Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Carole Augusta Shelley was a British-American actress who made her career in the United States. Her many stage roles included the character of Madame Morrible in the original Broadway cast of the musical Wicked, she won the Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play for her performance in The Elephant Man in 1979. Shelley was born in London, the daughter of Deborah, an opera singer of Russian Jewish descent, Curtis Shelley, a composer of German Jewish origin, her father had emigrated to London before World War II. Shelley made her Broadway debut as Gwendolyn Pigeon in the original 1965 production of The Odd Couple, she reprised the role for the 1968 film version, for the first season of the subsequent television series. She and Monica Evans, who co-starred as her sister Cecily Pigeon, were the only two performers to be in all three of The Odd Couple versions: stage film the first television adaptation—and in the same roles. In the 1970s, Shelley wanted to extend her range, feeling she was not using all her capabilities as an actor.
She told The New York Times in a 1979 interview that she had "months of the most intensive deep-water swimming — more than I’d been called upon to do in my life" when she played Rosalind in As You Like It at the 1972 Stratford Festival in Ontario. She received her first Tony Award nomination in 1975 for her performance as "Jane" in Absurd Person Singular. Shelley won the 1979 Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play for her role as Mrs. Kendal in The Elephant Man, was nominated for the Tony Award as Featured Actress in a Play in 1987 for her performance in Stepping Out as "Maxine". In 1982 she won an Obie Award for her performance Twelve Dreams. Shelley began appearing in musicals in the late 1990s, with the revivals of Show Boat as Parthy and Cabaret as Fraulein Schneider in 1999. In 2003, Shelley created the role of Madame Morrible in the original Broadway cast of the musical Wicked, a role which she reprised in the show's national touring company in 2005 and in 2006 in the Chicago production.
Shelley played the role of Grandma in the Broadway production of Billy Elliot at the Imperial Theatre, beginning performances in October 2008. She was nominated for a Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Musical in 2009. In 2014, she succeeded Jane Carr as Miss Shingle in A Gentleman's Guide to Murder. Shelley's early career included roles in British films such as It's Great to Be Young, Carry On Regardless, No My Darling Daughter, The Cool Mikado and Carry On Cabby. In 1968 Shelley starred as Gwendolyn Pigeon in the film The Odd Couple. Thereafter she took on numerous roles in television and films such as The Boston Strangler, Some Kind of a Nut, The Whoopee Boys, Little Noises, The Road to Wellville, she played Helen Moskowitz in a 1998 episode of Frasier entitled "Merry Christmas, Mrs. Moskowitz", she was featured as "Aunt Clara" alongside Nicole Kidman and former Wicked co-star Kristin Chenoweth in the 2005 film Bewitched. She lent her voice to several roles in Disney animated films.
Shelley's "sister" co-star in all three versions of The Odd Couple, Monica Evans played her "goose" sister in The Aristocats, Abigail Gabble, Maid Marian in Robin Hood as a nod to their roles as Pigeon Sisters. Her final role was a cameo at the beginning of John Mulaney’s 2018 comedy special Kid Gorgeous. Shelley died on 31 August 2018 at the age of 79 in New York City; the cause was cancer. Carole Shelley at the Internet Broadway Database Carole Shelley on IMDb Carole Shelley at Find a Grave Carole Shelley at the Internet Off-Broadway Database
Keith Franklin Fowler is an American actor, director and educator. He is a professor emeritus of drama and former head of directing in the Drama Department of the Claire Trevor School of the Arts of the University of California, he is the former artistic director of two LORT/Equity theaters. Fowler was born in San Francisco in 1939, he began acting professionally with the Oregon Shakespeare Festival, playing Antony in Julius Caesar and Lorenzo in Merchant, before leaving to study as a Fulbright scholar at the Shakespeare Institute in Stratford-upon-Avon, UK. In England, he directed the Midlands premiere of Brecht's Mother Courage; the production at the Stratford Hippodrome in spring 1961 led the town's veteran drama critic to compliment the local troupe for daring a type of theater that Sir Peter Hall hesitated to bring to Stratford's just-founded Royal Shakespeare Company. Fowler earned a doctorate at the Yale School of Drama, studying under Nikos Psacharopoulos, director of the Williamstown Theater Festival, who chose Fowler to serve as his assistant, first as resident director of a theater in Holyoke, where Fowler staged productions of J. B. by Archibald MacLeish, Romeo and Juliet and as assistant director at Williamstown.
