click links in text for more info

The Munsters

The Munsters is an American sitcom depicting the home life of a family of benign monsters starring Fred Gwynne as Frankenstein's monster-type head-of-the-household Herman Munster. The series was a satire of both traditional monster movies and the wholesome family fare of the era, was produced by the creators of Leave It to Beaver, it ran concurrently with the macabre themed The Addams Family and achieved higher figures in the Nielsen ratings. In 1965, The Munsters was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Television Series, but lost to The Rogues. In the 21st century it received several TV Land Award nominations, including one for Most Uninsurable Driver; the series aired on Thursday at 7:30 pm on CBS from September 24, 1964 to May 12, 1966. It was cancelled after ratings dropped to a series low, due to the premiere of ABC's Batman, in color. Though ratings were low during its initial two-year run, The Munsters found a large audience in syndication; this popularity warranted a spin-off series, as well as several films, including one with a theatrical release.

On October 26, 2012, NBC aired a modern reimagining of The Munsters called Mockingbird Lane as a pilot. The series failed to be picked up by NBC due to disagreements on the dark nature and inconsistent tone; the Munsters live at 1313 Mockingbird Lane in the city of Mockingbird Heights, a fictional suburb in California. The running gag of the series is that the family, while decidedly odd, consider themselves typical working-class people of the era. Herman, like many husbands of the 1960s, is the sole wage-earner in the family, though Lily and Grandpa make attempts to earn money from time to time. While Herman is the head of the household, Lily makes many decisions, too. According to the episode in which Lily and Herman Munster were trying to surprise one another for their anniversary, they were married in 1865. Despite the novel approach of the family being supernatural creatures, the show followed the typical family sitcom formula of the era: the well-meaning father, the nurturing mother, the eccentric live-in relative, the naïve teenager, the precocious child.

The costumes and appearances of the family members other than Marilyn were based on the classic monsters of Universal Studios films from the 1930s and 1940s. Universal produced The Munsters as well and was thus able to use these copyrighted designs, including their iconic version of Frankenstein's monster for Herman. Other studios were free to make films with the Frankenstein creature, for example, but could not use the costume and style of make-up created by Jack Pierce for the 1931 Universal Studios film Frankenstein; the make-up for the show was created and applied to the actors by Bud Westmore, who pioneered many make-up effects and designs for many of the Universal monster movies. The idea of a family of comical monsters was first suggested to Universal Studios by animator Bob Clampett, who developed the idea from 1943 to 1945 as a series of cartoons; the project did not take off until the early 1960s, when a proposal for a similar idea was submitted to Universal Studios by Rocky & Bullwinkle writers Allan Burns and Chris Hayward.

The proposal was handed to writers Norm Liebman and Ed Haas, who wrote a pilot script, Love Thy Monster. For some time, there were executives who believed the series should be made as a cartoon and others who wanted to see it made using live-action. A presentation was filmed by MCA Television for CBS, using live-action; the show was produced by Joe Connelly and Bob Mosher, who were known for creating the Leave It to Beaver television series. Prior to that, they wrote over 1,500 episodes of Amos'n' Andy, a presence on network radio for nearly its entire history. Conceived as a color show, The Munsters was filmed in black-and-white to save money and so as to resemble the old B&W monster films Universal and other studios used to make. Over the course of season one, makeup for Herman and Grandpa was changed; some of the changes included Lily's hair becoming all black instead of having a gray/white streak on the right side of her head, a change of jewelry to a bat instead of a star, angled eyebrows.

