A counterculture is a subculture whose values and norms of behavior differ from those of mainstream society in opposition to mainstream cultural mores. A countercultural movement expresses the ethos and aspirations of a specific population during a well-defined era; when oppositional forces reach critical mass, countercultures can trigger dramatic cultural changes. Prominent examples of countercultures in Europe and North America include Romanticism, the more fragmentary counterculture of the Beat Generation, followed by the globalized counterculture of the 1960s associated with the hippie subculture and the diversified punk subculture of the 1970s and 1980s. John Milton Yinger originated the term "contraculture" in his 1960 article in American Sociological Review. Yinger suggested the use of the term contraculture "wherever the normative system of a group contains, as a primary element, a theme of conflict with the values of the total society, where personality variables are directly involved in the development and maintenance of the group's values, wherever its norms can be understood only by reference to the relationships of the group to a surrounding dominant culture."
Some scholars have attributed the counterculture to Theodore Roszak, author of The Making of a Counter Culture. It became prominent in the news media amid the social revolution that swept the Americas, Western Europe, Japan and New Zealand during the 1960s. Scholars differ in the characteristics and specificity they attribute to "counterculture". "Mainstream" culture is of course difficult to define, in some ways becomes identified and understood through contrast with counterculture. Counterculture might oppose middle-class culture and values. Counterculture is sometimes conceptualized in terms of generational conflict and rejection of older or adult values. Counterculture may not be explicitly political, it involves criticism or rejection of powerful institutions, with accompanying hope for a better life or a new society. It does not look favorably on authoritarianism. Cultural development can be affected by way of counterculture. Scholars such as Joanne Martin and Caren Siehl, deem counterculture and cultural development as "a balancing act, some core values of a counterculture should present a direct challenge to the core values of a dominant culture".
Therefore, a prevalent culture and a counterculture should coexist in an uneasy symbiosis, holding opposite positions on valuable issues that are important to each of them. According to this theory, a counterculture can contribute a plethora of useful functions for the prevalent culture, such as "articulating the foundations between appropriate and inappropriate behavior and providing a safe haven for the development of innovative ideas". A "fringe culture" expands and grows into a counterculture by defining its own values in opposition to mainstream norms. Countercultures tend to peak go into decline, leaving a lasting impact on mainstream cultural values, their life cycles include phases of rejection, partial acceptance and absorption into the mainstream. During the late 1960s, hippies became the largest and most visible countercultural group in the United States; the "cultural shadows" left by the Romantics, Bohemians and Hippies remain visible in contemporary Western culture. According to Sheila Whiteley, "recent developments in sociological theory complicate and problematize theories developed in the 1960s, with digital technology, for example, providing an impetus for new understandings of counterculture".
Andy Bennett writes that "despite the theoretical arguments that can be raised against the sociological value of counterculture as a meaningful term for categorising social action, like subculture, the term lives on as a concept in social and cultural theory… become part of a received, mediated memory". However, "this involved not the utopian but the dystopian and that while festivals such as those held at Monterey and Woodstock might appear to embrace the former, the deaths of such iconic figures as Brian Jones, Jimi Hendrix, Jim Morrison and Janis Joplin, the nihilistic mayhem at Altamont, the shadowy figure of Charles Manson cast a darker light on its underlying agenda, one that reminds us that ‘pathological issues still much at large in today's world"; the counterculture of the 1960s and early 1970s generated its own unique brand of notable literature, including comics and cartoons, sometimes referred to as the underground press. In the United States, this includes the work of Robert Crumb and Gilbert Shelton, includes Mr. Natural.
