Michelle Malkin is an American conservative blogger, political commentator and businesswoman. Her weekly syndicated column appears in a number of websites, she is a Fox News contributor and has been a guest on MSNBC, C-SPAN, national radio programs. Malkin has written four books published by Regnery Publishing, she founded Hot Air. Michelle Malkin was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to Philippine citizens Rafaela – a homemaker and teacher – and Apolo DeCastro Maglalang, a physician-in-training. Several months prior to Malkin's birth, her parents had immigrated to the United States on an employer-sponsored visa. After her father finished his medical training, the family moved to New Jersey. Malkin has a younger brother, she has described her parents as Ronald Reagan Republicans who were "not politically active". Malkin, a Roman Catholic, attended Holy Spirit Roman Catholic High School, where she edited the school newspaper and aspired to become a concert pianist. Following her graduation in 1988, she enrolled at Oberlin College.
Malkin changed her major to English. During her college years, she worked as a press inserter, tax preparation aide, network news librarian, her first article for the paper criticized Oberlin's affirmative action program and received a "hugely negative response" from other students on campus. She graduated in 1992 and described her alma mater as "radically left-wing". Malkin began her journalism career at the Los Angeles Daily News, working as a columnist from 1992 to 1994. In 1995, she worked in Washington, D. C. as a journalism fellow at the Competitive Enterprise Institute, a free-market, anti-government regulation, libertarian think tank. In 1996, she moved to Seattle, where she wrote columns for The Seattle Times. Malkin became a nationally syndicated columnist with Creators Syndicate in 1999. For years, Malkin was a frequent commentator for Fox News and a regular guest host of The O'Reilly Factor. In 2007, she announced that she would not return to The O'Reilly Factor, claiming that Fox News had mishandled a dispute over derogatory statements made about her by Geraldo Rivera in a Boston Globe interview.
Since 2007, she has concentrated on her writing and public speaking, although she still appears on television especially with Sean Hannity and with Greta Van Susteren on Fox News and Fox & Friends once a week. Malkin founded the websites Hot Air, a conservative internet broadcast network, Twitchy, a Twitter content curation site. Malkin has written six books, her first book, Invasion: How America Still Welcomes Terrorists and Other Foreign Menaces was a New York Times bestseller. In 2004, she wrote In Defense of Internment: The Case for'Racial Profiling' in World War II and the War on Terror, defending the U. S. government's internment of 112,000 Japanese Americans in prison camps during World War II, arguing that the same procedures could be used on Arab- and Muslim-Americans today. The book engendered harsh criticism from several Asian American civil rights organizations; the Historians' Committee for Fairness, an organization of scholars and professional researchers, condemned the book for not having undergone peer review and argued that its central thesis is false.
As a result of the controversy, the Hawaii-based newspaper MidWeek dropped her column in August 2004. Malkin responded: "I'm not Asian, I'm American", described the comparison to Coulter as "a compliment". Malkin's third book, Unhinged: Exposing Liberals Gone Wild, was released in October 2005. Culture of Corruption: Obama and His Team of Tax Cheats and Cronies, Malkin's fourth book, was released in July 2009 and was a The New York Times Non-Fiction, Hardcover Best Seller for six weeks. Malkin said she hoped the book would "shatter the myths of hope and change in the new politics in Washington", described the Obama administration as run by "influence peddlers, power brokers and wealthy people", called it "one of the most corrupt administrations in recent memory", she discussed chapter two of the book, "Bitter Half: First Crony Michelle Obama", on NBC's Today show. She described Michelle Obama as "steeped in the politics of the Daley machine", as having based her professional career on nepotism and "old white boy" network connections.
