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The Martian Chronicles

The Martian Chronicles is a 1950 science fiction short story fixup by American writer Ray Bradbury, which chronicles the colonization of Mars by humans fleeing from a troubled and atomically devastated Earth, the conflict between aboriginal Martians and the new colonists. The book lies somewhere in between a short story collection and an episodic novel, containing stories published in the late 1940s in science fiction magazines; the stories were loosely woven together with a series of short, interstitial vignettes for publication. The Martian Chronicles is a fixup of short stories with new text connecting them into a novel. Bradbury has credited Sherwood Anderson's Winesburg and John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath as influences on the structure of the book, he has called it a "half-cousin to a novel" and "a book of stories pretending to be a novel". As such, it is similar in structure to Bradbury's short story collection, The Illustrated Man, which uses a thin frame story to link various unrelated short stories.

The Martian Chronicles follows a "future history" structure. The stories, complete in themselves, come together as episodes in a larger sequential narrative framework; the overall structure is in three parts, punctuated by two catastrophes: the near-extinction of the Martians and the parallel near-extinction of the human race. The first third details the attempts of the Earthmen to reach Mars, the various ways in which the Martians keep them from returning. In the crucial story, "—And the Moon Be Still as Bright", it is revealed by the fourth exploratory expedition that the Martians have all but perished in a plague caused by germs brought by one of the previous expeditions; this unexpected development sets the stage for the second act, in which humans from Earth colonize the deserted planet having contact with the few surviving Martians, but for the most part preoccupied with making Mars a second Earth. However, as war on Earth threatens, most of the settlers return home. A global nuclear war ensues, cutting off contact between Earth.

The third act deals with the aftermath of the war, concludes with the prospect of the few surviving humans becoming the new Martians, a prospect foreshadowed in "—And the Moon Be Still as Bright", which allows the book to return to its beginning. This title was first published in hardbound form in the United States in 1950 by Doubleday & Company, Inc, it has been reprinted numerous times by many different publishers since then. A collectible first edition in jacket is sought after given the importance of Bradbury's book; the book was published in the United Kingdom under the title The Silver Locusts, with different contents. In some editions the story "The Fire Balloons" was added, the story "Usher II" was removed to make room for it. In the Spanish-language version, the stories were preceded by a prologue by Argentinian writer Jorge Luis Borges; the book was published in 1963 as part of the Time Reading Program with an introduction by Fred Hoyle. In 1979, Bantam Books published a trade paperback edition with illustrations by Ian Miller.

A 1997 edition of the book advances all the dates by 31 years. This edition includes "The Fire Balloons", replaces "Way in the Middle of the Air" with the 1952 short story "The Wilderness", dated May 2034. Edgar Rice Burroughs's works were key influences. In an article written shortly before his death, Bradbury said the John Carter of Mars books and Harold Foster's 1931 series of Tarzan Sunday comics had such an impact on his life that "The Martian Chronicles would never have happened" otherwise. In an introduction he wrote for The Martian Chronicles, Bradbury cited the Barsoom stories and Winesburg, Ohio by Sherwood Anderson as literary influences; the background of Mars shared by most of the stories, as a desert planet crisscrossed by giant canals built by an ancient civilization to bring water from the polar ice caps, is a common scenario in science fiction of the early 20th century. It stems from early telescope observations of Mars by astronomers from the 19th-century who believed they saw straight lines on the planet, the first of them being the Italian Giovanni Schiaparelli in 1877.

Schiaparelli called them canali, popularly mistranslated into English as "canals", man-made water channels. Based on this and other evidence, the idea that Mars was inhabited by intelligent life was put forward by a number of prominent scientists around the turn of the century, notably American astronomer Percival Lowell; this ignited a popular fascination with the planet, called "Mars fever". Planetary astronomer Carl Sagan wrote: Mars has become a kind of mythic arena onto which we have projected our Earthly hopes and fears. First published in Planet Stories, spring 1947; the stories of the book are arranged in chronological order, starting in January 1999, with the blasting off of the first rocket. "Rocket Summer" is a short vignette which describes Ohio's winter turning into "summer" due to the extreme heat of the rocket's take-off, as well as the reaction of the citizens nearby. First published as "I'll Not Ask for Wine" in Maclean's, January 1, 1950; the following chapter, "Ylla", moves the story to M