During the late 1960s and early 1970s, these comics and magazines were available for purchase in head shops along with items like beads, cigarette papers, tie-dye clothing, Day-Glo posters, etc. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, some of these shops selling hippie items became cafés where hippies could hang out, smoke marijuana, read books, etc. e.g. Gandalf's Garden in the King's Road, which published a magazine of the same name. Another such hippie/anarchist bookshop was Mushroom Books, tucked away in the Lace Market area of Nottingham; some genres tend to challenge societies with their content, meant to outright question the norms within cultures and create change towards a more modern way of thought. More than not, sour
Anasazi (The X-Files)
"Anasazi" is the twenty-fifth episode and season finale of the second season of the American science fiction television series The X-Files. It premiered on the Fox network on May 19, 1995, it was written by series creator Chris Carter based on a story he developed with lead actor David Duchovny. The episode was directed by R. W. Goodwin, featured guest appearances by Peter Donat, Nicholas Lea, Mitch Pileggi and Floyd Red Crow Westerman; the episode helped explore fictional history of The X-Files. "Anasazi" earned a Nielsen household rating of 10.1, being watched by 9.6 million households in its initial broadcast. The show centers on FBI special agents Fox Mulder and Dana Scully who work on cases linked to the paranormal, called X-Files. In this episode and Scully come into possession of a tape containing classified government files, attempt to decipher its contents. Meanwhile, Mulder's mental health begins to deteriorate, a mysterious corpse is discovered on a New Mexico reservation. "Anasazi" is part of a three-episode storyline, with the plot carrying on in the third season episodes "The Blessing Way" and "Paper Clip".
Series creator Chris Carter worked with series star David Duchovny, who shares a story credit with Carter for the episode. Because the series was filmed in Vancouver, the producers painted a disused quarry in Vancouver with 1,600 US gallons of red paint and composited in images shot in New Mexico and a blue sky in order to make the New Mexico rock quarry featured in the episode. In the desert near a Navajo Indian reservation in Two Grey Hills, New Mexico, a teenage boy comes across a boxcar buried in the ground, he retrieves the corpse of an alien-like figure from the boxcar, which he takes back to the reservation and presents to the residents, including Navajo elder Albert Hosteen. Shortly afterward, Kenneth Soona, a computer hacker known as "The Thinker", breaks into the Defense Department database and downloads secret files related to extraterrestrial life, putting them onto a digital tape; when the Syndicate, a secretive group of government officials, learns of the breach, the Smoking Man tells them that he has resolved the matter.
The Lone Gunmen inform Mulder. While Mulder is leaving his apartment building, he finds that one of his neighbors has shot her husband. Soona gives the digital tape to Mulder at a discreet meeting in a park. An excited Mulder returns to FBI headquarters, only to find. Scully believes the encryption is based on the Navajo language and takes the tape in order to investigate; when Skinner calls Mulder to his office to question him about the tape, Mulder physically attacks him. Scully is brought before an FBI panel is questioned about Mulder's actions. Scully is told that Mulder faces dismissal from the FBI, that she will suffer a similar punishment if she has lied to them. On Martha's Vineyard, the Smoking Man visits Mulder's father and informs him of his son's possession of the tape. Scully meets with a Navajo translator. Mulder is called away to see Bill; when Mulder arrives at Bill's residence, his father prepares to reveal the truth about everything. However, Bill is mortally wounded by Alex Krycek.
When Mulder contacts Scully, she tells him to flee the scene. After Mulder arrives at her apartment, Scully takes his gun from him. Scully brings the gun to the FBI for comparison against the bullet; when Mulder awakens, he becomes suspicious towards Scully. Returning to his building, Scully finds his water being contaminated; as Mulder is entering in his building, he spots Krycek, whom he prepares to kill. However, Scully shoots him to prevent him from allowing Krycek to escape. Scully brings an unconscious Mulder to New Mexico and, when he awakens, reveals that his behavior was caused by a drug placed into his water supply and that she shot him because if he had killed Krycek, it would have been harder to prove his innocence in his father's death, she introduces him to Hosteen, translating the files on the tape. Scully reveals that the tape contains information on both Duane Barry. Hosteen introduces Mulder to his grandson. Just before Mulder heads in, he is called by the Smoking Man, able to trace Mulder's location through the call.