Who Built That: Awe-Inspiring Stories of American Tinkerpreneurs, released May 2015, presents stories of American inventors and business people, directly challenging the "you didn't build that" statement made by President Barack Obama on July 13, 2012. Sold Out: How High-Tech Billionaires & Bipartisan Beltway Crapweasels Are Screwing America's Best & Brightest Workers, M. Malkin and J. Miano, Simon & Schuster Audio/Mercury Ink In June 2004, Malkin launched a political blog, MichelleMalkin.com. A 2007 memo from the National Republican Senatorial Committee described Malkin as one of the five "best-read national conservative bloggers", Technorati ranks MichelleMalkin.com in its "Top 100 blogs of all types". In 2011, the people search company PeekYou claimed that Malkin had the largest digital footprint of any political blogger. After she criticized hip hop artist Akon for "degrading women" in a Vent episode, Akon's record label, Universal Music Group, forced YouTube to remove the video by issuing a DMCA takedown notice, but decided to retract this notice after the Electronic Frontier Foundation joined Malkin and Hot Air in contesting the removal as a misuse of copyright law.
She continued to contribute fr
Conservatism in the United States
American conservatism is a broad system of political beliefs in the United States, characterized by respect for American traditions, support for Judeo-Christian values, moral universalism, anti-communism, advocacy of American exceptionalism, a defense of Western culture from the perceived threats posed by socialism and moral relativism. Liberty is a core value. American conservatives consider individual liberty—within the bounds of American values—as the fundamental trait of democracy. American conservatives believe in limiting government in size and scope, in a balance between national government and states' rights. Apart from some libertarians, they tend to favor strong action in areas they believe to be within government's legitimate jurisdiction national defense and law enforcement. Social conservatives oppose abortion and favor restricting LGBT rights, while privileging traditional marriage and allowing voluntary school prayer. American conservatism, like most American political ideologies, originates from republicanism, which rejected aristocratic and monarchical government and upheld the principles of the United States Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution.
Conservative philosophy is derived in part from the classical liberal tradition of the 18th and 19th centuries, which advocated for laissez-faire economics. Historians such as Patrick Allitt and political theorists such as Russell Kirk argue that the conservative tradition has played a major role in American politics and culture since 1776. However, they stress that an organized conservative movement with beliefs that differ from those of other American political parties has played a key role in politics only since the 1950s; the recent movement is based in the Republican Party, however some Southern Democrats were important figures early in the movement's history regarding crime control and labor unions, though most Southern Democrats were liberal. The history of American conservatism has been marked by competing ideologies. Fiscal conservatives and libertarians favor small government, laissez-faire economy, low income and corporate taxes, limited regulation, free enterprise. Social conservatives see traditional social values.
Neoconservatives want to expand. Paleoconservatives advocate restrictions on immigration, non-interventionist foreign policy, opposition to multiculturalism. Most conservative factions nationwide, except some libertarians, support a unilateral foreign policy, a strong military. Most libertarians, support gun ownership rights, citing the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution; the conservative movement of the 1950s attempted to bring together these divergent strands, stressing the need for unity to prevent the spread of "godless communism."William F. Buckley Jr. in the first issue of his magazine National Review in 1955, explained the standards of his magazine and helped make explicit the beliefs of American conservatives: Among our convictions: It is the job of centralized government to protect its citizens' lives and property. All other activities of government tend to hamper progress; the growth of government must be fought relentlessly. In this great social conflict of the era, we are, on the libertarian side.
The profound crisis of our era is, in essence, the conflict between the Social Engineers, who seek to adjust mankind to scientific utopias, the disciples of Truth, who defend the organic moral order. We believe that truth is neither arrived at nor illuminated by monitoring election results, binding though these are for other purposes, but by other means, including a study of human experience. On this point we are, on the conservative side. According to Peter Viereck, American conservatism is distinctive because it was not tied to a monarchy, landed aristocracy, established church, or military elite. Instead American conservatives were rooted in American republicanism, which European conservatives opposed, they are committed, says Seymour Martin Lipset, to the belief in America's "superiority against the cold reactionary monarchical and more rigidly status-bound system of European society." Traditional conservatives tend to be anti-ideological, some would say anti-philosophical, promoting, as Russell Kirk explained, a steady flow of "prescription and prejudice".
