Albert Camus was a French philosopher and journalist. His views contributed to the rise of the philosophy known as absurdism, he wrote in his essay The Rebel that his whole life was devoted to opposing the philosophy of nihilism while still delving into individual freedom. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature at the age of 44 in 1957, the second youngest recipient in history. Camus did not consider himself to be an existentialist despite being classified in that way in his lifetime. In a 1945 interview, Camus rejected any ideological associations: "No, I am not an existentialist. Sartre and I are always surprised to see our names linked."Camus was born in French Algeria to a Pied-Noir family and studied at the University of Algiers, from which he graduated in 1936. In 1949, Camus founded the Group for International Liaisons to "denounce two ideologies found in both the USSR and the USA". Albert Camus was born on 7 November 1913 in French Algeria, his mother was of Spaniard descent, could only hear out of her left ear.
His father, Lucien, a poor French-Algerian agricultural worker, was wounded in the Battle of the Marne in 1914 during World War I, while serving as a member of a Zouave infantry regiment. Lucien died from his wounds in a makeshift army hospital on 11 October. Camus and his mother, an illiterate house cleaner, lived without many basic material possessions during his childhood in the Belcourt section of Algiers. In 1923, Camus gained acceptance into the Lycée Bugeaud and was admitted to the University of Algiers. After contracting tuberculosis in 1930, he had to stop playing football: he had been a goalkeeper for a prominent Algerian university team. In addition, he was only able to study part-time. To earn money, he took odd jobs: as a private tutor, car parts clerk, assistant at the Meteorological Institute, he completed his licence de philosophie in 1936. Camus joined the French Communist Party in early 1935, seeing it as a way to "fight inequalities between Europeans and'natives' in Algeria."
He did not suggest he was a Marxist or that he had read Das Kapital, but did write, "We might see communism as a springboard and asceticism that prepares the ground for more spiritual activities." In 1936, the independence-minded Algerian Communist Party was founded. Camus joined the activities of the Algerian People's Party, which got him into trouble with his Communist party comrades, who in 1937 denounced him as a Trotskyite and expelled him from the party. Camus became associated with the French anarchist movement; the anarchist André Prudhommeaux first introduced him at a meeting in 1948 of the Cercle des Étudiants Anarchistes as a sympathiser familiar with anarchist thought. Camus wrote for anarchist publications such as Le Libertaire, La révolution Prolétarienne, Solidaridad Obrera, the organ of the anarcho-syndicalist CNT. Camus stood with the anarchists when they expressed support for the uprising of 1953 in East Germany, he again allied with the anarchists in 1956, first in support of the workers' uprising in Poznań, later with the Hungarian Revolution.
Camus was irreligious. "I do not believe in God and I am not an atheist." ~Notebooks 1951–1959. He told Le Monde in 1956, "I would agree with Benjamin Constant, who thought a lack of religion was vulgar and hackneyed." In 1934, Camus married Simone Hié, but the marriage ended as a consequence of infidelities on both sides. In 1935, he founded Théâtre du Travail, renamed Théâtre de l'Equipe in 1937, it lasted until 1939. From 1937 to 1939 he wrote for Alger-Républicain, his work included a report on the poor conditions for peasants in Kabylie, which cost him his job. From 1939 to 1940, he wrote for a similar paper, Soir-Republicain, he was rejected by the French army because of his tuberculosis. In 1940, Camus married a pianist and mathematician. Although he loved her, he had argued passionately against the institution of marriage, dismissing it as unnatural. After Francine gave birth to twins and Jean, on 5 September 1945, he continued to joke to friends that he was not cut out for marriage. Camus had numerous affairs an irregular and public affair with the Spanish-born actress María Casares, with whom he had an extensive correspondence.
In the same year, Camus began to work for Paris-Soir magazine. In the first stage of World War II, during the so-called Phoney War, Camus was a pacifist. While in Lyon during the Wehrmacht occupation, on 15 December 1941, Camus read about the Paris execution of Gabriel Péri, he moved to Bordeaux with the rest of the staff of Paris-Soir. In the same year he finished The Stranger, his first novel, The Myth of Sisyphus, he returned to Oran, Algeria, in 1942. Camus was once asked by his friend Charles Poncet which he preferred, the theatre. Camus is said to have replied, "Football, without hesitation."Camus played as goalkeeper for Racing Universitaire d'Alger junior team from 1928 to 1930. The sense of team spirit and common purpose appealed to Camus enormously
History of China
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty, during the king Wu Ding's reign, recorded as the twenty-first Shang king by the written records of Shang dynasty unearthed. Ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian and the Bamboo Annals describe a Xia dynasty before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period, Shang writings do not indicate the existence of the Xia; the Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River; these Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations, is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization; the Zhou dynasty supplanted the Shang, introduced the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule.
