The King and I

The King and I is the fifth musical by the team of composer Richard Rodgers and dramatist Oscar Hammerstein II. It is based on Margaret Landon's novel and the King of Siam, in turn derived from the memoirs of Anna Leonowens, governess to the children of King Mongkut of Siam in the early 1860s; the musical's plot relates the experiences of Anna, a British schoolteacher hired as part of the King's drive to modernize his country. The relationship between the King and Anna is marked by conflict through much of the piece, as well as by a love to which neither can admit; the musical premiered on March 1951, at Broadway's St. James Theatre, it ran for nearly three years, making it the fourth longest-running Broadway musical in history at the time, has had many tours and revivals. In 1950, theatrical attorney Fanny Holtzmann was looking for a part for her client, veteran leading lady Gertrude Lawrence. Holtzmann realized that Landon's book would provide an ideal vehicle and contacted Rodgers and Hammerstein, who were reluctant but agreed to write the musical.

The pair sought Rex Harrison to play the supporting part of the King, a role he had played in the 1946 film made from Landon's book, but he was unavailable. They settled on television director Yul Brynner; the musical was an immediate hit, winning Tony Awards for Best Musical, Best Actress and Best Featured Actor. Lawrence died unexpectedly of cancer a year and a half after the opening, the role of Anna was played by several actresses during the remainder of the Broadway run of 1,246 performances. A hit London run and U. S. national tour followed, together with a 1956 film for which Brynner won an Academy Award, the musical was recorded several times. In revivals, Brynner came to dominate his role and the musical, starring in a four-year national tour culminating in a 1985 Broadway run shortly before his death. Christopher Renshaw directed major revivals on Broadway, winning the Tony Award for Best Revival, in the West End. A 2015 Broadway revival won another Tony for Best Revival. Both professional and amateur revivals of The King and I continue to be staged throughout the English-speaking world.

Mongkut, King of Siam, was about 57 years old in 1861. He had lived half his life as a Buddhist monk, was an able scholar, founded a new order of Buddhism and a temple in Bangkok. Through his decades of devotion, Mongkut acquired an ascetic lifestyle and a firm grasp of Western languages; when Nangklao died in 1850, Mongkut became king. At that time, various European countries were striving for dominance, American traders sought greater influence in Southeast Asia, he succeeded in keeping Siam an independent nation by familiarizing his heirs and harem with Western ways. In 1861, Mongkut wrote to his Singapore agent, Tan Kim Ching, asking him to find a British lady to be governess to the royal children. At the time, the British community in Singapore was small, the choice fell on a recent arrival there, Anna Leonowens, running a small nursery school in the colony. Leonowens was the Anglo-Indian daughter of an Indian Army soldier and the widow of Thomas Owens, a clerk and hotel keeper, she had arrived in Singapore two years claiming to be the genteel widow of an officer and explaining her dark complexion by stating that she was Welsh by birth.

Her deception was not detected until long after her death, had still not come to light when The King and I was written. Upon receiving the King's invitation, Leonowens sent her daughter, Avis, to school in England, to give Avis the social advantage of a prestigious British education, traveled to Bangkok with her five-year-old son, Louis. King Mongkut had sought a Briton to teach his children and wives after trying local missionaries, who used the opportunity to proselytize. Leonowens asked for $150 in Singapore currency per month, her additional request, to live in or near the missionary community to ensure she was not deprived of Western company, aroused suspicion in Mongkut, who cautioned in a letter, "we need not have teacher of Christianity as they are abundant here". King Mongkut and Leonowens came to an agreement: $100 per month and a residence near the royal palace. At a time when most transport in Bangkok was by boat, Mongkut did not wish to have to arrange for the teacher to get to work every day.

Leonowens and Louis temporarily lived as guests of Mongkut's prime minister, after the first house offered was found to be unsuitable, the family moved into a brick residence within walking distance of the palace. In 1867, Leonowens took a six-month leave of absence to visit her daughter Avis in England, intending to deposit Louis at a school in Ireland and return to Siam with Avis. However, due to unexpected delays and opportunities for further travel, Leonowens was still abroad in late 1868, when Mongkut fell ill and died. Leonowens did not return to Siam, although she continued to correspond with her former pupil, the new king Chulalongkorn. In 1950, British actress Gertrude Lawrence's business manager and attorney, Fanny Holtzmann, was looking for a new vehicle for her client when the 1944 Margaret Landon novel Anna and the King of Siam was sent to her by Landon's agent. According to Rodgers biographer Meryle Secrest, Holtzmann was worried that Lawrence's career was fading; the 51-year-old actress had appeared only in plays, not in musicals, since Lady in the Dark closed in 1943.