Kirk's use of the word "prejudice" here is not intended to carry its contemporary pejorative connotation: a conservative himself, he believed that the inherited wisdom of the ages may be a better guide than rational individual judgment. There are two overlapping subgroups of social conservatives -- the religious. Traditional conservatives support traditional codes of conduct those they feel are threatened by social change and modernization. For example, traditional conservatives may oppose the use of female soldiers in combat. Religious conservatives focus on conducting society as pr
War on Terror
The War on Terror known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign, launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks against the United States. The naming of the campaign uses a metaphor of war to refer to a variety of actions that do not constitute a specific war as traditionally defined. U. S. president George W. Bush first used the term "war on terrorism" on 16 September 2001, "war on terror" a few days in a formal speech to Congress. In the latter speech, George Bush stated, "Our enemy is a radical network of terrorists and every government that supports them." The term was used with a particular focus on countries associated with al-Qaeda. The term was criticised by such people as Richard B. Myers, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, more nuanced terms subsequently came to be used by the Bush administration to publicly define the international campaign led by the U. S.. S. operations in internal government documentation. U. S. President Barack Obama announced on 23 May 2013 that the Global War on Terror was over, saying the military and intelligence agencies will not wage war against a tactic but will instead focus on a specific group of networks determined to destroy the U.
S. On 28 December 2014, the Obama administration announced the end of the combat role of the U. S.-led mission in Afghanistan. However, the unexpected rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant terror group—also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria —led to a new operation against terror in the Middle East and South Asia, Operation Inherent Resolve. Criticism of the War on Terror focused on morality, economics; the notion of a "war" against "terrorism" has proven contentious, with critics charging that it has been exploited by participating governments to pursue long-standing policy/military objectives, reduce civil liberties, infringe upon human rights. Critics assert that the term "war" is not appropriate in this context since there is no identifiable enemy and it is unlikely that international terrorism can be brought to an end by military means; the phrase "War on Terror" has been used to refer to the ongoing military campaign led by the U. S. U. K. and their allies against organizations and regimes identified by them as terrorist, excludes other independent counter-terrorist operations and campaigns such as those by Russia and India.
The conflict has been referred to by names other than the War on Terror. It has been known as: World War III World War IV Bush's War on Terror The Long War The Forever War The Global War on Terror The War Against al-Qaeda In 1984, the Reagan administration, which had expanded the CIA-run program of funding the Jihadi militants in Afghanistan, employed the term "war against terrorism" to pass legislation aimed at countering terrorist groups in the wake of the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing that killed 241 U. S. and 58 French peacekeepers. In 2017, U. S. Vice President Mike Pence called the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing "the opening salvo in a war that we have waged since—the global war on terror."The concept of the U. S. at war with terrorism may have begun on 11 September 2001 when Tom Brokaw, having just witnessed the collapse of one of the towers of the World Trade Center, declared "Terrorists have declared war on."On 16 September 2001, at Camp David, U. S. president George W. Bush used the phrase war on terrorism in an ostensibly unscripted comment when answering a journalist's question about the impact of enhanced law enforcement authority given to the U.
S. surveillance agencies on Americans' civil liberties: "This is a new kind of—a new kind of evil. And we understand, and the American people are beginning to understand. This crusade, this war on terrorism is going to take a while, and the American people must be patient. I'm going to be patient." Shortly after, the White House said the president regretted use of the term crusade, as it might have been misunderstood as referring to the historical Crusades. On 20 September 2001, during a televised address to a joint session of Congress, George Bush said, "Our war on terror begins with al Qaeda, but it does not end there, it will not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found and defeated."In April 2007, the British government announced publicly that it was abandoning the use of the phrase "War on Terror" as they found it to be less than helpful. This was explained more by Lady Eliza Manningham-Buller. In her 2011 Reith lecture, the former head of MI5 said that the 9/11 attacks were "a crime, not an act of war.