Mulder heads inside the boxcar, finding a pile of the dead creatures, each with smallpox vaccination scars on their arms. The Smoking Man arrives by helicopter with eight armed commandos and, not finding Mulder inside, orders the boxcar to be burned. Series creator Chris Carter noted that the episode's creation "was the culmination of a lot of ideas; when we pitch stories to the staff everyone comments on them, Darin Morgan called this the kitchen sink episode, because it had so much in it, he didn't know how we would pull it off. But I'm proud of the script. David Duchovny and I worked quite on the story and he had a lot of input, I sat down and wrote the script", he felt that the episode ended the season in the best manner possible, asking more questions than it answered. The episode tried to make similar cliffhangers as the previous season finale, with revelations such as Mulder's father being part of the conspiracy and killed to "prove anything could happen in The X-Files". To create the New Mexico rock quarry in this episode, the producers painted a disused quarry in Vancouver with 1,600 US gallons of red paint, compos
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with elements and compounds composed of atoms and ions: their composition, properties and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other substances. In the scope of its subject, chemistry occupies an intermediate position between physics and biology, it is sometimes called the central science because it provides a foundation for understanding both basic and applied scientific disciplines at a fundamental level. For example, chemistry explains aspects of plant chemistry, the formation of igneous rocks, how atmospheric ozone is formed and how environmental pollutants are degraded, the properties of the soil on the moon, how medications work, how to collect DNA evidence at a crime scene. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. There are four types of chemical bonds: covalent bonds, in which compounds share one or more electron; the word chemistry comes from alchemy, which referred to an earlier set of practices that encompassed elements of chemistry, philosophy, astronomy and medicine.
It is seen as linked to the quest to turn lead or another common starting material into gold, though in ancient times the study encompassed many of the questions of modern chemistry being defined as the study of the composition of waters, growth, disembodying, drawing the spirits from bodies and bonding the spirits within bodies by the early 4th century Greek-Egyptian alchemist Zosimos. An alchemist was called a'chemist' in popular speech, the suffix "-ry" was added to this to describe the art of the chemist as "chemistry"; the modern word alchemy in turn is derived from the Arabic word al-kīmīā. In origin, the term is borrowed from the Greek χημία or χημεία; this may have Egyptian origins since al-kīmīā is derived from the Greek χημία, in turn derived from the word Kemet, the ancient name of Egypt in the Egyptian language. Alternately, al-kīmīā may derive from χημεία, meaning "cast together"; the current model of atomic structure is the quantum mechanical model. Traditional chemistry starts with the study of elementary particles, molecules, metals and other aggregates of matter.
This matter can be studied in isolation or in combination. The interactions and transformations that are studied in chemistry are the result of interactions between atoms, leading to rearrangements of the chemical bonds which hold atoms together; such behaviors are studied in a chemistry laboratory. The chemistry laboratory stereotypically uses various forms of laboratory glassware; however glassware is not central to chemistry, a great deal of experimental chemistry is done without it. A chemical reaction is a transformation of some substances into one or more different substances; the basis of such a chemical transformation is the rearrangement of electrons in the chemical bonds between atoms. It can be symbolically depicted through a chemical equation, which involves atoms as subjects; the number of atoms on the left and the right in the equation for a chemical transformation is equal. The type of chemical reactions a substance may undergo and the energy changes that may accompany it are constrained by certain basic rules, known as chemical laws.
Energy and entropy considerations are invariably important in all chemical studies. Chemical substances are classified in terms of their structure, phase, as well as their chemical compositions, they can be analyzed using the tools of e.g. spectroscopy and chromatography. Scientists engaged in chemical research are known as chemists. Most chemists specialize in one or more sub-disciplines. Several concepts are essential for the study of chemistry; the particles that make up matter have rest mass as well – not all particles have rest mass, such as the photon. Matter can be a mixture of substances; the atom is the basic unit of chemistry. It consists of a dense core called the atomic nucleus surrounded by a space occupied by an electron cloud; the nucleus is made up of positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons, while the electron cloud consists of negatively charged electrons which orbit the nucleus. In a neutral atom, the negatively charged electrons balance out the positive charge of the protons.