The central Zhou government began to weaken due to external and internal pressures in the 8th century BC, the country splintered into smaller states during the Spring and Autumn period. These states became warred with one another in the following Warring States period. Much of traditional Chinese culture and philosophy first developed during those troubled times. In 221 BC, Qin Shi Huang conquered the various warring states and created for himself the title of Huangdi or "emperor" of the Qin, marking the beginning of imperial China. However, the oppressive government fell soon after his death, was supplanted by the longer-lived Han dynasty. Successive dynasties developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the emperor to control vast territories directly. In the 21 centuries from 206 BC until AD 1912, routine administrative tasks were handled by a special elite of scholar-officials. Young men, well-versed in calligraphy, history and philosophy, were selected through difficult government examinations.
China's last dynasty was the Qing, replaced by the Republic of China in 1912, in the mainland by the People's Republic of China in 1949, resulting in two de facto states claiming to be the legitimate government of all China. Chinese history has alternated between periods of political unity and peace, periods of war and failed statehood – the most recent being the Chinese Civil War. China was dominated by steppe peoples, most of whom were assimilated into the Han Chinese culture and population. Between eras of multiple kingdoms and warlordism, Chinese dynasties have ruled parts or all of China. Traditional culture, influences from other parts of Asia and the Western world, form the basis of the modern culture of China. What is now China was inhabited by Homo erectus more than a million years ago. Recent study shows that the stone tools found at Xiaochangliang site are magnetostratigraphically dated to 1.36 million years ago. The archaeological site of Xihoudu in Shanxi Province has evidence of use of fire by Homo erectus, dated 1.27 million years ago, Homo erectus fossils in China include the Yuanmou Man, the Lantian Man and the Peking Man.
Fossilised teeth of Homo sapiens dating to 125,000–80,000 BC have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Dao County in Hunan. Evidence of Middle Palaeolithic Levallois technology has been found in the lithic assemblage of Guanyindong Cave site in southwest China, dated to 170,000–80,000 years ago; the Neolithic age in China can be traced back to about 10,000 BC. The earliest evidence of cultivated rice, found by the Yangtze River, is carbon-dated to 8,000 years ago. Early evidence for proto-Chinese millet agriculture is radiocarbon-dated to about 7000 BC. Farming gave rise to the Jiahu culture. At Damaidi in Ningxia, 3,172 cliff carvings dating to 6000–5000 BC have been discovered, "featuring 8,453 individual characters such as the sun, stars and scenes of hunting or grazing"; these pictographs are reputed to be similar to the earliest characters confirmed to be written Chinese. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BC, Dadiwan from 5800 BC to 5400 BC, Damaidi around 6000 BC and Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BC.
Some scholars have suggested. Excavation of a Peiligang culture site in Xinzheng county, found a community that flourished in 5,500 to 4,900 BC, with evidence of agriculture, constructed buildings and burial of the dead. With agriculture came increased population, the ability to store and redistribute crops, the potential to support specialist craftsmen and administrators. In late Neolithic times, the Yellow River valley began to establish itself as a center of Yangshao culture, the first villages were founded. Yangshao culture was superseded by the Longshan culture, centered on the Yellow River from about 3000 BC to 2000 BC. Bronze artifacts have been found at the Majiayao culture site, The Bronze Age is represented at the Lower Xiajiadian culture site in northeast China. Sanxingdui located in what is now Sichuan province is believed to be the site of a major ancient city, of a unknown Bronze Age culture; the site was first discovered in 1929 and re-dis
Existentialism is the philosophical study that begins with the human subject—not the thinking subject, but the acting, living human individual. It is associated with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences, shared the belief in that beginning of philosophical thinking. While the predominant value of existentialist thought is acknowledged to be freedom, its primary virtue is authenticity. In the view of the existentialist, the individual's starting point is characterized by what has been called "the existential attitude", or a sense of disorientation, confusion, or dread in the face of an meaningless or absurd world. Many existentialists have regarded traditional systematic or academic philosophies, in both style and content, as too abstract and remote from concrete human experience. Søren Kierkegaard is considered to have been the first existentialist philosopher, though he did not use the term existentialism, he proposed that each individual—not society or religion—is responsible for giving meaning to life and living it passionately and sincerely, or "authentically".