So I never felt it helpful to refer to a war on terror."U. S. president Barack Obama used the term, but in his inaugural address on 20 January 2009, he stated: "Our nation is at war, against a far-reaching network of violence and hatred." In March 2009 the Defense Department changed the name of operations from "Global War on Terror" to "Overseas Contingency Operation". In March 2009, the Obama administration requested that Pentagon staff members avoid the use of the term and instead to use "Overseas Contingency Operation". Basic objectives of the Bush administration "war on terror", such as targeting al Qaeda and building international counterterrorism alliances, remain in place. In May 2010, the Obama administration published a report outlining its National Security Strategy; the document dropped the Bush-era phrase "global war on terror" and reference to "Islamic extremism," and stated, "This is not a g
Southern Poverty Law Center
The Southern Poverty Law Center is an American nonprofit legal advocacy organization specializing in civil rights and public interest litigation. Based in Montgomery, Alabama, it is known for its successful legal cases against white supremacist groups, its classification of hate groups and other extremist organizations, for promoting tolerance education programs; the SPLC was founded by Morris Dees, Joseph J. Levin Jr. and Julian Bond in 1971 as a civil rights law firm in Montgomery, Alabama. Bond served as president of the board between 1971 and 1979. In 1979, the SPLC began a litigation strategy of filing civil suits for monetary damages on behalf of the victims of violence from the Ku Klux Klan and other white supremacist groups, with all damages recovered given to the victims or donated to other organizations; the SPLC became involved in other civil rights causes, including cases to challenge what it sees as institutional racial segregation and discrimination and unconstitutional conditions in prisons and detention centers, discrimination based on sexual orientation, mistreatment of illegal immigrants, the unconstitutional mixing of church and state.
The SPLC has provided information about hate groups to the Federal Bureau of Investigation and other law enforcement agencies. Since the 2000s, the SPLC's classification and listings of hate groups and extremists have been described as authoritative; the SPLC's listings have been the subject of criticism from others, who argue that some of the SPLC's listings are overbroad, politically motivated, or unwarranted. Despite such criticism, the SPLC's assessments are accepted and cited in academic and media coverage of such groups and related issues. In 2019, founder Morris Dees was dismissed, followed by the resignation of president Richard Cohen. An outside consultant, Tina Tchen, was brought in to review workplace practices relating to accusations of racial and sexual harassment; the Southern Poverty Law Center was founded by civil rights lawyers Morris Dees and Joseph J. Levin Jr. in August 1971 as a law firm focused on issues such as fighting poverty, racial discrimination and the death penalty in the United States.
Dees asked civil rights leader Julian Bond to serve as president, a honorary position. In 1979, Dees and the SPLC began filing civil lawsuits against Ku Klux Klan chapters and similar organizations for monetary damages on behalf of their victims; the favorable verdicts from these suits served to bankrupt other targeted organizations. In 1981, the Center began its Klanwatch project to monitor the activities of the KKK; that project, now called Hatewatch, was expanded to include seven other types of hate organizations. In 1986, the entire legal staff of the SPLC, excluding Dees, resigned as the organization shifted from traditional civil rights work toward fighting right-wing extremism. In 1989, the Center unveiled its Civil Rights Memorial, designed by Maya Lin. In 1995, the Montgomery Advertiser won a Pulitzer Prize recognition for work that probed management self-interest, questionable practices, employee racial discrimination allegations in the SPLC; the Center's "Teaching Tolerance" project was initiated in 1991 and in 2013 was cited as "of the most read periodicals dedicated to diversity and social justice in education".