An eyelid is a thin fold of skin that covers and protects an eye. The levator palpebrae superioris muscle retracts the eyelid, exposing the cornea to the outside, giving vision; this can be either voluntarily or involuntarily. The human eyelid features a row of eyelashes along the eyelid margin, which serve to heighten the protection of the eye from dust and foreign debris, as well as from perspiration. "Palpebral" means relating to the eyelids. Its key function is to spread the tears and other secretions on the eye surface to keep it moist, since the cornea must be continuously moist, they keep the eyes from drying out when asleep. Moreover, the blink reflex protects the eye from foreign bodies; the appearance of the human upper eyelid varies between different populations. The prevalence of an epicanthic fold covering the inner corner of the eye may reach up to 90% in East Asian and Southeast Asian populations and is found in varying degrees in others. Separately, but similarly varying between populations, the crease of the remainder of the eyelid may form either a "single eyelid", a "double eyelid", or an intermediate form.

Eyelids can be found in other animals, some of which may have a third eyelid, or nictitating membrane. A vestige of this in humans survives; the eyelid is made up of several layers. The meibomian glands lie within the secrete the lipid part of the tear film; the skin is similar to areas elsewhere, but is thin and has more pigment cells. In diseased persons these may cause a discoloration of the lids, it contains sweat glands and hairs, the latter becoming eyelashes as the border of the eyelid is met. The skin of the eyelid contains the greatest concentration of sebaceous glands found anywhere in the body. In humans, the sensory nerve supply to the upper eyelids is from the infratrochlear, supratrochlear and the lacrimal nerves from the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve; the skin of the lower eyelid is supplied by branches of the infratrochlear at the medial angle, the rest is supplied by branches of the infraorbital nerve of the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve. In humans, the eyelids are supplied with blood by two arches on lower lid.

The arches are formed by anastomoses of the lateral palpebral arteries and medial palpebral arteries, branching off from the lacrimal artery and ophthalmic artery, respectively. The human eyelid features a row of eyelashes along the eyelid margin, which serve to heighten the protection of the eye from dust and foreign debris. Any condition that affects the eyelid is called eyelid disorder; the most common eyelid disorders, their causes and treatments are the following: Hordeolum is an infection of the sebaceous glands of Zeis caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, similar to the more common condition Acne vulgaris. It is characterized by an acute onset of symptoms and it appears similar to a red bump placed underneath the eyelid; the main symptoms of styes include redness of the eyelid and sometimes swollen eyelids. Styes disappear within a week without treatment. Otherwise, antibiotics may be prescribed and home remedies such as warm water compresses may be used to promote faster healing.

Styes are harmless and do not cause long lasting damage. Chalazion is caused by the obstruction of the oil glands and can occur in both upper and lower eyelids. Chalazia may be mistaken for styes due to the similar symptoms; this condition is however less painful and it tends to be chronic. Chalazia heal within a few months if treatment is administered and otherwise they can resorb within two years. Chalazia that do not respond to topical medication are treated with surgery as a last resort. Blepharitis is the irritation of the lid margin; this is a common condition that causes inflammation of the eyelids and, quite difficult to manage because it tends to recur. This condition is caused by staphylococcus infection and scalp dandruff. Blepharitis symptoms include burning sensation, the feeling that there is something in the eye, excessive tearing, blurred vision, redness of the eye, light sensitivity and swollen eyelids, dry eye and sometimes crusting of the eyelashes on awakening. Treatment consists in maintaining a good hygiene of the eye and holding warm compresses on the affected eyelid to remove the crusts.

Scrubbing the eyelid with the warm compress is recommended as it eases the healing process. In more serious cases, antibiotics may be prescribed. Demodex mites are a genus of tiny mites that live as commensals in and around the hair follicles of numerous mammals including humans and dogs. Human demodex mites live in the follicles of the eyebrows and eyelashes. While harmless, human demodex mites can sometimes cause irritation of the skin in persons with weakened immune systems. Entropion results from aging, but sometimes can be due to a congenital defect, a spastic eyelid muscle, or a scar on the inside of the lid that could be from surgery, injury, or disease, it is an asymptomatic condition that can lead to trichiasis, which requires surgery. It affects the lower lid, is characterized by the turning inward of the lid, toward the globe. Ectropion is another aging-related eyelid condition that may lead to chronic eye irritation and scarring, it may be the result of allergies and its main symptoms are pain, excessive tearing and hardening of the eyelid conjunctiva.