Grandpa was given more exaggerated makeup and heavier eyebrows, Herman's face was widened to give him a dopier and less human appearance. He added a stutter to bolster his character whenever he was angry or wanted to make a point, he left his mouth open, adding to the effect of a more goofy, less frightening, figure. While its humor was broad, the series was visually sophisticated; the Munsters' home was a crumbling Second Empire Victorian mansion, riddled with smoke, filthy with dust and cobwebs. A running joke was that when Lily "dusted" the house, her Electrolux emitted clouds of dust, which she applied to surfaces most people would clean; as a running gag, parts of the house would be damaged, but the damage would not exist later. Although many episodes featured scenes outside the house, much of the action took place within the walls of the home; the Munster family's multi-level Victorian home had the fictional address of 1313 Mockingbird Lane in Mockingbird Heights. (The town's location is not specified in the series, but

Xie An

Xie An, courtesy name Anshi, formally Duke Wenjing of Luling, was a Jin Dynasty statesman who, despite his lack of military ability, led Jin through a major crisis—attacks by Former Qin. His line became one of the two most honored during the subsequent Southern Dynasties—the other being Wang Dao's line—and in the minds of the people no less honored than imperial clans. Xie An's father Xie Pou was a minister in the Jin government; when Xie An was a child, he had impressed the Jin officials Huan Yi, Wang Meng, Wang Dao with his talent. He served as a low-level assistant to the prime minister, but he quit from governmental service and became a hermit, he rejected governmental commissions. However, by popular reputation, the people had great expectations of him, he taught his children and the children of his siblings literature and debate. His favourite niece was Xie Daoyun, who would become famous as a debater, she would defend him against criticism from Huan Xuan. It was not, until his brother Xie Wan, a governor and a general, was defeated in battle in 359 and reduced to commoner status, that Xie An considered reentering governmental service.

He went to see the general Huan Wen, impressed with him and Huan took him in as an assistant. However, he did not share in Huan's plan to take over imperial title; when Emperor Jianwen died in 372, Huan recommended Xie to be one of the key officials in the imperial government, but instead of controlling the imperial government on Huan's behalf, Xie soon joined forces with Wang Tanzhi to deny Huan the official title of regent for Emperor Jianwen's 10-year-old son Emperor Xiaowu, instead inviting Emperor Xiaowu's cousin, Emperor Kang's wife Empress Dowager Chu to serve as regent. Huan therefore resented Wang. In 373, when Huan visited the capital and Xie were sent to welcome him, there were rumors that Huan was going to execute Xie and Wang and usurp the throne. Wang was fearful, while Xie calmly stated, "Our journey will determine whether the empire survives or not." As Huan arrived, he put on a great display of his army, Wang was so anxious that his clothes were wet from his sweat, the writing tablet he held in his hand was upside down.

Xie, was calm in seating himself, persuaded Huan to put away his display of army. After Huan died that year, Xie came up with a plan to keep Huan's clan satisfied yet weakening them—he divided Huan's military command into three and gave them to Huan's brothers Huan Chong and Huan Huo and nephew Huan Shixiu; the fears of a Huan usurpation dissipated because Huan Chong was committed to the survival of the imperial government. In the start of Emperor Xiaowu's reign, Xie shared power with Wang Biaozhi. However, Wang Tanzhi soon became a military commander and governor, died in 375. Xie An became the sole prime minister; as prime minister, Xie tried to show leniency to people, and, manifested by a number of general pardons that the Jin imperial government declared. He changed the tax system from based on land ownership to a head tax in 376. Meanwhile, Jin's rival Former Qin was expanding itself in the north, destroying Former Yan in 370, seizing Jin's Liang and Yi Provinces in 373, destroying Dai and the nominal Jin vassal Former Liang in 376.

In 378, Former Qin launched attacks on the key Jin cities of Xiangyang and Pengcheng. While Xie An's nephew, the general Xie Xuan, was able to repel the Former Qin attack on Pengcheng and Weixing fell in 379, Jin's position appeared more desperate. However, it was said. In 383, Huan Chong launched a counterattack to try to recapture Xiangyang, but after some inconclusive battles, Huan withdrew. In fall 383, Former Qin's emperor Fu Jiān launched a major attack, hoping to destroy Jin and unite China. Xie sent his brother Xie Shi to command the forces resisting Former Qin; as Xie Xuan, the advance general under Xie Shi's command, was ready to depart for the frontlines, he sought further instruction from Xie An, who only stated, "I will have additional instructions later." Xie Xuan did not dare to ask anything further. They went to Xie An's vacation home, where they played Go—a game that Xie Xuan was far better than Xie An at, but Xie Xuan, anxious about the coming battle, lost to the far calmer Xie An.