The nucleus is dense. The atom is the smallest entity that can be envisaged to retain the chemical properties of the element, such as electronegativity, ionization potential, preferred oxidation state, coordination number, preferred types of bonds to form. A chemical element is a pure substance, composed of a single type of atom, characterized by its particular number of protons in the nuclei of its atoms, known as the atomic number and represented by the symbol Z; the mass number is the sum of the number of neutrons in a nucleus. Although all the nuclei of all atoms belonging to one element will have the same
Volkswagen Type 2
The Volkswagen Type 2, known as the Transporter, Kombi or Microbus, or, informally, as the Bus or Camper, is a forward control panel van introduced in 1950 by the German automaker Volkswagen as its second car model. Following – and deriving from Volkswagen's first model, the Type 1 – it was given the factory designation Type 2; as one of the forerunners of the modern cargo and passenger vans, the Type 2 gave rise to forward control competitors in the United States in the 1960s, including the Ford Econoline, the Dodge A100, the Chevrolet Corvair 95 Corvan, the latter adapting the rear-engine configuration of the Corvair car in the same manner in which the VW Type 2 adapted the Type 1 layout. European competition included the 1947–1981 Citroën H Van, the 1959–1980 Renault Estafette, the 1953–1965 FR layout Ford Transit. Japanese manufacturers introduced similar vehicles, such as the Nissan Caravan, Toyota LiteAce and Subaru Sambar. Like the Beetle, the van has received numerous nicknames worldwide, including the "microbus", "minibus", because of its popularity during the counterculture movement of the 1960s, "Hippie van/bus" has become its most popular.
Brazil contained the last factory in the world that produced the T2 series of Type 2, which ceased production on 31 December 2013, due to the introduction of more stringent safety regulations in the country. This marked the end of the era of rear-engine Volkswagens manufactured, which originated in 1935 with their Type 1 prototypes; the concept for the Type 2 is credited to Dutch Volkswagen importer Ben Pon. Pon visited Wolfsburg in 1946, intending to purchase Type 1s for import to the Netherlands, where he saw a Plattenwagen, an improvised parts-mover based on the Type 1 chassis, realized something better was possible using the stock Type 1 pan, he first sketched the van in a doodle dated 23 April 1947, proposing a payload of 690 kg and placing the driver at the front. Production would have to wait, however, as the factory was at capacity producing the Type 1; when capacity freed up, a prototype known internally as the Type 29 was produced in a short three months. The stock Type 1 pan proved to be too weak so the prototype used a ladder chassis with unit body construction.
Coincidentally the wheelbase was the same. Engineers reused the reduction gear from the Type 81, enabling the 1.5 ton van to use a 25 hp flat four engine. Although the aerodynamics of the first prototypes were poor, engineers used the wind tunnel at the Technical University of Braunschweig to optimize the design. Simple changes such as splitting the windshield and roofline into a "vee" helped the production Type 2 achieve Cd=0.44, exceeding the Type 1's Cd=0.48. Volkswagen's new chief executive officer Heinz Nordhoff approved the van for production on 19 May 1949 and the first production model, now designated Type 2, rolled off the assembly line to debut 12 November. Only two models were offered: the Kombi, the Commercial; the Microbus was added in May 1950, joined by the Deluxe Microbus in June 1951. In all 9,541 Type 2s were produced in their first year of production. An ambulance model was added in December 1951 which repositioned the fuel tank in front of the transaxle, put the spare tire behind the front seat, added a "tailgate"-style rear door.
These features became standard on the Type 2 from 1955 to 1967. 11,805 Type 2s were built in the 1951 model year. These were joined by a single-cab pickup in August 1952, it changed the least of the Type 2s until all were modified in 1968. Unlike other rear engine Volkswagens, which evolved over time but never saw the introduction of all-new models, the Transporter not only evolved, but was revised periodically with variations retrospectively referred to as versions "T1" to "T5". However, only generations T1 to T3 can be seen as directly related to the Beetle; the Type 2, along with the 1947 Citroën H Van, are among the first'forward control' vans in which the driver was placed above the front roadwheels. They started a trend in Europe, where the 1952 GM Bedford CA, 1958 RAF-977, 1959 Renault Estafette, 1960 BMC Morris J4, 1960 Commer FC used the concept. In the United States, the Corvair-based Chevrolet Corvan cargo van and Greenbrier passenger van adopted the use of the rear-engine layout of the Corvair car in the same manner that the Type 2 had used the rear-engine layout of the Type 1, using the Corvair's horizontally opposed, 6 cylinder air-cooled engine for power.