In between Yale terms he directed a season of summer stock at the Belfry Theater in Williams Bay and staged a production of Hamlet for the San Francisco Shakespeare Festival. After Yale, Fowler joined the faculty of Williams College, in the late 1960s he directed a stylized Macbeth for the El Paso Festival Theater acted and directed for the Asolo Theater in Sarasota, Florida. In 1969, he was appointed head of the Theater Arts Division of the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts and artistic director of the Virginia Museum Theater, he undertook to guide VMT in becoming Richmond's first resident Actors Equity company and a home for classics and new plays, his productions, beginning with Marat/Sade, brought controversy into the heart of Richmond's museum district but drew increased attendance, more than doubling audiences between 1969 and the late 1970s. Dubbing the professional company VMT Rep, he drew national attention when in 1973 his second staging of Macbeth, a rather more realistic Stonehenge/historical version starring E.
G. Marshall, led Clive Barnes of The New York Times to hail it as the "Fowler'Macbeth.'" Barnes described the production as "splendidly vigorous, forcefully immediate... the goriest Shakespearean production I have seen since Peter Brook's'Titus Andronicus'." Of Fowler, he wrote, "Virginia is lucky to have him." Alfred Drake joined the company in 1973 to direct the premiere of Richard Stockton's The Royal Rape of Ruari Macasmunde with Fowler in the lead role. International attention arrived in 1975 when Soviet Cultural Consul Viktor Sakovich provided coverage on Moscow Television for Fowler's English-language premiere of Maxim Gorky's Our Father. Fowler subsequently produced the New York premiere of the Gorky drama at the Manhattan Theater Club. In expanding VMT's reach beyond the capital city, he created and hosted a radio program, Keith Fowler Presents... over WRFK-FM, weekly readings from classic literature, each program focusing on selections from a major poet, dramatist, or novelist, from Chaucer to Shakespeare to Hawthorne.
In 1977, refusing the museum administration's pressure to censor his premiere of Romulus Linney's play Childe Byron, Fowler resigned to serve his Yale alma mater as chief of directing for a year. His departure provoked a public outcry over an alleged pattern of censorship by the museum, with some arts patrons supporting the administration and many standing by Fowler, for instance, that "no one else can jump in and claim credit for what Dr. Fowler has done... he stood up for what he knew was right." He returned to Richmond in 1978 with his associate director M. Elizabeth Osborn to lease the Empire Theater, fronting black residential Jackson Ward onto the majority business district, where together they founded the American Revels Company. Revels attracted progressive support for appealing to both white communities in Richmond. Without intending to enter into Richmond's post-segregation politics, Fowler found Revels becoming a rallying point in the late 1970s for re-balancing the two symbiotic communities through art.
Funding through the box office and City Council support was affected directly by public favor in a city with a growing black majority. Following a summer of advance promotion, American Revels' first season started with strong audiences, including full houses for A Christmas Carol and The Club in the thousand-seat theater; such peaks in attendance could not be sustained, when play titles, including Othello and I Have a Dream, leaned toward those least to afford tickets—the African-American community. Fowler countered by offering free performances to neighboring residents; the plan drew hundreds of African-American theater-goers and began to build a new sector of audience. In the summer of 1979, Richmond's City Council awarded the company a challenge grant, a patron stepped forward to raise matching funds by sponsoring a performance by entertainer Ray Charles to benefit Revels; the success of the fund drive propelled the company into a second season in which Revels dealt with racial issues head-on by presenting a satire entitled The Black and White Minstrel Show, a parody of the racially split City Council.
The season continued with works aimed at all of Richmond.