Meanwhile, believing that the capital Jiankang needed additional defenses, sent several thousand elite soldiers to help the capital defense. The Former Qin forces captured the important city of Shouyang. However, after the armies stalemated at the Fei River, Former Qin forces, in an effort to try to draw Jin forces across the river, retreated—and oddly enough panicked and collapsed; when news of the victory arrived at Xie An's headquarters, he was playing Go with a guest, but did not display particular emotion, but only stated, "The kids won a battle." However, his excitement became evident when, after the game, he was going back to his bedroom, he forgot about the threshold to his bedroom and broke his wooden sandal without realizing it. After the battle, Xie's power began to wane. Part o

Josef Herzig

Josef Herzig was an Austrian chemist. Herzig was born in Sanok, which at that time was part of Austria-Hungary. Herzig went to school in Breslau until 1874, started studying chemistry at the University of Vienna but joined August Wilhelm von Hofmann at the University of Berlin in the second semester, he worked with Robert Bunsen at the University of Heidelberg and received his PhD for work with Ludwig Barth at the University of Vienna. He became lecturer and, in 1897, professor at the University of Vienna, he died in Vienna in 1924. Herzig was active in the chemistry of natural products, he succeeded in determining the structure of flavonoids quercetin and rhamnetin as well as several alkaloids. J. Pollak. "Obituary: Josef Herzig". Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft. 58: 55–75. Doi:10.1002/cber.19250581230. "Vergessen - Wiederfinden (Auf der Suche nach Spuren des kulturellen Lebens in Wien um 1900. Restaurierung des von Kolo Moser entworfenen rabdenkmals des Liebenpreisträgers Josef Herzig".

Archived from the original on 2011-05-31

Rosa Parks Museum

The Rosa Parks Museum is located on the Troy University at Montgomery satellite campus, in Montgomery, Alabama. It has information and some artifacts from the 1955 Montgomery bus boycott; this museum is named after civil rights activist Rosa Parks, known for refusing to surrender her seat to a white person on a city bus. Inside the museum, there are interactive activities and a reenactment of what happened on the bus as if you were outside the bus watching. There are artifacts in the museum from the Montgomery Bus Boycott; this museum is significant to Montgomery because it exhibits events that had occurred during the civil rights era in Alabama. One of the reasons to build the museum was due to the bus boycott, it was built in Rosa Parks's honor to tell people of her story. While the actual bus the incident occurred on has been scrapped, the Museum has on exhibit another, identical to it. Troy University in Montgomery, Alabama wanted to dedicate their new library and museum to Rosa Parks, "The Mother of the Civil Rights Movement".

The library carries her name and it commemorates her refusal to give up her seat on the Montgomery City Bus to a white man. The museum and library were opened on the anniversary of the day she refused to give up her seat: December 1. Official website

Alfred Starbird

Alfred Dodd Starbird was an American modern pentathlete, lieutenant general, authority on nuclear weaponry. A graduate of the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, class of 1933, he was commissioned in the United States Army Corps of Engineers, he was a member of the United States modern pentathlon team at the 1936 Summer Olympics, finishing seventh overall in a field of 42. During World War II, Starbird served in the Operations Division of the War Department General Staff, he was an observer at landings at Normandy. In the latter part of the war in Europe, he commanded the 1135th Engineer Combat Group, which supported the assault crossing of the Rhine, built bridges over the Danube. From 1955 to 1961, Starbird was Director of Military Applications of the Atomic Energy Commission, he commanded Joint Task Force 8 in the conduct the Operation Dominic series of nuclear tests in 1962, was director of the Defense Communications Agency from 1962 to 1967, director of the Sentinel program from 1967 to 1971.