Laxity is another aging-related eyelid condition that

Jenni Barclay

Jenni Barclay is a professor of volcanology at the University of East Anglia. She works on ways to mitigate volcanic risks, the interactions between rainfall and volcanic activity and the communication of volcanic hazards in the Caribbean. Barclay leads the NERC-ESRC funded Strengthening Resilience to Volcanic Hazards research project as well as a Leverhulme Trust programme looking at the volcanic history of the Ascension Islands. Barclay became interested in the natural environment as a child volcanoes and avalanches, she enjoyed watching scientists from the Climatic Research Unit on BBC Horizon. Barclay studied geology at the University of Edinburgh, she moved to Bristol for her doctoral degree, studied degassing processes in silicic volcanoes. During her postdoctoral fellowships she investigated magma storage in the Soufrière Hills volcano, an eruption which began on 18 July 1995, she identified that the Soufrière Hills magma contained amphibole, plagioclase, pyroxene and ilmenite at pressures of 115 to 130 Megapascals.

She worked at the University of California and University of Geneva, as well as serving as a duty scientist at the Montserrat Volcano Observatory. In 1999 Barclay was appointed to the University of East Anglia, her research combines geological investigations into the dynamic processes of volcanoes with analysis of the social and cultural landscapes in which they erupt in. She served as Principal Investigator on Strengthening Resilience to Volcanic Hazards, looking to develop a practical volcanic risk assessment framework, supported by the Natural Environment Research Council and Economic and Social Research Council. During STREVA Barclay worked with people from Saint Vincent and the Grenadines to document the historical and culture record of the 1902 and 1979 La Soufrière eruptions; as part of the programme, the researchers worked with the University of the West Indies to create a portable exhibit that toured the Caribbean. She combined historical archives, field measurements and meteorological modelling to reconstruct the La Soufrière eruptions.

This allowed her to understand how the wind flow around volcanoes controls the movement of ash plumes through the atmosphere, depositing ash both close to the volcano and far away. In her work with communities in Ecuador Barclay showed that volcanic risk can be improved with collaborative monitoring; this work has inspired her latest project, Tomorrow’s Cities, which looks at urban disaster risk in cities including Quito. Barclay has argued that the deaths that occur due to pulses of gas and solids after a volcano are avoidable. Alongside her research, Barclay is committed to public engagement, she focuses on communicating the relationships between the hazards and surface topographies. STREVA resulted in a series of films. In 2011 Barclay worked with Top Trumps to create a volcano themed version of the game. To create the game, Barclay consulted her colleagues to rank the thirty volcanoes for their explosiveness and deadliness. Barclay used the funds raised from Volcano Top Trumps to fund annual competitions to help people affected by volcanoes.

They helped children in Ecuador make a book about volcano legends, the sales of which raised more money for the local community. She has created websites to communicate the relationship between hazards and landscape, she has appeared on the BBC, as well as speaking at Pint of Science, the Norwich Science Festival and the Natural History Museum. Her publications include. "Whose reality counts? Factors affecting the perception of volcanic risk". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 172: 259. Bibcode:2008JVGR..172..259H. Doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2007.12.012. Oppenheimer, Clive. "Volcanic degassing". Geological Society of London. ISBN 9781862391369. Barclay, Jenni. "Experimental phase equilibria constraints on pre‐eruptive storage conditions of the Soufrière Hills magma". Geophysical Research Letters. 25: 3437–3440. Bibcode:1998GeoRL..25.3437B. Doi:10.1029/98GL00856. Barclay is married with two children


IPadOS is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. for its iPad line of tablet computers. The successor of iOS 12 on iPad, it was announced at the company's 2019 Worldwide Developers Conference, as a derivation from iOS but with a greater emphasis on multitasking, it was released on September 24, 2019. The first iPad was released in 2010 and ran iPhone OS 3.2. This operating system, which had until been used on the iPhone and iPod Touch, was rebranded as "iOS" with the release of iOS 4. Although the iPhone and iPad had feature parity, over time, the iPad incorporated a growing set of differentiating features not available on the iPhone such as picture-in-picture and the ability to display multiple running apps simultaneously. IOS 11, released in 2017, added drag and drop and a dock that more resembled the one in the macOS than the one on the iPhone. Thanks to additional exclusive features being added over time, the iOS on the iPad became more and more distinct from the iOS on the iPhone.

