition encompasses the notion that in a secure scheme, the adversary should learn no information from seeing a ciphertext. Therefore, the adversary should be able to do no better than. Security in terms of indistinguishability has many definitions, depending on assumptions made about the capabilities of the attacker, it is presented as a game, where the cryptosystem is considered secure if no adversary can win the game with greater probability than an adversary who must guess randomly. The most common definitions used in cryptography are indistinguishability under chosen plaintext attack, indistinguishability under chosen ciphertext attack, indistinguishability under adaptive chosen ciphertext attack. Security under either of the latter definition implies security under the previous ones: a scheme, IND-CCA1 secure is IND-CPA secure, a scheme, IND-CCA2 secure is both IND-CCA1 and IND-CPA secure. Thus, IND-CCA2 is the strongest of the three definitions of security. For a probabilistic asymmetric key encryption algorithm, indistinguishability under chosen plaintext attack is defined by the following game between an adversary and a challenger.

For schemes based on computational security, the adversary is modeled by a probabilistic polynomial time Turing machine, meaning that it must complete the game and output a guess within a polynomial number of time steps. In this definition E represents the encryption of a message M under the key PK: The challenger generates a key pair PK, SK based on some security parameter k, publishes PK to the adversary; the challenger retains SK. The adversary may perform a polynomially bounded number of other operations; the adversary submits two distinct chosen plaintexts M 0, M 1 to the challenger. The challenger selects a bit b ∈ uniformly at random, sends the challenge ciphertext C = E back to the adversary; the adversary is free to perform any number of additional encryptions. It outputs a guess for the value of b. A cryptosystem is indistinguishable under chosen plaintext attack if every probabilistic polynomial time adversary has only a negligible "advantage" over random guessing. An adversary is said to have a negligible "advantage" if it wins the above game with probability + ϵ, where ϵ is a negligible function in the security parameter k, for every polynomial function p o l y there exists k 0 such that | ϵ | < | 1 p o l y | for all k > k 0.

Although the adversary knows M 0, M 1 and PK, the probabilistic nature of E means that the encryption of M b will be only one of many valid ciphertexts, therefore encrypting M 0, M 1 and comparing the resulting ciphertexts with the challenge ciphertext does not afford any non-negligible advantage to the adversary. While the above definition is specific to an asymmetric key cryptosystem, it can be adapted to the symmetric case by replacing the public key encryption function with an encryption oracle, which ret