In 2008, the SPLC and Dees were featured on National Geographic's Inside American Terror explaining their litigation strategy against the Ku Klux Klan. In July 1983, the SPLC headquarters was firebombed, destroying records; as a result of the arson, Klansmen Joe M. Garner and Roy T. Downs Jr. along with Klan sympathizer Charles Bailey, pleaded guilty in February 1985 to conspiring to intimidate and threaten members of black organizations represented by SPLC. The SPLC built a new headquarters building from 1999 to 2001. In 1984, Dees became an assassination target of a revolutionary white supremacist group. By 2007, according to Dees, more than 30 people had been jailed in connection with plots to kill him or to blow up SPLC offices. In 1995, four men were indicted for planning to blow up the SPLC. In May 1998, three white supremacists were arrested for planning a nationwide campaign of assassinations and bombings targeting "Morris Dees, an undisclosed federal judge in Illinois, a black radio show host in Missouri, Dees's Southern Poverty Law Center in Alabama, the Simon Wiesenthal Center in Los Angeles, the Anti-Defamation League in New York."
In March 2019, the SPLC fired founder Morris Dees for undisclosed reasons and removed his bio from its website. In a statement regarding the firing, the SPLC announced it would be bringing in an "outside organization to conduct a comprehensive assessment of our internal climate and workplace practices."Following the dismissal, a letter signed by two dozen SPLC employees was sent to management, expressing concern that "allegations of mistreatment, sexual harassment, gender discrimination, racism threaten the moral authority of this organization and our integrity along with it." One former employee wrote that the "unchecked power of lavishly compensated white men at the top" of the SPLC contributed to a culture which made black and female employees the targets of harassment. The SPLC appointed Tina Tchen, a former chief of staff for former first-lady Michelle Obama, to review and investigate any issues with the organization's workplace environment. A week President Richard Cohen and legal director Rhonda Brownstein announced their resignations amid the internal upheava
Foreign Policy is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, domestic and international policy. It produces content daily on its website, in six print issues annually. Foreign Policy magazine and ForeignPolicy.com are published by The FP Group, a division of Graham Holdings Company. The FP Group produces FP Events, Foreign Policy's events division, launched in 2012. Foreign Policy was founded in the late 1970 by Samuel P. Huntington, professor of Harvard University, his friend Warren Demian Manshel to give a voice to alternative views about American foreign policy at the time of the Vietnam War. Huntington hoped it would be "serious but not scholarly, lively but not glib". In early 1978, after six years of close partnership, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace acquired full ownership of Foreign Policy. In 2000, a format change was implemented from a slim quarterly academic journal to a bimonthly magazine, it launched international editions in Europe, the Middle East and Latin America.
In September 2008, Foreign Policy was bought by The Washington Post Company. In 2012, Foreign Policy grew to become the FP Group – an expansion of Foreign Policy magazine to include ForeignPolicy.com and FP Events. According to its submissions guidelines, Foreign Policy articles "strike the balance" between informed specialist research and general readability, tend to be written in plain - rather than "wonky" - language. Foreign Policy endorsed Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton in the run-up for the 2016 U. S. presidential election. Since 2003, Foreign Policy has been nominated for eight National Magazine Awards, winning six - three for its print publication, three for its digital publication at ForeignPolicy.com. FP is the only independent magazine that has won consecutive digital national magazine awards every year from being established in 2009.2003 Foreign Policy won the National Magazine Award for Outstanding Achievement and General Excellence in the under 100,000 circulation category.2007 Foreign Policy won the National Magazine Award for General Excellence in the 100,000 to 250,000 circulation category.
Foreign Policy was presented as a Gold Winner by the Eddie Awards for “Who Wins in Iraq,” in the Consumer News/Commentary/General Interest category.2008 Folio Magazine Gold Editorial Excellence Award – Consumer Magazine, News/Commentary/General Interest, "What America Must Do" by Kenneth Rogoff, Jan/Feb 2008. FP's "What America Must Do" feature received the Eddie Award as a Gold Winner for the Consumer News/Commentary/General Interest category for a Single Article. Folio Magazine Silver Editorial Excellence Award – Consumer Magazine, News/Commentary/General Interest, "A World Enslaved" by Benjamin Skinner, Mar/Apr 2008. Folio Magazine Silver Editorial Excellence Award – Consumer Magazine, News/Commentary/General Interest, May/June 2008. Media Industry Newsletter's "Best of the Web" Award in the blog category for Passport a blog by the editors of Foreign Policy.2009 Foreign Policy won the National Magazine Award for General Excellence in the 100,000 to 250,000 circulation category. Forbes RealClearWorld designated ForeignPolicy.com as a top international news site.2010 Foreign Policy's "The Best Defense" column authored by Tom Ricks received the Digital National Magazine Award for best blog.2011 Foreign Policy Magazine and former Editor-in-Chief Susan Glasser were presented with a special citation for the Edward Weintal Prize for Diplomatic Reporting.