To emphasize the different feature set available on the iPad, at WWDC 2019 Apple announced that the variant of iOS that runs on iPad devices would be rebranded as "iPadOS". The new naming strategy began with iPadOS 13, in 2019; the releases of iPadOS began with 13.1. Unlike previous versions of iOS, the icon grid displays up to five rows and six columns of apps, regardless of whether the device is in portrait or landscape orientation; the first page of the home screen can be configured to show a column of widgets from applications for easy access. Spotlight Search is no longer part of the widgets but can still be accessed by swiping down from the center of the home screen or pressing Command + Space on a connected keyboard. IPadOS features a multitasking system developed with more capabilities compared to iOS, with features like Slide Over and Split View that make it possible to use multiple different applications simultaneously. Double-clicking the Home Button or swiping up from the bottom of the screen and pausing will display all active spaces.

Each space can feature a single app. The user can swipe left or right on the Home Indicator to go between spaces at any time, or swipe left/right with four fingers. While using an app, swiping up from the bottom edge of the screen will summon the Dock, where apps stored within can be dragged to different areas of the current space to be opened in either Split View or Slide Over. Dragging an app to the left or right edge of the screen will create a Split View, which will allow both apps to be used side-by-side; the size of the two apps in Split View can be adjusted by dragging a pill shaped icon in the center of the vertical divider and dragging the divider all the way to one side of the screen closes the respective app. If the user drags an app from the dock over the current app, it will create a floating window called Slide Over which can be dragged to either the left or right side of the screen. A Slide Over window can be hidden by swiping it off the right side of the screen, swiping left from the right edge of the screen will restore it.

Slide Over apps can be cycled between by swiping left or right on the Home Indicator in the Slide Over window and pulling up on it will open an app switcher for Slide Over windows. A pill shaped icon at the top of apps in Split View or Slide Over allows them to be switched in an out of Split View and Slide Over; the user can now have several instances of a single app open at once. A new Exposé mode has been added. In many applications, a notable exception being YouTube, videos can be shrunk down into a picture-in-picture window so the user can continue watching it while using other apps; this window containing the video can be resized by pinching and spreading and can be docked to any of the four corners of the screen. It can be hidden by swiping it off the side of the screen and is denoted by an arrow at the edge where the video is hidden and swiping it will bring it back onscreen. IPadOS Safari now shows desktop versions of websites by default, includes a download manager, has 30 new keyboard shortcuts if an external keyboard is connected.

Sidecar allows for an iPad to function as a second monitor for macOS and is named as such due to the setup's resemblance to articulated motorcycles. When using Sidecar, the Apple Pencil can be used to emulate a graphics tablet for applications like Photoshop. IPadOS allows external storage, such as USB flash drives, portable hard drives, solid state drives to be connected to an iPad via the Files app; the iPad Pro connects over USB-C, but the Lightning camera connection kit works to connect external drives with previous iPads. IPadOS 13 supports iPads with an Apple A8 / A8X chip or later; the software does not support devices with 1 GB of RAM including iPad Air, iPad Mini 2 and iPad Mini 3. Devices supported by iPadOS 13 include: iPad Air 2 iPad Air iPad iPad iPad iPad Mini 4 iPad Mini iPad Pro An upgrade to iPadOS is automatically offered to supported devices. IPadOS – official site iPadOS – official developer site iOS Reference Library at the Apple Developer site