Holtzmann agreed that a musical based on Anna and the King of Siam would be ideal for her client, who purchased the rights to adapt the no

Javier María Pascual Ibañez

Javier María Santiago Pascual Ibañez was a Spanish publisher and a Carlist activist. His professional career climaxed in the 1980s, upon assuming management of Departamento del Español Urgente in Agencia EFE, a unit with linguistic normative designs upon the entire Hispanic world, he is best known, for his role in El Pensamiento Navarro. The Pascual family have been related to the Navarrese village of Etayo, a few kilometers from the iconic mountain of Montejurra. Though its first representative can be traced back to the 16th century, none of his descendants made their name in the history of the region. Javier María's paternal grandfather, Genaro Pascual Subirán, was a local peasant, their son and the father of Javier María, Hernán Pascual Hermoso de Mendoza, was the first one to leave Etayo. In the 1920s Hernán Pascual settled in the Navarrese Prepirineos, he was member of Cuerpo de Inspectores Municipales de Sanidad and practiced as a physician in the area. None of the sources consulted provides any information on his wife and Javier María's mother, María Ibañez.

Javier María and his 3 sisters were brought up in a fervently Catholic ambience. He was first educated in the Jesuit colleges in Durango and Tudela, narrowly evading expulsion as his independent character caused conflict and controversy. Upon bachillerato, obtained in 1951, the Jesuits suggested. However, Javier María's parents persuaded him to study law. Pascual was not at all enthusiastic, he completed the curriculum and graduated at unspecified time, most in the mid-1950s. He did not give up his juvenile penchant, it is not clear whether before moving to Madrid Pascual started contributing to the Navarrese press that two of his relatives wrote to Pamplona periodicals and held admin positions in the local newspaper realm. During the academic period he was noted as a Madrid envoy of two key Pamplona dailies, Diario de Navarra and El Pensamiento Navarro. At unclear position he was involved in a technical corporate periodical Información de la Publicidad. At unspecified time but prior to the mid-1960s Javier María Pascual married María Rosa Figueroa Otermín.

The couple lived in Madrid, though in the second half of the 1960s they resided in Pamplona. They had 4 sons and 4 daughters. There were both Carlist antecedents among Pascual's close family, he admitted great influence of a maternal relative, Joaquín Arbeloa, during early Francoism an emerging star in Navarrese historiography and journalism, co-founder of combative Falangist review Jerarquía and in the 1940s contributor to Diario de Navarra. Javier María remained indebted to a paternal relative Angel María Pascual, a Falangist old-shirt, president of Asociación de la Prensa de Pamplona, a poet and a correspondent of Navarrese and national newspapers. On the other hand, Javier María's father was a vehement Carlist and his paternal uncle, José Manuel Pascual Hermoso de Mendoza, was an iconic movement's figure. Having arrived in Madrid in the mid-1950s Pascual approached students of Traditionalist heritage, grouped in semi-legal AET, he fit their typical profile, "de procedencia rural o de pequeñas ciudades no demasiado urbanizadas, católicos, monárquicos y legitimistas".

In their provincial towns brought up in Traditionalist ambience but enjoying autonomy of students living in a huge city, they were not concerned with the doctrine and looked for a new format of Carlism. With a new mid-1950s pro-collaborationist turn of the party the youth benefitted the most: the regime permitted launch of AET-controlled periodicals La Encina and Azada y asta. Pascual was involved in both, in 1957-58 as editor-in-chief of the former and since 1959 of the latter. Under his guidance it grew into a platform where Traditionalism mixed with search for a new intellectual formula endorsing heterodoxy. Pascual contributed himself, focusing on religious topics. Falling short of embracing liberal trends, he endorsed "catolicismo liberal" in "su sentido etimológico y no político"; some of his combative pro-Carlist pieces have been noted by the exile Republican press in France. In the late 1950s and early 1960s Pascual kept contributing to a number of regional and national titles, including 24, a periodical issued by the Francoist student organization SEU, Imperio, a syndicalist daily, or Punta Europa, an ambitious Traditionalism-flavored Catholic monthly.

His first major assignment was the 1961 appointment to editorial board of El Alcázar, a hard-line Falangis

Last Train to Freo

Last Train to Freo is a 2006 Australian film based on Reg Cribb's play The Return, directed by Jeremy Sims. Two thugs from the Perth suburb of Midland catch the last train to Fremantle; when a young woman, unaware that the train guards are on strike, boards the train several stops the thugs are interested by her. After two others - an older woman and a silent man - board the train, it becomes apparent that not everybody on the train is who they appear to be. Steve Le Marquand - the Tall Thug Tom Budge - Trev Gigi Edgley - Lisa Glenn Hazeldine - Simon Gillian Jones - Maureen Lisa Hensley - voice of train announcer Reg Cribb - man on platform 2006 Australian Film Institute Best Lead Actor - Steve Le Marquand - nomination Best Screenplay - Adapted - Reg Cribb - nomination Best Supporting Actor - Tom Budge - nominationFilm Critics Circle of Australia Awards Best Actor in a Lead Role - Steve Le Marquand - nomination Best Actor in a Supporting Role - Tom Budge - nomination Best Actress in a Lead Role - Gigi Edgley - nomination Best Actress in a Supporting Role - Gillian Jones - nomination Best Screenplay - Adapted - Reg Cribb - nomination Last Train to Freo grossed $102,726 at the box office in Australia.

Cinema of Australia Last Train to Freo on IMDb