“Turtle Bay,” the reported blog by journalist Colum Lynch, won the Digital National Magazine Award for best reporting for a series of hard-hitting investigative articles about the United Nations.2012 Foreign Policy won an Overseas Press Club award for General Excellence for the best overall international coverage on a website. FP’s “Qaddafi Files” won the National Magazine Award for Multimedia2014 Foreign Policy received its first design recognition for "The Surveillance State", appearing in its annual Global Thinkers issue in December 2013; the illustration by Oliver Munday accompanied the marquee story by novelist William T. Vollmann, who discussed “the surveillance state” we knowingly living in after the revelations of wide-reaching surveillance by the NSA. Munday’s illustration for FP appeared in the American Illustration annual award book Foreign Policy writers won multiple awards from the United Nations Correspondents Association. Senior diplomatic reporter Colum Lynch received the silver medal for the Elizabeth Neuffer Memorial Prize for his three-part series on the UNAMID peacekeeping mission in Darfur.
FP contributor James Reinl won the gold medal in The United Nations Foundation Prize for print for his reporting on Somalia and Kenya, including his story in Foreign Policy titled "Crazy Town" about PTSD in Somalia.2016 Foreign Policy contributors received two Overseas Press Club awards for excellence in international reporting. Honorees included Tristian McConnell for his 2015 piece called "Close Your Eyes and Pretend to be Dead," detailing the deadly attack on Nairobi's Westgate Mall in 2013. Christina Larson received the award for her profile of the entrepreneur Zhao Bowen entitled "The Zhao Method" and featured FP's September/October 2015 print edition. Foreign Policy and photographer Andrew Quilty received the George Polk Award in photography for the three part photo series titled "The Man on the Operating Table," showing the destruction following airstrikes on Médecins Sans Frontières hospital in Kunduz, Afghanistan in October 2015. FP Top 100 Global Thinkers Foreign Policy of the United States Official website
Laura Anne Ingraham is an American conservative television and radio talk show host. Since 2001, she has hosted the nationally syndicated radio show The Laura Ingraham Show, is the editor-in-chief of LifeZette, beginning in October 2017, has been the host of The Ingraham Angle on Fox News Channel. Ingraham worked as a speechwriter in the Reagan administration in the late 1980s. Afterwards she earned a J. D. degree and Ingraham went on to work as a judicial clerk in the Second Circuit Court of Appeals in New York and for United States Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas. After working as an attorney for the law firm Skadden, Slate, Meagher & Flom in New York City, Ingraham began her media career in the mid 1990s. Ingraham grew up in Glastonbury, where she was born to Anne Caroline and James Frederick Ingraham III, her maternal grandparents were Polish immigrants, her father was of Irish and English ancestry. She graduated from Glastonbury High School in 1981. Ingraham earned a B. A. from Dartmouth College in 1985 and a Juris Doctor from the University of Virginia School of Law in 1991.