Fantom Technologies

Fantom Technologies, Inc. was a Canadian household appliance company founded in Welland, Ontario in 1986 as IONA Appliances, with offices in Buffalo, New York, USA. A manufacturer of dual-cyclonic type vacuum cleaners, they were inspired from the Dyson vacuums, its name was adopted in 1995. Fantom went bankrupt in October 2001 and their vacuums have been considered collector's items since. In 1989, British-born James Dyson and Canada's IONA Appliances made a licensing deal in which the company would manufacture and sell a line of commercial dual-cyclonic upright vacuums called Vectron, for SC Johnson Wax, on which Dyson held the patent. Two years SC Johnson exited the commercial vacuum business and IONA renamed the vacuums to "Fantom". 1993 brought a successful infomercial for the original Fantom vacuum. One year the vacuum offered a HEPA filter as an option. In 1995, the vacuum was renamed the Fantom Thunder. Fantom FuryIn 1996, IONA Appliances introduced the Fantom Fury; the vacuum was lighter and less expensive.

Again, it achieved success through a television infomercial. It was less able to clean carpets due to a weaker motor. Fantom LightningFantom Technologies offered a canister-style vacuum in 1998 called the Fantom Lightning, it was sold at a price of $329 through a television infomercial hosted by Jim Caldwell. Again, it sold well, but the vacuum had defects including a like poor handle release on the power nozzle and poor wand and hose design. Fantom Cyclone XTA model was the Fantom Cyclone XT, released in 1999. Sold again through an infomercial hosted by Cheryl Watson and Jim Caldwell, the vacuum was engineered similar to the Lightning, but as upright, it was successful. Fantom CrosswindsJames Dyson ended his partnership with Fantom Technologies in early 2001; that same year, Fantom released a single-cyclone vacuum called the Fantom Crosswinds, which unlike the previous vacuums, was a failure due clogging problems. Fantom WildcatThe Wildcat, equivalent to Westinghouse Unplugged In October 2001, Fantom Technologies went bankrupt, the name was sold to Euro-Pro.

James Dyson saw an opportunity and introduced a multi-cyclonic vacuum under the Dyson name in North America in 2002, called the DC07, one year after Fantom went out of business. The Dyson DC07, as well as Dyson models, would be commercial best-sellers in North America. Today, Fantom vacuums are considered collector's items. Information about Fantom Technologies Fantom Story The Full Fantom Lightning Infomercial with Jim Caldwell The Full Fantom Cyclone XT Infomercial with Cheryl Watson and Jim Caldwell Fantom History

Annika Ekdahl

Annika Ekdahl is a textile artist who designs tapestries marrying Renaissance and Baroque practice with more modern techniques, creating large-scale works in her own contemporary style. She was the 2013 Nordic Textiles Awardee. Annika Ekdahl was born in 1955 in Sweden where she spent her childhood. From 1978, she developed an interest in working with textiles. In the early 1980s, she moved to Blekinge and obtained a master's degree in textile art in 1994 from the HDK School of Design and Crafts of the University of Gothenburg, she was a lecturer at Blekinge Institute of Technology and an adjunct professor at HDK. Ekdahl's preferred art form is tapestry design. Having studied Renaissance methods, she employs classical techniques to create large-scale works depicting people and situations from her own life, her works can take up to one and one-half years to complete as she weaves contemporary imagery of animals, places into her narrative designs. She describes the process as much like writing a novel, weaving the story with traditional methods but utilizing a modern approach including digital techniques.

Between 2000 and 2006, she worked on five pieces creating a series. The works were included in an exhibition, displayed in Kalmar Castle, Ronneby Cultural Center, Västerås Art Museum and Dalslands Museum of Art; each of the individual pieces has now been purchased: the title piece, “The Baroque Party” belongs to the Röhsska Museum, Gothenburg. Ekdahl has traveled through Europe studying tapestries, visited Poland to study the world-famous Wawel Castle tapestries in Kraków and worked in Australia where she has exhibited at the Maitland Art Gallery in New South Wales. In February 2013 at the Abecita Art Museum in Borås, Ekdahl received the Nordic Award in Textiles, an honor that granted her not only a substantial monetary award, but earned her a visiting professorship at University of Gothenburg; the same year in November, she was awarded the prestigious Prince Eugen Medal for her outstanding tapestries. In 2015 she unveiled the two tapestries she has been making since the award. Shine, about discovery and perception and Follow Me.

Grow, about growth and development. They were both installed at the University of Oslo in 2015. Annika Ekdahl's website with illustrations of her work