The X-Files is an American science fiction drama television series created by Chris Carter. The original television series aired from September 1993 to May 19, 2002 on Fox; the program spanned nine seasons, with 202 episodes. A short tenth season consisting of six episodes premiered on January 24, 2016, concluded on February 22, 2016. Following the ratings success of this revival, Fox announced in April 2017 that The X-Files would be returning for an eleventh season of ten episodes; the season premiered on January 3, 2018, concluding on March 21, 2018. In addition to the television series, two feature films have been released: The 1998 film The X-Files, which took place as part of the TV series continuity, the stand-alone film The X-Files: I Want to Believe, released in 2008, six years after the original television run had ended; the series revolves around Federal Bureau of Investigation special agents Fox Mulder, Dana Scully who investigate X-Files: marginalized, unsolved cases involving paranormal phenomena.
Mulder believes in the existence of aliens and the paranormal while Scully, a medical doctor and a skeptic, is assigned to scientifically analyze Mulder's discoveries, offer alternate rational theories to his work, thus return him to mainstream cases. Early in the series, both agents become pawns in a larger conflict and come to trust only each other and a few select people; the agents discover an agenda of the government to keep the existence of extraterrestrial life a secret. They develop a close relationship which begins as a platonic friendship, but becomes a romance by the end of the series. In addition to the series-spanning story arc, "monster of the week" episodes form two-thirds of all episodes; the X-Files was inspired by earlier television series which featured elements of suspense and speculative fiction, including The Twilight Zone, Night Gallery, Tales from the Darkside, Twin Peaks, Kolchak: The Night Stalker. When creating the main characters, Carter sought to reverse gender stereotypes by making Mulder a believer and Scully a skeptic.
The first seven seasons featured Anderson equally. In the eighth and ninth seasons, Anderson took precedence. New main characters were introduced: FBI agents John Doggett and Monica Reyes. Mulder and Scully's boss, Assistant Director Walter Skinner became a main character; the first five seasons of The X-Files were filmed and produced in Vancouver, British Columbia, before moving to Los Angeles to accommodate Duchovny. The series returned to Vancouver to film The X-Files: I Want to Believe as well as the tenth and eleventh seasons of the series; the X-Files was a hit for the Fox network and received positive reviews, although its long-term story arc was criticized near the conclusion. Considered a cult series, it turned into a pop culture touchstone that tapped into public mistrust of governments and large institutions and embraced conspiracy theories and spirituality. Both the series itself and lead actors Duchovny and Anderson received multiple awards and nominations, by its conclusion the show was the longest-running science fiction series in U.
S. television history. The series spawned a franchise which includes Millennium and The Lone Gunmen spin-offs, two theatrical films and accompanying merchandise; the X-Files follows personal lives of FBI Special Agents Fox Mulder and Dana Scully. Mulder is a talented profiler and strong believer in the supernatural, he is adamant about the existence of intelligent extraterrestrial life and its presence on Earth. This set of beliefs earns him the nickname "Spooky Mulder" and an assignment to a little-known department that deals with unsolved cases, known as the X-Files, his belief in the paranormal springs from the claimed abduction of his sister Samantha Mulder by extraterrestrials when Mulder was 12. Her abduction drives Mulder throughout most of the series; because of this, as well as more nebulous desires for vindication and the revelation of truths kept hidden by human authorities, Mulder struggles to maintain objectivity in his investigations. Agent Scully is a foil for Mulder in this regard.
As a medical doctor and natural skeptic, Scully approaches cases with complete detachment when Mulder, despite his considerable training, loses his objectivity. She is partnered with Mulder so that she can debunk Mulder's nonconforming theories supplying logical, scientific explanations for the cases' unexplainable phenomena. Although she is able to offer scientific alternatives to Mulder's deductions, she is able to refute them completely. Over the course of the series, she becomes dissatisfied with her own ability to approach the cases scientifically. After Mulder's abduction at the hands of aliens in the seventh season finale "Requiem", Scully becomes a "reluctant believer" who manages to explain the paranormal with science. Various episodes deal with the relationship between Mulder and Scully platonic, but that develops romantically. Mulder and Scully are joined by John Doggett and Monica Reyes late in the series, after Mulder is abducted. Doggett replaces him as Scully's partner and helps her search for him involving Reyes, of whom Doggett had professional knowledge.