Existentialism became popular in the years following World War II, thanks to Sartre who read Heidegger while in a POW camp, influenced many disciplines besides philosophy, including theology, art and psychology. The term "existentialism" was coined by the French Catholic philosopher Gabriel Marcel in the mid-1940s. At first, when Marcel applied the term to him at a colloquium in 1945, Jean-Paul Sartre rejected it. Sartre subsequently changed his mind and, on October 29, 1945, publicly adopted the existentialist label in a lecture to the Club Maintenant in Paris; the lecture was published as L'existentialisme est un humanisme, a short book that did much to popularize existentialist thought. Marcel came to reject the label himself in favour of the term Neo-Socratic, in honor of Kierkegaard's essay "On The Concept of Irony"; some scholars argue that the term should be used only to refer to the cultural movement in Europe in the 1940s and 1950s associated with the works of the philosophers Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Albert Camus.
Other scholars extend the term to Kierkegaard, yet others extend it as far back as Socrates. However, the term is identified with the philosophical views of Sartre; the labels existentialism and existentialist are seen as historical conveniences in as far as they were first applied to many philosophers in hindsight, long after they had died. In fact, while existentialism is considered to have originated with Kierkegaard, the first prominent existentialist philosopher to adopt the term as a self-description was Jean-Paul Sartre. Sartre posits the idea that "what all existentialists have in common is the fundamental doctrine that existence precedes essence", as scholar Frederick Copleston explains. According to philosopher Steven Crowell, defining existentialism has been difficult, he argues that it is better understood as a general approach used to reject certain systematic philosophies rather than as a systematic philosophy itself. Sartre himself, in a lecture delivered in 1945, described existentialism as "the attempt to draw all the consequences from a position of consistent atheism".
Although many outside Scandinavia consider the term existentialism to have originated from Kierkegaard himself, it is more that Kierkegaard adopted this term from the Norwegian poet and literary critic Johan Sebastian Cammermeyer Welhaven. This assertion comes from two sources; the Norwegian philosopher Erik Lundestad refers to the Danish philosopher Fredrik Christian Sibbern. Sibbern is supposed to have had two conversations in 1841, the first with Welhaven and the second with Kierkegaard, it is in the first conversation that it is believed that Welhaven came up with "a word that he said covered a certain thinking, which had a close and positive attitude to life, a relationship he described as existential". This was brought to Kierkegaard by Sibbern; the second claim comes from the Norwegian historian Rune Slagstad, who claims to prove that Kierkegaard himself said the term "existential" was borrowed from the poet. He believes that it was Kierkegaard himself who said that "Hegelians do not study philosophy'existentially'.
Sartre argued that a central proposition of Existentialism is that existence precedes essence, which means that the most important consideration for individuals is that they are individuals—independently acting and responsible, conscious beings —rather than what labels, stereotypes, definitions, or other preconceived categories the individuals fit. The actual life of the individuals is what constitutes what could be called their "true essence" instead of there being an arbitrarily attributed essence others use to define them. Thus, human beings, through their own consciousness, create their own values and determine a meaning to their life. Although it was Sartre who explicitly coined the phrase, similar notions can be found in the thought of existentialist philosophers such as Heidegger, Kierkegaard: The subjective thinker’s form, the form of his communication, is his style, his form must be just as manifold as are the opposites. The systematic eins, drei is an abstract form that must run into trouble whenever it is to be applied to the concrete.
To the same degree as the subjective thinker is concrete, to the same degree his form must be concretely dialectica
The Prix Goncourt is a prize in French literature, given by the académie Goncourt to the author of "the best and most imaginative prose work of the year". Four other prizes are awarded: prix Goncourt du Premier Roman, prix Goncourt de la Nouvelle, prix Goncourt de la Poésie and prix Goncourt de la Biographie. Of the "big six" French literary awards, the Prix Goncourt is the best most prestigious; the other major literary prizes are the Grand Prix du roman de l'Académie française, the Prix Femina, the Prix Renaudot, the Prix Interallié and the Prix Médicis. Edmond de Goncourt, a successful author and publisher, bequeathed his estate for the foundation and maintenance of the académie Goncourt. In honour of his brother and collaborator, Jules Alfred Huot de Goncourt, the académie has awarded the Prix Goncourt every December since 1903; the jury that determines the winner meets at the Drouant restaurant in November to make its decision. Notable winners of the prize include Marcel Proust, Simone de Beauvoir, André Malraux and Marguerite Duras.