A salon is a gathering of people under the roof of an inspiring host, held to amuse one another and to refine the taste and increase the knowledge of the participants through conversation. These gatherings consciously followed Horace's definition of the aims of poetry, "either to please or to educate". Salons in the tradition of the French literary and philosophical movements of the 17th and 18th centuries were carried on until as as the 1940s in urban settings; the salon was an Italian invention of the 16th century, which flourished in France throughout the 17th and 18th centuries. The salon continued to flourish in Italy throughout the 19th century. In 16th-century Italy, some brilliant circles formed in the smaller courts which resembled salons galvanized by the presence of a beautiful and educated patroness such as Isabella d'Este or Elisabetta Gonzaga. One important place for the exchange of ideas was the salon; the word salon first appeared in France in 1664. Literary gatherings before this were referred to by using the name of the room in which they occurred, like cabinet, réduit and alcôve.
Before the end of the 17th century, these gatherings were held in the bedroom: a lady, reclining on her bed, would receive close friends who would sit on chairs or stools drawn around. This practice may be contrasted with the greater formalities of Louis XIV's petit lever, where all stood. Ruelle meaning "narrow street" or "lane", designates the space between a bed and the wall in a bedroom; the first renowned salon in France was the Hôtel de Rambouillet not far from the Palais du Louvre in Paris, which its hostess, Roman-born Catherine de Vivonne, marquise de Rambouillet, ran from 1607 until her death. She established the rules of etiquette of the salon which resembled the earlier codes of Italian chivalry; the history of the salon is far from straightforward. The salon has been studied in depth by a mixture of feminist, cultural and intellectual historians; each of these methodologies focuses on different aspects of the salon, thus have varying analyses of its importance in terms of French history and the Enlightenment as a whole Major historiographical debates focus on the relationship between the salons and the public sphere, as well as the role of women within the salons.
Breaking down the salons into historical periods is complicated due to the various historiographical debates that surround them. Most studies stretch from the early 16th century up until around the end of the 18th century. Goodman is typical in ending her study at the French Revolution where, she writes:'the literary public sphere was transformed into the political public'. Steven Kale is alone in his recent attempts to extend the period of the salon up until Revolution of 1848:A whole world of social arrangements and attitude supported the existence of French salons: an idle aristocracy, an ambitious middle class, an active intellectual life, the social density of a major urban center, sociable traditions, a certain aristocratic feminism; this world did not disappear in 1789. In the 1920s, Gertrude Stein's Saturday evening salons gained notoriety for including Pablo Picasso and other twentieth-century luminaries like Alice B. Toklas; the content and form of the salon to some extent defines the character and historical importance of the salon.
Contemporary literature about the salons is dominated by idealistic notions of politesse, civilité and honnêteté, but whether the salons lived up to these standards is matter of debate. Older texts on the salons tend to paint an idealistic picture of the salons, where reasoned debate takes precedence and salons are egalitarian spheres of polite conversation. Today, this view is considered an adequate analysis of the salon. Dena Goodman claims that rather than being leisure based or'schools of civilité' salons were instead at'the heart of the philosophic community' and thus integral to the process of Enlightenment. In short, Goodman argues, the 17th and 18th century saw the emergence of the academic, Enlightenment salons, which came out of the aristocratic'schools of civilité'. Politeness, argues Goodman, took second-place to academic discussion; the period in which salons were dominant has been labeled the'age of conversation'. The topics of conversation within the salons - that is, what was and was not'polite' to talk about - are thus vital when trying to determine the form of the salons.
The salonnières were expected, ideally, to moderate the conversation. There is, however, no universal agreement among historians as to what was and was not appropriate conversation. Marcel Proust'insisted that politics was scrupulously avoided'. Others suggested that little other than government was discussed; the disagreements that surround the content of discussion explain why the salon's relationship with the public sphere is so contested. Individuals and collections of individuals that have been of cultural significance overwhelmingly cite some form of engaged, explorative conversation held with an esteemed group of acquaintances as the source of inspiration for their contributions to culture, art and politics, leading some scholars to posit the salon's influence on the public sphere as being more widespread than pre
Robert Cohen (acting theorist)
Robert Cohen is an American university professor, theatre director and drama critic. Now a Claire Trevor Professor emeritus after 50 years teaching at the University of California, Irvine since 1965, he continues to write, has published many books on theatre, along with articles, dramatic anthologies and many plays, has conducted advanced teaching residencies in numerous countries and much of the United States, he has been called a Master Teacher by the Voice and Speech Trainers Association, has been praised as a "walking theatre directory and encyclopedia" by his fellow teachers, has been honored during his career with the Polish Medal of Honor, the Honoris Causa Professor Degree at Babes-Bolyai University in Romania, UCI's Distinguished Professor of Research, the Career Achievement Award from the Association for Theatre in Higher Education. Cohen was born in 1938 in Washington, D. C, his theatrical education began as an undergraduate student at Dartmouth College and UC Berkeley and earned his DFA in 1965 at the Yale School of Drama.