Except for the Greenbrier and various 1950s–70s Fiat minivans, the Type 2 remained unique in being rear-engined. This was a disadvantage for the early "barndoor" Panel Vans, which could not be loaded from the rear because the engine cover intruded on interior space, but advantageous in traction and interior noise; the Corvair pickup used a folding side panel that functioned as a ramp into the bed when opened, was called the "Rampside". The VW "pickup" in both single and double cab versions had a bed/floor, flat from front to back at the height of the engine compartment cover, which had the advantage of a flat load floor but at a greater height, while the Corvair "pickup" bed/floor stepped
Dean Haglund is a Canadian actor, known for the role of Richard "Ringo" Langly, one of The Lone Gunmen on The X-Files. Haglund is a stand-up comedian, specializing in improvisational comedy. In addition to The X-Files, he played the voice of Sid in Tom Sawyer, Haglund portrayed Langly in the spin-off The Lone Gunmen, which aired thirteen episodes in 2001, he is the inventor of a commercial external cooling product for laptop computers. Haglund was born in Oakbank, Canada, is the son of a structural engineer, his father is Swedish. After his roles on X-Files and The Lone Gunmen, Haglund appeared in a documentary-style production called "From Here to Andromeda", released in 2007; the production has extraterrestrials as a central theme. On October 30, 2009, he hosted Ghost Adventures Live on the Travel Channel. In a throwback to X-Files, Dean appeared in episode 95 of Bones as restaurant owner Blaine Miller in Roswell where Booth and Bones are sent to investigate a possible extraterrestrial sighting.
He was on the advisory board of Sci-Fest, the first annual Los Angeles Science Fiction One-Act Play Festival, held in May 2014. In June 2015, Haglund emigrated to Sydney, Australia with his girlfriend and their two dogs, now lives in Newtown. Haglund's relocation to Australia nearly resulted in the removal of a planned cameo by the Lone Gunmen in the episode "Babylon" of the revived tenth season of The X-Files. However, he was informed by Bruce Harwood that the producers were looking for him, contacted them to film the appearance, he hosts the Chillpak Hollywood Hour podcast, where he discusses all things Hollywood with independent filmmaker Phil Leirness. Interview with Dean Haglund, on Slice of SciFi Official website Dean Haglund on IMDb
A conspiracy theory is the fear of a nonexistent or alleged conspiracy or the unnecessary assumption of conspiracy when other explanations are more probable. Evidence showing it to be false, or the absence of proof of the conspiracy, is interpreted by believers as evidence of its truth, thus insulating it from refutation. According to the political scientist Michael Barkun, conspiracy theories rely on the view that the universe is governed by design, embody three principles: nothing happens by accident, nothing is as it seems, everything is connected. Another common feature is that conspiracy theories evolve to incorporate whatever evidence exists against them, so that they become, as Barkun writes, a closed system, unfalsifiable, therefore "a matter of faith rather than proof". On a psychological level, studies show Machiavellianism and paranoia are correlated with conspiratorial thinking; the Oxford English Dictionary defines conspiracy theory as "the theory that an event or phenomenon occurs as a result of a conspiracy between interested parties.
