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The Needles

The Needles is a row of three stacks of chalk that rise about 30m out of the sea off the western extremity of the Isle of Wight, United Kingdom, close to Alum Bay, part of Totland, the westernmost civil parish of the Isle of Wight. The Needles Lighthouse stands at the western end of the formation. Built in 1859, it has been automated since 1994; the waters and adjoining seabed form part of the Needles Marine Conservation Zone and the Needles along with the shore and heath above are part of the Headon Warren and West High Down Site of Special Scientific Interest. The formation takes its name from a fourth needle-shaped pillar called Lot's Wife, which collapsed in a storm in 1764; the remaining rocks are not at all needle-like. The Needles were featured on the BBC Two TV programme Seven Natural Wonders as one of the wonders of Southern England; the Needles lie just to the southwest of Alum Bay, are a tourist draw. Scenic boat trips operate from Alum Bay; the rocks and lighthouse have become icons of the Isle of Wight photographed by visitors, are featured on many of the souvenirs sold throughout the island.

The main tourist attractions of the headland itself are the two gun batteries, the experimental rocket testing station, the four coastguard cottages owned by the National Trust. A branch of the National Coastwatch Institution is based at the Needles, sited near the New Battery and Rocket Testing Site on High Down; the Needles – Landmark Attraction situated at the top of the cliff at Alum Bay is a small amusement park. A chairlift operates between the beach; the Needles were a site of a long-standing artillery battery, from the 1860s to 1954, decommissioned. A nearby site on High Down was employed in the testing of rockets for the British ICBM programme; the headland at High Down was used for Black Knight and Black Arrow rocket engine tests from 1956–71. During the peak of activity in the early 1960s some 240 people worked at the complex, while the rockets were built in nearby East Cowes; these rockets were used to launch the Prospero X-3 satellite. The site is now owned by the National Trust, is open to the public.

Concrete installations remain, but the buildings that were less durable have either been demolished or were torn down by the elements. In 1982, Prince Charles opened the restored Needles Old Battery facility. Underground rocket testing rooms are being restored for exhibition; the first phase of restoration was completed in 2004. The batteries are accessible by car, foot and bus. Though there is a paved road up to The Old and The New batteries, access is on foot, from a car park; the battery site becomes dangerous in high winds and is closed to the public in winds above force 8. In the spring and summer, the Southern Vectis bus company sends open-top buses along a route called The Needles Breezer; this route approaches the Battery along the cliff edge. The Needles Breezer has stops in Alum Bay, Colwell Bay, Fort Victoria and Freshwater Bay. Breezer buses are the only vehicles allowed on the road from Alum Bay, apart from those owned by National Trust staff or, by prior appointment, vehicles transporting disabled visitors.

This is because the single track road's position close to the cliff edge is considered dangerous for multiple car use. The Isle of Wight Coast Path has its westernmost point at the Coastguard Cottages; the Needles' pointed shape is a result of their unusual geology. The strata have been so folded during the Alpine Orogeny that the chalk is near vertical; this chalk outcrop runs through the centre of the Island from Culver Cliff in the east to the Needles in the west, continues under the sea to the Isle of Purbeck, forming Ballard Cliff, Lulworth Cove and Durdle Door. At Old Harry Rocks these strata lines moving from horizontal to near vertical can be seen from the sea. Just off the end of the Needles formation is the Shingles, a shifting shoal of pebbles just beneath the waves; the Shingles is three miles in length. Many ships have been wrecked on the Shingles; some controversy has been raised about the actual shape of the Lot's Wife stone column, that collapsed in 1764. A drawing of The Needles by Dutch landscape artist Lambert Doomer, made in 1646, depicts a rock formation with much stouter shape than that shown in Isaac Taylor's 1759 "one inch" map of Hampshire.

The Doomer etching is contained in Atlas Blaeu-Van der Hem, in the Austrian National Library in Vienna. It is not clear from this drawings what transpired and whether Doomer was exercising artistic license. Doomer's painting shows three stacks when there should have been four, prior to the collapse of Lot's Wife. Palmerston Forts Palmerston Forts, Isle of Wight Needles Battery tourist website National Trust on The Needles Old Battery Page 1- The Needles, Steve Shafleet, pictures of the Needles, from "Alum Bay and the Needles", Isle of Wight Historic Postcards, 24 June 2007. Pictures of the Needles Rocket Test Site Video of Microlight flight over the needles