The award was established to provide talented new authors with a monetary award that would allow them to write a second book. Today, the Goncourt has a token prize amount, about the same amount given in 1903, so the prestige of the prize has been explained not because of the cash-value of the prize, but "in terms of the tremendous book sales it effects: the Goncourt winner becomes an instant millionaire."In 1987, the Prix Goncourt des Lycéens was established, as a collaboration between the académie Goncourt, the French Ministry of Education, Fnac, a book and movie retailer. The Prix Renaudot is announced at the same ceremony as the Prix Goncourt, it has become known as something of a second-place prize. Within months of the first prize in 1903, it spawned a "hostile counter-prize" in the form of the Prix Femina to counter the all-male Jury of the Goncourt with an all-female jury on the Femina; some decisions for awarding the prize have been controversial, a famous case being the decision to award the prize in 1919 to Marcel Proust.
The prize was supposed to be awarded to promising young authors, whereas Proust was not considered "young" at 48 – however Proust was a beginning author, the only eligibility requirement, age being unimportant. In 1921, Rene Maran won the Goncourt with Batouala, veritable roman negre, the first French novel to criticize European colonialism in Africa; the novel was banned in all the French colonies. In 1932, the prize was controversial for passing up Louis-Ferdinand Céline's Voyage au bout de la nuit for Guy Mazeline's Les Loups; the voting process became the basis of the 1992 book Goncourt 32 by Eugène Saccomano. Although the award may only be given to an author once, Romain Gary won it twice, in 1956 for Les racines du ciel and again under the pseudonym Émile Ajar in 1975 for La vie devant soi; the Académie Goncourt awarded the prize to Ajar without knowing his real identity. A period of literary intrigue followed. Gary's cousin's son Paul Pavlowitch posed as the author for a time. Gary revealed the truth in his posthumous book Vie et mort d'Émile Ajar.
Notes Translations full audit: March 2009 Films full audit: February 2011 Translation date is of first translation ones may be available. Website of the Academie Goncourt with list of past winners. In addition to the Prix Goncourt for a novel, the Academy Awards four other awards, for first novel, short story and poetry; as of March 2009, the académie changed the award name by dropping "bourses" from the title. The prefix "prix" can be included or not, such as "Prix Goncourt de la Poésie" or "Goncourt de la Poésie". For example: "Claude Vigée was awarded a Goncourt de la Poésie in 2008". Or, "Claude Vigée won the 2008 prix Goncourt de la Poésie"; the award titles are: The winners are listed below. Goncourt Prize for biography. Awarded in partnership with the city of Nancy. 1980 – Jean Lacouture, François Mauriac 1981 – Hubert Juin, Victor Hugo 1982 – Pierre Sipriot, René Depestre 1983 – Ghislain de Diesbach, Madame de Staël 1984 – Jeanne Champion, Suzanne Valadon 1985 – Georges Poisson, Laclos ou l'Obstination 1986 – Jean Canavaggio, Cervantes 1987 – Michel Surya, Georges Bataille, la mort à l'œuvre 1988 – Frédéric Vitoux, La Vie de Louis-Ferdinand Céline 1989 – Joanna Richardson, Judith Gautier 1990 – Pierre Citron, Giono 1991 – Odette Joyeux, Le Troisième œil, la vie de Nicéphore Niepce 1992 – Philippe Beaussant, Lully 1993 – Jean Bothorel, Louise de Vilmorin 1994 – David Bellos, Georges Perec 1995 – Henry Gidel, Les Deux Guitry 1996 – Anka Muhlstein, Astolphe de Custine 1997 – Jean-Claude Lamy, Prévert, les frères 1998 – Christian Liger, Le Roman de Rossel 1999 – Claude Pichois and Alain Brunet, Colette 2000 – Dominique Bona, Berthe Morisot 2001 – Laure Murat, La maison du docteur Blanche 2002 – Jean-Paul Goujon, Une Vie Secrète.
All Men Are Mortal
All Men Are Mortal is a 1946 novel by Simone de Beauvoir. It tells the story of Raimon Fosca, a man cursed to live forever; the first American edition of this work was published by The World Publishing Company. Cleveland and New York, 1955, it was adapted into a 1995 film of the same name. Regina is a young theatrical actress, her career seems to be promising and her reputation becomes wider with every tour and performance. But she is not content; the sparks of attention in the eyes of her audience seem fleeting and the praises seem typical rather than unique. She regards with her co-star Florence. Following a performance in Rouen, Regina chooses to stand aside from her theatrical troupe and starts an internal monologue concerning her uniqueness, or lack thereof, among other women, she keeps focusing on the current love life of her fellow actress. She bitterly acknowledges that Florence is not thinking about her and neither are the other people around her, she notices another man who seems to pay little attention to her, Raymond Fosca.