A belief that some covert but influential agency is responsible for an unexplained event". It cites a 1909 article in The American Historical Review as the earliest usage example, although it appears in journals as early as April 1870; the word "conspiracy" derives from the Latin con- and spirare. Robert Blaskiewicz notes examples of the term were used as early as the nineteenth century and states that its usage has always been derogatory. Lance deHaven-Smith suggested that the term entered everyday language in the United States after 1964, the year in which the Warren Commission shared its findings, with The New York Times running five stories that year using the term. A conspiracy theory is not a conspiracy. Barkun writes that conspiracies are "actual covert plots planned and/or carried out by two or more persons". A conspiracy theory, on the other hand, is "an intellectual construct", a "template imposed upon the world to give the appearance of order to events". Positing that "some small and hidden group" has manipulated events, a conspiracy theory can be local or international, focused on single events or covering multiple incidents and entire countries and periods of history.
Conspiracy theorists see themselves as having privileged access to special knowledge or a special mode of thought that separates them from the masses who believe the official account. A conspiracy theory may take any matter as its subject, but certain subjects attract greater interest than others. Favored subjects include famous deaths, government activities, new technologies and questions of alien life. Among the longest-standing and most recognized conspiracy theories are notions concerning the assassination of John F. Kennedy, the 1969 Apollo moon landings and the 9/11 terrorist attacks, as well as numerous theories pertaining to alleged plots for world domination by various groups both real and imaginary; some scholars argue that conspiracy theories once limited to fringe audiences have become commonplace in mass media, contributing to conspiracism emerging as a cultural phenomenon in the United States of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. According to anthropologists Todd Sanders and Harry G. West, evidence suggests that a broad cross-section of Americans today gives credence to at least some conspiracy theories.
For instance, a study conducted in 2016 found that 10% of Americans think the chemtrail conspiracy theory is "completely true" and 20-30% think it is "somewhat true". This puts "the equivalent of 120 million Americans in the “chemtrails are real” camp". Belief in conspiracy theories has therefore become a topic of interest for sociologists and experts in folklore. Conspiracy theories are present on the Web in the form of blogs and YouTube videos, as well as on social media. Whether the Web has increased the prevalence of conspiracy theories or not is an open research question; the presence and representation of conspiracy theories in search engine results has been monitored and studied, showing significant variation across different topics, a general absence of reputable, high-quality links in the results. Jesse Walker has identified five kinds of conspiracy theories: The "Enemy Outside" refers to theories based on figures alleged to be scheming against a community from without; the "Enemy Within" finds the conspirators lurking inside the nation, indistinguishable from ordinary citizens.
The "Enemy Above" involves powerful people manipulating events for their own gain. The "Enemy Below" features the lower classes working to overturn the social order; the "Benevolent Conspiracies" are angelic forces that work behind the scenes to improve the world and help people. Barkun has identified three classifications of conspiracy theory: Event conspiracy theories; this refers to well-defined events. Examples may include such conspiracies theories as those concerning the Kennedy assassination, 9/11, the spread of AIDS. Systemic conspiracy theories; the conspiracy is believed to have broad goals conceived as securing control of a country, a region, or the entire world. The goals are sweeping, whilst the conspiratorial machinery is simple: a single, evil organization implements a plan to infiltrate and subvert existing institutions; this is a common scenario in conspiracy theories that focus on the alleged machinations of Jews, Communism, or the Catholic Church. Superconspiracy theories. For Barkun, such theories link multiple alleged conspiracies together hierarchically.
At the summit is a distant but all-powerful evil force. His cited examples are the ideas of Milton William Cooper. Murray
Arrow (season 1)
The first season of the American action television series Arrow premiered on October 10, 2012 at 8:00 pm on The CW, consisting of a total of 23 episodes after the network ordered a full season on October 22, 2012. The series is based on the DC Comics character Green Arrow, a costumed crime-fighter created by Mort Weisinger and George Papp; the showrunners for this season were Marc Guggenheim and Andrew Kreisberg. The first season follows Oliver Queen, billionaire playboy of Starling City, who spends five years shipwrecked on a mysterious island. Upon his return to Starling City, he is reunited with his mother, Moira Queen, his sister, Thea Queen, his friend, Tommy Merlyn. Oliver rekindles his relationships, while spending his nights hunting down and sometimes killing criminals as a hooded vigilante, he uncovers Malcolm Merlyn's conspiracy to destroy "The Glades", a poorer section of the city that has become overridden with crime. John Diggle and Felicity Smoak assist Oliver in his crusade. Oliver reconnects with ex-girlfriend, Laurel Lance, still angry over his role in her sister Sara's presumed death.