In the late 1980s, Ingraham worked as a speechwriter in the Reagan administration for the Domestic Policy Advisor. She briefly served as editor of The Prospect, the magazine issued by Concerned Alumni of Princeton. After law school, in 1991, she served as a law clerk for Judge Ralph K. Winter Jr. of the U. S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, in New York and subsequently clerked for U. S. Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas, she worked as an attorney at the New York-based law firm Skadden, Slate, Meagher & Flom. In 1995, she appeared in a leopard-print skirt on the cover of The New York Times Magazine in connection with a story about young conservatives. In 1996, she and Jay P. Lefkowitz organized the first Dark Ages Weekend in response to Renaissance Weekend. Ingraham has had three stints as a cable television host, she first became a host on MSNBC in 1996. In the late 1990s, she became a CBS commentator and hosted the MSNBC program Watch It!. Several years on her radio program, Ingraham began campaigning for another cable television show.
She gained her wish in 2008, when Fox News Channel gave her a three-week trial run for a new show entitled Just In. In October 2017 she became the host of The Ingraham Angle. Ingraham launched The Laura Ingraham Show in April 2001, heard on 306 stations and on XM Satellite Radio, it was syndicated by Westwood One, but moved to Talk Radio Network in 2004. Ingraham was the official guest host of The O'Reilly Factor on Fox News Channel and a weekly contributor with her segment, The Ingraham Angle. In 2012, Ingraham was rated by Talkers Magazine. In November 2012, she announced her departure from Talk Radio Network, declining to renew her contract with TRN after nearly a decade of being associated with the network, she was the second major host from TRN's lineup to leave the network that year: TRN's other major program, The Savage Nation, left TRN two months earlier. Her new program, syndicated by Courtside Entertainment Group, began on January 2, 2013. Along with businessman Peter Anthony, Ingraham founded and owns Ingraham Media Group, which produces the new media publication LifeZette.
Ingraham serves as editor in chief. The website's subsections are PoliZette, FaithZette, PopZette, HealthZette. In January 2017, Ingraham was approached by Republican Party officials and asked to consider running for the United States Senate seat held by Tim Kaine, Democrat of Virginia; that month, Ingraham confirmed she was considering running against Kaine. In 2017, Ingraham was described by the New York Times as an "ardent nationalist", she is known for her strong support for Donald Trump. She holds hawkish positions on immigration, in 2014 Ingraham said that allowing more immigrant workers to come to the United States would be "obscene to the American experience", she opposed the proposed bipartisan 2013 US Senate comprehensive immigration reform plan. Ingraham has said that her influences include Robert Bork and Pat Buchanan. Ingraham has been described as "no stranger to generating controversy" by Variety, as a "name-brand provocateur" by Politico. Business Insider has referred to Ingraham's on-air style as "wad into debates on racism and gun violence".
In her senior year at Dartmouth College, during her tenure as editor-in-chief of college newspaper The Dartmouth Review, Ingraham wrote several controversial articles. She sent a reporter undercover to a campus LGBTQ meeting, received criticism when, despite an oath of confidentiality being read to participants, Ingraham published a transcript of the meeting and included the names of the attendees, describing them as "cheerleaders for latent campus sodomites". Ingraham claimed confidentiality did not apply, because the meeting had been advertised, defended the outing of the gay students as a "freedom of the press issue". Jeffrey Hart, the faculty adviser for The Dartmouth Review described Ingraham as having "the most extreme anti-homosexual views imaginable", claiming "she went so far as to avoid a local eatery where she feared the waiters were homosexual". In 1997, Ingraham wrote an essay in The Washington Post in which she stated that she had changed her views on homosexuality after witnessing "the dignity and courage" with which her gay brother and his partner coped with AIDS.
Ingraham has stated that she supports civil unions between same-sex partners, but believes marriage "is between a man and a woman". Ingraham holds views critical of illegal immigration. In 2014, she denounced House Majority Leader Eric Cantor after he expressed support for the DREAM Act and a GOP bill to g
Embryonic stem cell
Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage pre-implantation embryo. Human embryos reach the blastocyst stage 4–5 days post fertilization, at which time they consist of 50–150 cells. Isolating the embryoblast, or inner cell mass results in destruction of the blastocyst, a process which raises ethical issues, including whether or not embryos at the pre-implantation stage should have the same moral considerations as embryos in the post-implantation stage of development. Researchers are focusing on the therapeutic potential of embryonic stem cells, with clinical use being the goal for many labs. Potential uses include the treatment of heart disease; the cells are being studied to be used as clinical therapies, models of genetic disorders, cellular/DNA repair. However, adverse effects in the research and clinical processes such as tumours and unwanted immune responses have been reported. Embryonic stem cells, derived from the blastocyst stage of early mammalian embryos, are distinguished by their ability to differentiate into any cell type and by their ability to propagate.