After retiring from the Army in 1971, Starbird was director of the newly-created Office of Test and Evaluation in the Department of Defense from 1971 to 1975, assistant administrator for National Security in the Energy Research and Development Administration from 1975 to 1977. In 1977, ERDA became part of the new Department of Energy, he became its acting secretary for Defense Programs, he retired in 1980. Alfred Dodd Starbird was born in Fort Sill, Oklahoma, on April 28, 1912, the son of Brigadier General Alfred Andrews Starbird and his wife, Ethel Dodd Starbird, the daughter of Brigadier General George A. Dodd, he had two sisters and Ethel. His family called him by Dodd. On July 1, 1929, Starbird entered the United States Military Academy at New York. Although one of the younger members of his class, he was 6 feet 5 inches tall, distinguished himself in sports, he was captain of the cross country running team and played basketball. He graduated fifth in his class of 347 on June 13, 1933; as was normal for high-ranking graduates, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the United States Army Corps of Engineers.

He was posted to the 5th Engineer Regiment at Camp Humphreys, until February 1, 1935, to the 13th Engineer Regiment at Fort Belvoir until June 15, 1935. Starbird, promoted to first lieutenant on June 12, 1936, was detached to join the United States modern pentathlon team at the 1936 Summer Olympics, he finished equal seventh in the cross country running, equal eighth in the fencing and show jumping, 20th in the swimming and 23rd in the shooting, finished seventh overall in a field of 42. Although the United States team was placed first, he did not receive a gold medal, as medals were not awarded to modern pentathlon teams until 1952. Returning to the United States on August 23, 1933, Starbird entered Princeton University, from which he received a Master of Science degree in Civil Engineering on July 1, 1937. After attending the officers' course at the Engineer School at Fort Belvoir, he returned to West Point as an instructor in Civil and Military Engineering on June 5, 1938, he married Evelyn Wallington at Fort Meyer, where her father was stationed, in June 1939.

They had three children: Edward and Catharine. During World War II, Starbird was promoted to captain in the Army of the United States on September 9, 1940, major on February 1, 1942. On May 22, 1942, he was posted to the Operations Division of the War Department General Staff, the U. S. Army's global command post. For Operation Torch, the Allied invasion of French North Africa, he was attached to the staff of the 1st Infantry Division as the War Department observer from October 20 to November 23, 1942 for its landing at Oran, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel in the Army of the United States on November 28, 1942, captain in the Corps of Engineers on June 13, 1943. He represented the Operations Division at the Quebec Conference in August 1943 as an expert on the European Theater of Operations. During Operation Overlord, the invasion of Normandy, he was again a War Department observer, this time with V Corps headquarters from May 20 to June 13, 1944. For this service he was awarded the bronze star.

Returning to the Operations Division, he was promoted to colonel in the Army of the United States on December 16, 1944. For his services with the Operations Division, he was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal. On January 1, 1945, Starbird assumed command of the 1135th Engineer Combat Group; the 1135th Engineer Combat Group supported the XII Corps assault crossing of the Rhine River on March 22 and 23, 1945. For this operation 18 engineer units were attached to 1135th Engineer Combat Group, Starbird had the services of 600 storm boats and 300 assault boats; the 1135th Engineer Combat Group built a pontoon bridge over the Danube River on May 4 and a treadway bridge on May 6. Starbird was awarded the Legion of second bronze star, he returned to the Operation Division on June 1, 1945. On July 17, 1946, Starbird was posted to Hawaii as the deputy chief of staff of United States Army Pacific, he was seconded to Joint Task Force 7, a special force formed for the Operation Sandstone nuclear tests at Eniwetok Atoll in the Pacific in 1948.