The initial run of The X-Files ends when Mulder is secretly subjected to a military tribunal for breaking into a top secret military facility and viewing plans for alien invasion and colonization of Earth. He is found guilty, but he escapes punishment with the help of the other agents and he and Scully become fugitiv
Paolo Brenner is a German physician and a professor of cardiac surgery at the Dept. of Cardiac Surgery, Klinikum Großhadern of the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich. He is known for his work in the fields of xenotransplantation, the advancement of artificial hearts, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and lung transplantation; as an adolescent Brenner was engaged as a cofounder of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kosmologie. He was editor and co-publisher of the Zeitschrift für Kosmologie 1990-2007. In this function he was driven by his own physical research paper titled The biography of fixed stars and by his work at Jugend forscht about black holes and published several own papers and surveys about cosmological subjects. Since 1993 Brenner deals with topics of thoracic organ transplantation, since 2004 as a transplant surgeon of heart and lung transplantation, since 2006 as a member of the Munich Lung Transplant Group and since 2000 as an explant surgeon of the German Organ Transplantation Foundation.
Yet 1993 he acted as a junior operator of the former Baxter Novacor Company for the wearable artificial heart system Novacor and researched at last as a proctor of JarvikHeart in cooperation with Robert Jarvik developing a new miniaturized “valve axial pump”. Supported by the Bavarian Research Foundation together with his research team as a consultant of cardiac surgery he investigated the xenogeneic transplantation of multi-transgenic pig hearts as a possible future organ replacement therapy in man since 1997. Since 2004 he worked within the scope of a Transregio Research Group FOR 535 of the German Research Foundation and since 2012 as a principal investigator for the sector of xenogeneic heart transplantation of the Transregio Research Collaborative Research Centre 127 with the speaker Bruno Reichart in the Walter-Brendel-Center of experimental medicine. Cardiac xenotransplantation, studied by Brenner and Reichart since 1997, has reached a preclinical status despite of a higher immunological complexity than allotransplantation due to preexisting and new-built antibodies against whole organs.
Using a patented combination consisting of transgenic organs/cells and immunoadsorption and a special combination of immunosuppressive drugs hyperacute and delayed xenograft rejection should be prevented and long-term survival of a xenograft should be enabled and realized. In times of massively increasing shortage of donor organs and yet major problems with artificial hearts this makes xenotransplantation interesting in the area of organ/cell transplantation. By using an unlimited source of porcine organs not only in Europe, but worldwide many people could be helped with animal cells or with the replacement of a whole organ. In view of 45 original papers, over 110 national and international oral presentations, two prized international research awards and as an advising tutor of 20 postdocs and postgraduates Brenner did pioneer work and contributed to the scientific progress of the LMU due to his know-how in the area of xenotransplantation and mechanical circulatory support systems. Brenner can be classified as an international expert for mechanical and “biological” heart replacement, wherefore he owns patents.
In his teaching activity since 2004 Brenner was involved in the introduction of the practical MECUM student educational program of the LMU oriented to the Harvard-University concept. Since 2007 he was the responsible organizing associate lecturer for the compartment of cardiac surgery of the LMU and since 2011 deputy speaker of the cardiovascular educational block of the new medical student education system Modul 23 of the LMU; as the leader of the cardiac surgical advanced training program he organized about 400 specialist and scientific qualification performances as from the Bayerische Landesärztekammer certificated Monday education for consultant training and professional development since 2003. Novel research focuses and interests of Brenner are miniaturized artificial hearts in heart valves, inhibition of aging enzymes, cryonic and environment technology, essential oils as well as ebola. “Young Investigator´s Award of European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery” for his work The influence of antibody and complement removal with a Ig-Therasorb column in a xenogeneic working heart model „Biotest Award of the European Society for Organ Transplantation“ for his presentation Influence of ischemic time on hyperacute xenograft rejection of pig hearts in a working heart perfusion model with human blood Medical associations: Transplantation Society, International Xenotransplantation Association Principal Investigator of the Transregio Research Collaborative Research Centre Transregio-SFB 127 Xenotransplantation of the German Research Foundation with the subject Biology of xenogeneic cell and organ transplantation Member of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Thorax-, Her
An attribute-value system is a basic knowledge representation framework comprising a table with columns designating "attributes" and "rows" designating "objects". Each table cell therefore designates the value of a particular attribute of a particular object. Below is a sample attribute-value system, it represents five features. In this example, the table contains only integer values. In general, an attribute-value system may contain any kind of data, numeric or otherwise. An attribute-value system is distinguished from a simple "feature list" representation in that each feature in an attribute-value system may possess a range of values, rather than being present or absent. Attribute-value systems are pervasive throughout many different literatures, have been discussed under many different names: Flat data Spreadsheet Attribute-value system Information system Classification system Knowledge representation system Information table Object-predicate table Aristotelian table Simple frames First normal form database Bayes networks Entity–attribute–value model Joint distribution Knowledge representation Optimal classification Rough set Triplestore Barsalou, Lawrence W..
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