The first season features flashbacks to Oliver's time on the island, how it changed him. The first season was well received by critics, averaged 3.68 million viewers each week. Amell's portrayal of Oliver Queen/Arrow drew comparison to Katniss Everdeen from The Hunger Games, while the season itself was found to be still looking for its own identity; the season would go on to win multiple awards, including twenty-one nominations in various categories. The season was released on DVD and Blu-ray on September 17, 2013. Stephen Amell as Oliver Queen / The Hood Katie Cassidy as Laurel Lance Colin Donnell as Tommy Merlyn David Ramsey as John Diggle Willa Holland as Thea Queen Susanna Thompson as Moira Queen Paul Blackthorne as Quentin Lance On January 12, 2012, The CW was preparing a new series centered around the character Green Arrow, developed by Andrew Kreisberg, Greg Berlanti and Marc Guggenheim. A week the series, now known as Arrow, was ordered to pilot, directed by David Nutter, who directed the pilot for Smallville, a series following Clark Kent on his journey to become Superman.
At the end of the month, Stephen Amell was cast in the titular role of Oliver Queen. When developing the series, producer Marc Guggenheim expressed that the creative team wanted to "chart own course, own destiny", avoid any direct connections to Smallville, which featured its own Green Arrow/Oliver Queen, opting to cast a new actor in the role of Oliver Queen. Unlike with Smallville, the series does not feature super-powered heroes and villains. Instead, the creative still took inspiration from Smallville, as one of the main themes of Arrow was to "look at the humanity" of Oliver Queen, as Smallville had done with Clark Kent; the decision not to include superpowers was, in part, based on the executives' desire to take a realistic look at the characters in this universe. The series was given a full season pick up on October 22, 2012; the series develops relationship triangles: some love triangles, others designed to catch characters in "philosophical debates". Kreisberg provides one such example: "Every week, Oliver will be facing a bad guy, but the truth is, his real nemesis is Detective Lance, who's trying to bring him into justice.
His daughter is going to be caught in the middle, because she loves and respects her father, she's always believed in what he believed, but at the same time, she's going to see this dark urban legend out there that's doing a lot of good. Learning from previous experiences working in television, the producers worked early on identifying the major story arcs for the series the first season, including "mapping out" how to accomplish them. Taking inspiration from Christopher Nolan's Batman film series, the creative team decided to "put it all out there" and "not hold back" from episode to episode; the team strives to include various DC Comics aspects of the DC universe. Guggenheim cited Big Belly Burger, a restaurant franchise introduced in the Superman comics, which appears in Arrow's third episode and onward. Kreisberg said, "There are so many characters in the DC Universe who haven't gotten their due in TV and film. We're so excited to reach into roster and take some of these lesser-known characters that are beloved by fans, do our spin on the characters."
On January 31, 2012 Stephen Amell became the first actor to be cast, having appeared on other CW dramas such as The Vampire Diaries and 90210. Fan reaction to Amell's castin was mixed, with many fans wanting Justin Hartley to reprise his role from Smallville. Amell was one of the first actors to audition for the role of Oliver Queen, Kreisberg felt that he "hit the target from the outset" and "everyone else just paled in comparison". Arrow's pilot script was the first Amell auditioned for during pilot season, having received multiple scripts at the start of the year. Producer Marc Guggenheim expressed that the creative team wanted to "chart own course, own destiny", avoid any direct connections to Smallville, which featured its own Green Arrow/Oliver Queen, portrayed by Hartley. Instead, they opted to cast a new actor in the titular role. Amell, in shape from Rent-a-Goalie, did physical fitness training at Tempest Freerunning Academy out of Reseda, California, he received archery training as well, which included watching a video on how archery has been displayed inacc