His appointment as a colonel in the Army of the United States was terminated on June 30, 1947, he reverted to his permanent rank of captain. He was promoted to major in the Corps of Engineers on July 15, 1948. On April 1, 1949, he returned to Washington, D. C. where he worked for a year with the Weapons Systems Evaluation Group. Starbird joined the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers E


Klootschieten is a sport in the Netherlands and East Frisia, Northern Germany, most popular in the eastern regions of Twente and Achterhoek. The game is of Frisian origin. To play, participants throw a ball as far as they can, using a difficult throwing style that requires speed and concentration; the sport has been banned due to negative associations, but achieved a measure of respectability as its first league was established by Hinrich Dunkhase in 1902. The sport is divided into field and standing play. Field and street play has two teams playing against each other, while standing play is individual. Stefan Albarus is the current record holder; the term Kloot comes from Low German and derives from Kluten, of similar etymology to English words such as "clod", "clout", "clot", "cleat", "clay" and "cloth" - all deriving from Proto-Germanic klautaz, meaning a ball or lump. Klootschieten arose from an ancient Frisian weapon, which the Frisians threw at ships and opponents; the Frisian fighters are said to have been feared for their missiles.

In further development of this sport, heavy flint balls and two-pound iron balls were used. The fist-sized balls were made of turned applewood, pierced crosswise with lead-filled holes; the Dutch reformer Jacobus van Oudenhoven took in 1659 the Kloot werpen on a Sunday after the service in his sins register. In the past, Kloot shooting had negative associations. Competitions involved gambling for money or other valuables, heavy alcohol consumption, disorderly conduct, it was argued to get bloody at times. Since the sport was practiced in winter, the light sportswear was considered a risk factor for deaths from pneumonia. Accordingly, the sport was banned by the authorities, but klootschieten always prevailed. Hinrich Dunkhase, in Burhave, merged the Oldenburg and East Frisian klootschieten groups to form the Friesischer Klootschießer-Verband on May 25, 1902; this was the first competitive league developed for the sport. Dunkhase was its chairman until his death. In the National Socialist period, the FKV resisted integration into the Reichsbund for physical exercises by not reporting to the sports organizations, instead wanting klootschieten to be known as a traditional German and Friesan game.

The FKV was able to retain a certain degree of independence. In particular, Low German or Frisian could be spoken at the competition, prohibited in a sport. After the Second World War, the FKV oriented again and became a member of the National Sports Association Lower Saxony a sport. Today, NKV is today the umbrella organization of more than 40,000 players of Klootschieter and the related game of "Boßeln"; the sport is represented by sports confederations of the regions North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein. In the Netherlands there is the Dutch Klootschieters Bond and in Ireland the Irish Road Bowling Association. International umbrella organization is the International Bowlplaying Association. Competitions take place among Irish immigrants in the US and Canada as it is part of traditional Irish folk culture. European championships have been held since 1969 between the Netherlands and Germany in the three disciplines of field and standing competition. There are three styles: field and standing.

In the field version of klootschieten, it is the intention, alone or in a team, to reach a particular patch of grass and/or sand in as few throws as possible. The course contains curves and variations of height, so that skill as well as strength is an important factor; the field kloot is a round ball of wood or synthetic material, made heavier with lead. The diameter of the kloot is between 7 and 8 centimetres, but these can deviate according to the preference of the participants. There is a minimum diameter of 5 centimetres. In the street version of klootschieten, the rules are the same as in the field version, except that the course and the ball are different. An important consideration in the street version is to keep the ball away from obstacles such as ditches, streams, long grass etc. which would reduce the distance of ones "shoot". The experienced player will sometimes deliberately aim for such places on uphill stretches, to avoid the possibility of the ball rolling back downhill; the goal in the standing or setting style is to see.

Thus the measure of the throw ends at the point. In Germany a sport similar to field style klootschieten is played, named "Boßeln", while Klootschießen is the German name for the standing style, it is played along the coast and borders of North Germany, such as in Ostfriesland, Butjadingen, Nordfriesland and Grafschaft Bentheim. It is played in some parts of the United States by German and Dutch immigrants. In Ireland, a similar game is played under the name road bowling. In May 2004, the European Championship was held in Germany. At the adult level, the German FKB won all competitions; the individual winners: Catriona O'Farrell (women's