Soon after, Cohen joined the charter faculty of the brand new campus of the University of California, where he served as the its founding departmental chair of drama for twenty-five years, since 2015, has become an emeritus Bren Fellow and Claire Trevor Professor of Drama for the University. He is an accomplished director, drama critic, theorist, his approach to stage acting, which employs a system he refers to as "GOTE," has been acknowledged as one of the most used approaches to stage acting in use today. Cohen resides in California with his wife Lorna, they have two children and Whitney. Cohen has directed twelve classical productions at the Utah and Colorado Shakespeare Festivals and over ninety stage productions at his Irvine campus and other theatres. In 2006, Cohen directed the premiere of his play Machiavelli: The Art of Terror at the Hayworth Theatre in Los Angeles. Five of Cohen's productions have been seen abroad, in Australia, Romania and the Czech Republic; as a writer, Cohen published a wide variety of theatre texts, including Acting One, Acting Two, Acting Power, Acting Professionally: Raw Facts about Careers in Acting, his latest text, Acting Power: the 21st Century Edition, most of which are used in colleges and conservatories around the world.
His texts explain and demonstrate a system of acting and theatre analysis called GOTE, as well as presenting a series of theatre exercises ranging from beginner to advanced. Cohen's Theatre, now in its eleventh edition, has become one of the leading texts on the history of world theatre. Reviewing this book, the "Revue d'histoire du theatre" noted that: " was written in a clear fashion and an elegant and compelling style,… makes for a document that should be found in every library."Cohen's other books include Jean Giraudoux: Three Faces of Destiny, a study of the French playwright. Most of his reviews are in the London-published Plays International, while his essays have appeared in Theatre Journal, Theatre Topics, Theatre Forum, Theatre Survey, Modern Drama, Theater der Zeit, Essays in Theatre, On Stage Studies, The Drama Review, Contemporary Literature, Contemporary Literary Criticism and East European Performance and Innovation, Alternatives Théâtrales, Dramatic Theory and Criticism. Cohen's play, Machiavelli: the art of terror, published by Dramatic Publishing Company and in Romania and the U.
K. has been professionally produced in Los Angeles, Long Beach, the Madach Theatre in Budapest and the National Romanian Theatre in Cluj, in staged readings in New York and Los Angeles. His The Moebius Strip premiered at the National Romanian Theatre in Cluj in 2013-16, his Bzaap! Premiered with the Transversal Theatre Company in Amsterdam in 2014 and the National Romanian Theatre in Cluj in 2016, his dramatic translations, his opera translations have been both produced and published widely. Internationally, Cohen has lectured and/or conducted multi-day “Acting Power” residencies at the Theatre Academy of Bucharest, the Korean National University for the Arts, the Shanghai Theatre Academy, the University of Ghana, the National Theatre of Ghana, the Hungarian National Theatre and Film Academy, the Hong Kong Academy for the Performing Arts, the Hong Kong Repertory Theatre, the Queensland Institute
The Stratford Festival is an internationally renowned repertory theatre festival which operates from April to October in the city of Stratford, Canada. Founded by local journalist-turned-producer Tom Patterson, the festival was known as the Stratford Shakespearean Festival, the Shakespeare Festival and Stratford Shakespeare Festival before changing to the current name. Theatre-goers and playwrights flock to Stratford to take part — many of the greatest Canadian and American actors play roles at the Stratford festival, it was one of the first and is still one of the most prominent arts festivals in Canada and is recognized worldwide for its productions of Shakespearean plays. The Festival's primary mandate is to present productions of William Shakespeare's plays, but it produces a wide variety of theatre from Greek tragedy to Broadway style musicals and contemporary works. For some years, Shakespeare's work represented about a third of the offerings in the largest venue, the Festival Theatre.