Fosca is described as a reasonably attractive with a crooked nose and athletic young but with a passionless face and empty eyes that remind Regina of her father in his deathbed. Soon enough Regina finds, he has piqued the curiosity of several visitors for his peculiar habits. He had been staying in the hotel for a month but hardly spoke to anybody and appeared deaf to any attempts to speak to him, he spent his days in the garden, sitting in silence in rain. He never changed no one had seen him eat anything. A curious Regina enters his room in his absence and finds release papers from an asylum, claiming the man suffered from amnesia and was incarcerated for an unknown amount of time, he was released a month before. She decides to use the information to approach Raymond Fosca; however Fosca is not in the mood for conversations. Regina asks him for a way to escape her boredom, he only asks. He takes her report of being twenty-eight-years-old and estimates she has about fifty more years to endure, she would be free of boredom.
Despite his warnings to stay away from him, Regina makes a habit of visiting him. Fosca comments that due to her time has started flowing for him again; the man leaves the hotel for the first time in a month to satisfy a new craving for cigarettes. He explains that he has no amnesia. Far from it, he remembers everything from his life, his thirty years in the asylum. Regina visits the man daily but tires of him; the theatre company leaves Rouen and she leaves Fosca without a word. She starts negotiations for a career in the Cinema of France, but only three days Fosca has followed her home. She is the only person to hold his interest and makes clear his intention to keep following her, he wants to listen to her before she dies. Regina mocks Fosca at first for stalking her, worries about his surprising resolve at following her, despite her attempts to get rid of him, their discussions soon turn to her passion for life and her mortality, while Fosca first hints at his own immortality. She finds it fascinating that a man does not fear death if the man seems to suffer from his own brand of insanity.
Regina contemplates his state of mind and starts discussing it with the other persons in her life. Fosca soon enough proves his immortality by cutting his own throat with a razor in her presence. At first a stream of blood flows from his throat and the man seems to be dying, but moments the flow stops, the wound starts closing without treatment and Fosca heals at an incredible rate. He seeks a new start for himself. Regina has another motive to return his affection. In ten thousand years, she thinks, Fosca could still be alive remembering her, long after her own death. Another suitor comments that she would be one memory among one butterfly in a collection, but Regina pursues her new immortal lover and enjoys tutoring him at living again. However she finds herself unable to understand him and his indifferent behavior to many aspects of modern life. Seeking to understand him, Regina demands to listen to his own life story which shaped his perceptions. Fosca has to agree and his narration begins. Fosca was born in a palace of the fictional Carmona, Italy on 17 May 1279.
His mother died shortly after his birth. He was trained in equestrianism and archery. A monk was hired to indoctrinate the boy to the beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church but Fosca proudly proclaims never caring for anything beyond this Earth and never fearing God or man, he idolized his handsome and strong father and resented that Carmona was instead governed by Francois Rienchi. He was fearful for his own life; the people hated Rienchi and the Duke of Carmona was said to not make a step without his chainmail armor and at least ten guards. Fosca describes him being greedy and having his private chest of gold, kept full by unpopular methods. One by one the nobles of Carmona were executed by hanging or decapitation, their fortunes were confiscated and provided more gold for Rienchi, as did the heavy taxation of the lower classes. Many lived in hovels and people begging for money and food were commonplace. Fosca considered Francois Rienchi responsible for the misery of Carmona, but Francois died, succeeded by his own brother Bertrand Rienchi.
Rumor had it that Bertrand had poisoned his brother but Carmona celebrated the change of Du
Roman à clef
Roman à clef, French for novel with a key, is a novel about real life, overlaid with a façade of fiction. The fictitious names in the novel represent real people, the "key" is the relationship between the nonfiction and the fiction; the "key" may be produced separately by the author or implied through the use of epigraphs or other literary techniques. Created by Madeleine de Scudéry in the 17th century to provide a forum for her thinly-veiled fiction featuring political and public figures, the roman à clef has since been used by writers including Sylvia Plath, John Banville, Truman Capote, Simone de Beauvoir, Ernest Hemingway, George Orwell, Jack Kerouac, Victor Hugo, Blaise Cendrars, Philip K. Dick, Bret Easton Ellis, Jay McInerney, Naguib Mahfouz, John McGahern, Charles Bukowski, Malachi Martin, Saul Bellow, Hunter S. Thompson, James Joyce, Djuna Barnes; the reasons an author might choose the roman à clef format include satire. Biographically inspired works have appeared in other literary genres and art forms, notably the film à clef.
Allegory Autobiographical novel Blind item Creative nonfiction Defamation List of narrative techniques Non-fiction novel Semi-fiction Small penis rule Amos, William. The Originals: Who's Really Who in Fiction. London: Cape. ISBN 0-7221-1069-3. Busby, Brian. Character Parts: Who's Really Who in CanLit. Toronto: Knopf Canada. ISBN 0-676-97579-8