It is these traits that makes them valuable in the medical fields. ESCs are described as having a normal karyotype, maintaining high telomerase activity, exhibiting remarkable long-term proliferative potential. Embryonic stem cells of the inner cell mass are pluripotent, meaning they are able to differentiate to generate primitive ectoderm, which differentiates during gastrulation into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm and mesoderm; these include each of the more than 220 cell types in the adult human body. Pluripotency distinguishes embryonic stem cells from adult stem cells, which are multipotent and can only produce a limited number of cell types. Under defined conditions, embryonic stem cells are capable of propagating indefinitely in an undifferentiated state. Conditions must either prevent the cells from clumping, or maintain an environment that supports an unspecialized state. While being able to remain undifferentiated, ESCs have the capacity, when provided with the appropriate signals, to differentiate into nearly all mature cell phenotypes.
Due to their plasticity and unlimited capacity for self-renewal, embryonic stem cell therapies have been proposed for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease. Pluripotent stem cells have shown potential in treating a number of varying conditions, including but not limited to: spinal cord injuries, age related macular degeneration, neurodegenerative disorders, AIDS, etc. In addition to their potential in regenerative medicine, embryonic stem cells provide an alternative source of tissue/organs which serves as a possible solution to the donor shortage dilemma. Not only that, but tissue/organs derived from ESCs can be made immunocompatible with the recipient. Aside from these uses, embryonic stem cells can serve as tools for the investigation of early human development, study of genetic disease and as in vitro systems for toxicology testing. According to a 2002 article in PNAS, "Human embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into various cell types, thus, may be useful as a source of cells for transplantation or tissue engineering."
However, embryonic stem cells are not limited to cell/tissue engineering. Current research focuses on differentiating ESCs into a variety of cell types for eventual use as cell replacement therapies; some of the cell types that have or are being developed include cardiomyocytes, hepatocytes, bone marrow cells, islet cells and endothelial cells. However, the derivation of such cell types from ESCs is not without obstacles, therefore current research is focused on overcoming these barriers. For example, studies are underway to differentiate ESCs in to tissue specific CMs and to eradicate their immature properties that distinguish them from adult CMs. Researchers have differentiated ESCs into dopamine-producing cells with the hope that these neurons could be used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. ESCs have been differentiated to natural killer cells and bone tissue. Studies involving ESCs are underway to provide an alternative treatment for diabetes. For example, D’Amour et al. were able to differentiate ESCs into insulin producing cells and researchers at Harvard University were able to produce large quantities of pancreatic beta cells from ES.
An article published in the European Heart Journal describes a translational process of generating human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiac progenitor cells to be used in clinical trials of patients with severe heart failure. Besides becoming an important alternative to organ transplants, ESCs are being used in field of toxicology and as cellular screens to uncover new chemical entities that can be developed as small molecule drugs. Studies have shown that cardiomyocytes derived from ESCs are validated in vitro models to test drug responses and predict toxicity profiles. ES derived cardiomyocytes have been shown to respond to pharmacological stimuli and hence can be used to assess cardiotoxicity like Torsades de Pointes. ESC-derived hepatocytes are useful models that could be used in the preclinical stages of drug discovery. However, the development of hepatocytes from ESCs has proven to be challenging and this hinders the ability to test drug metabolism. Therefore, current research is focusing on establishing functional ESC-derived hepatocytes with stable phase I and II enzyme activity.
Several new studies have started to address the concept of modeling genetic disorde