By 2017 however, only three of the 14 productions were Shakespeare's works. The success of the festival changed the image of Stratford into one of a city where the arts and tourism play important roles in its economy; the festival attracts many tourists from outside Canada those British and American, is seen as a important part of Stratford's tourism sector. The Festival was founded as the Stratford Shakespearean Festival of Canada, due to Tom Patterson, a Stratford-native journalist who wanted to revitalize his town's economy by creating a theatre festival dedicated to the works of William Shakespeare, as the town shares the name of Shakespeare's birthplace, Stratford-upon-Avon, England. Stratford was a railway junction and major locomotive shop, was facing a disastrous loss of employment with the imminent elimination of steam power. Patterson achieved his goal after gaining encouragement from Mayor David Simpson and the local council, the Stratford Shakespearean Festival became a legal entity on October 31, 1952.
Established in Canadian theatre, Dora Mavor Moore helped put Patterson in touch with British actor and director Tyrone Guthrie, first with a transatlantic telephone call. On July 13, 1953, actor Alec Guinness spoke the first lines of the first play produced by the festival, a production of Richard III: "Now is the winter of our discontent / Made glorious summer by this son of York." Alec Guinness and Irene Worth were among the cast of Stratford's inaugural performance of Richard III, working for expenses only. This first performances took place in a concrete amphitheatre covered by giant canvas tent on the banks of the River Avon; the first of many years of Stratford Shakespeare Festival production history started with a six-week season opening on 13 July 1953 with Richard III and All's Well That Ends Well both starring Alec Guinness. The 1954 season ran for nine weeks and included Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex and two Shakespeare plays, Measure for Measure and The Taming of the Shrew. Young actors during the first four seasons included several who went on to great success in subsequent years, Douglas Campbell, Timothy Findley, Don Harron, William Hutt and Douglas Rain.
Fund raising to build a permanent theatre was slow but was helped by donations from Governor General Vincent Massey and the Perth Mutual Insurance Company. The new Festival Theatre was dedicated on 30 June 1957, with seating for over 1,800 people; the design was deliberately intended to resemble a huge tent. That season's productions included Hamlet, Twelfth Night, the satirical My Fur Lady, The Turn of the Screw and Ibsen's Peer Gynt; the Festival Theatre's thrust stage was designed by British designer Tanya Moiseiwitsch to resemble both a classic Greek amphitheatre and Shakespeare's Globe Theatre, has become a model for other stages in North America and Great Britain. Tony Award-nominee Scott Wentworth has performed within the festival's stage productions on numerous occasions since 1985, beginning with The Glass Menagerie, the festival has helped Sara Topham found herself with a career in acting, performing from 2000 to 2011, a young, unknown Christopher Walken appeared in Stratford's 1968 stage productions of Romeo and Juliet and A Midsummer Night's Dream, portraying Romeo and Lysander respectively.
Long-serving Artistic Director Richard Monette retired in 2007 after holding the position for fourteen seasons. He was replaced with an artistic team consisting of General Director Antoni Cimolino and Artistic Directors Marti Maraden, Des McAnuff, Don Shipley. On March 12, 2008 it was announced that Shipley and Maraden would be stepping down, leaving Des McAnuff as sole Artistic Director. In 2013 Des McAnuff was replaced by Antoni Cimolino as Artistic DirectorAs of 2012, the Festival was in a deficit of $3.4 million, but had a surplus of $3.1 million by 2015, under the control of Cimolino and executive director Anita Gaffney. They had not yet reached the target of a half million ticket sales for the season but had achieved a significant increase in the number of new patrons to the theatres; the 2018 season offers a wide range of productions. Those at the Festival Theatre include The Tempest, Julius Caesar, To Kill a Mockingbird and The Music Man. Two other Shakespeare plays and The Comedy of Errors are joined by Oscar Wilde's An Ideal Husband and Eugene O'Neill's Long Day's Journey Into Night.
On 17 February 2015, AP News reported that the Stratford Shakespeare Festival plans to film all of Shakespeare's plays. Well known actors who have participated in the festival include Alan Bates, Brian Bedford, Martha Burns, Jackie Burroughs, Zoe Caldwell, Douglas Campbell, Len Cariou, Brent Carver, P
Christina Pickles is a British-American actress. She is known for her role as Nurse Helen Rosenthal in the NBC medical drama St. Elsewhere, for which she received five nominations for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series, she is known for her recurring role as Judy Geller on the NBC sitcom Friends, for which she was nominated for the 1995 Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Comedy Series. Pickles appeared in Broadway plays in the 1960s and 1970s, including The Misanthrope and Sherlock Holmes, starred on the daytime soap operas Guiding Light and Another World, her film appearances include Masters of the Universe, Legends of the Fall, Romeo + Juliet, The Wedding Singer. She won the 2018 Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Actress in a Short Form Comedy or Drama Series for the Vimeo series Break a Hip. Christina Pickles was born in Halifax, West Yorkshire, the daughter of Arthur Pickles, Liberal politician and Mayor of Halifax, Gladys Pickles.
She is the sister of judge James Pickles. Her niece Carolyn Pickles is an actress. Christina Pickles began attending the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London at age 15 and studied alongside Albert Finney, Peter O’Toole, Brian Bedford. After graduating, she moved to New York City in the late 1950s, residing with friend and classmate Donald Moffat and his wife. In 1961, Pickles began her acting career in Look Back in Anger at the Arena Stage in Washington, DC, she performed in Measure for Measure in Joe Papp’s Shakespeare in the Park played the lead role in George Devine's The Way of the World, despite the fact she auditioned for the maid role. After her Broadway debut in A Severed Head in 1964, other Broadway productions followed, including Inadmissible Evidence, You Can't Take It with You and Peace, The Misanthrope and Sherlock Holmes. At the same time, Pickles debuted on television, she played Countess Elena dePoulignac on the NBC soap opera Another World. She appeared in such feature films as Rush It.
After moving from New York City to Los Angeles, Pickles was cast as Nurse Helen Rosenthal in the NBC medical drama St. Elsewhere; the series aired from 1982 to 1988. She remained on St. Elsewhere for its entire six-year run and was nominated for five Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series for her work on the series, she was a regular on the short-lived CBS sitcom The People Next Door, which aired in 1989. She went to appear on Family Ties, Who's the Boss?, In the Heat of the Night, The Nanny, She Wrote, Touched by an Angel. From 1994 to 2003, Pickles played the recurring role of Judy Geller, the mother of Ross and Monica Geller, in the NBC sitcom Friends, making appearances throughout the 10-year run of the series, she received a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Comedy Series nomination for this role in 1995. Pickles played the mother of Harmon Rabb in the CBS drama series JAG from 1998 to 2000. From 1999 to 2000, she starred in the short-lived Fox comedy-drama series Get Real.
Pickles has appeared in many films, including Masters of the Universe, Revenge of the Nerds IV: Nerds in Love, Legends of the Fall directed by Edward Zwick, Grace of My Heart, Baz Luhrmann's Romeo + Juliet, The Wedding Singer, Sol Goode, George of the Jungle 2, Atlas Shrugged: Part I. She has had roles in a number of made-for-television movies. In the 2000s, Pickles appeared in a few episodes of How I Met Your Mother as Lily Aldrin's grandmother, guest-starred on The Division and Childrens Hospital. In 2016, she was cast in the ABC drama pilot The Death Of Eva Sofia Valdez, starring Gina Torres in a title role. In 2018, she received her seventh Emmy nomination, her first in 23 years, for the comedic web series Break a Hip. Pickles was married to producer/director Victor Lobl for 23 years, divorcing in 1985, she became a United States citizen in 1989. She was romantically linked to actor Herb Edelman, who played her significant other on St. Elsewhere, from the mid-1980s until his death in 1996.
In 2005, she married Australian-American journalist Ian Masters. Great News as Mildred Marlock 9JKL as Lenore Official website Christina Pickles on IMDb Christina Pickles at the Internet Broadway Database