Linha de Leixões

Linha de Leixões known as Linha de Cintura do Porto, is a freight railway line which connects the stations of Contumil, on the Linha do Minho, Leixões, in Matosinhos, Portugal. It was opened in 1938, electrified in 1998. Passenger services ran until 1987 and from 2009 to 2011. List of railway lines in Portugal List of Portuguese locomotives and railcars History of rail transport in Portugal "2019 Network Statement". 7 December 2018. Retrieved 20 January 2019. Martins, João. O Caminho de Ferro Revisitado. Lisbon: Caminhos de Ferro Portugueses. Reis, Francisco. Os Caminhos de Ferro Portugueses 1856-2006. Lisbon: CP - Comboios de Portugal e Público-Comunicação Social S. A. ISBN 989-619-078-X

Indonesia–Malaysia border

The border between the Southeast Asian countries of Indonesia and Malaysia separates the two countries' territories on the island of Borneo and includes maritime boundaries along the length of the Straits of Malacca, in the South China Sea and in the Celebes Sea. The land boundary has a length of 2,019.5 km and stretches from Tanjung Datu at the northwestern corner of Borneo through the highlands of the Borneo hinterland to the Gulf of Sebatik and the Celebes Sea in the eastern side of the island. The boundary separates the Indonesian provinces of North Kalimantan, East Kalimantan and West Kalimantan from the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak; the maritime boundary in the Straits of Malacca follows the median line between the baselines of Indonesia and Malaysian, running south from the tripoint with Thailand to the start of the maritime border with Singapore. Only part of this boundary has been delimited through a continental shelf boundary treaty in 1969 and a territorial sea boundary treaty in 1970.

The continental shelf boundary between Indonesia and Malaysia in the South China Sea is drawn along the equidistant line between the baselines of the two countries under the 1969 continental shelf boundary. The border in the Celebes Sea is disputed between the two countries. Part of the dispute was settled by the judgement of the International Court of Justice in the Ligitan and Sipadan Case in 2002 and is now awaiting delimitation between the two countries. However, the two countries still have overlapping claims over the continental shelf, which Indonesia refers to as Ambalat. There are numerous sea transport crossings between Indonesia and Malaysia between Indonesia's Sumatra island and Peninsular Malaysia but between the Indonesian province of North Kalimantan and Malaysia's Sabah state. There are only three official land transport crossing points, all between West Kalimantan and Sarawak. Both the land and maritime borders are porous; the territorial division of Borneo gained scant Dutch attention until the arrival of James Brooke in Sarawak in 1841, which the Dutch-Indies Government in Batavia sensed as a threat to their hegemonic position over Bornean coastal trade.

This drove the Dutch Governor General, J. J. Rochussen, to issue a decree in February 1846 outlining Dutch terrestrial interests over Borneo; this document provided a fait-accompli division of Borneo based on the flow of watersheds. This decree was the blueprint that the Dutch subsequently negotiated with the British that resulted in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1891; the principal document determining the land border between Indonesia and Malaysia on the island of Borneo is the Border Convention or London Convention of 1891, signed in London signed between Great Britain and the Netherlands, the two relevant colonial powers of that time, on 20 June 1891. Subsequent agreements between the colonial powers in 1915 and 1928 fine-tuned the border further. Much of the fine-tuning of the border concerned the Jagoi - Stass region in western Borneo, after negotiations stalled in 1930, was not yet considered definitive; the treaty and various agreements were subsequently adopted by Indonesia and Malaysia as successor states.

The unresolved status of the maritime boundary in the Celebes Sea, the source of recent Malaysia-Indonesia boundary disputes over Ligitan and Ambalat, is due to the fact that most maritime boundaries were never demarcated by the colonial powers, which focused on land borders. The convention states that the eastern end of the border would start at the 4° 10' North latitude, proceeding westward across the island of Sebatik off the coast of Sabah near Tawau town, bisecting it; the border crosses the water channel between Sebatik and the mainland and travels up along the median line of the Tambu and Sikapal channels until the hills which form the watershed between the Simengaris and Serudung rivers. The border travels northwestward towards the 4° 20'N, generally westwards but accommodating the watershed, although the Pensiangan and Sibuda rivers are allowed to intersect the border; the border follows the line of ridges along the watershed between major rivers following northwards into the South China Sea, those flowing eastwards and westwards into the Celebes Sea, Java Sea and Karimata Straits until Tanjung Datu at 109° 38'.8 E 02° 05'.0 N in the western extremity of Sarawak.

The watershed is however not followed in a short stretch southwest of Kuching between Gunung Api at 110° 04'E and Gunung Raja at 109° 56'E where the border follows streams, paths and straight lines which are marked by boundary markers and pillars. On 26 November 1973, a memorandum of understanding was signed between Indonesia and Malaysia for the joint survey and demarcation of their common land border. Work began on 9 September 1975 and was completed in February 2000; as of 2006, a total of 19 memoranda of understanding with 28 maps had been signed between the two countries pertaining to the survey and demarcation of the border covering a distance of 1,822.3 km of the 2,019.5 km border. The maritime boundaries between Indonesia and Malaysia are located four bodies of water, namely the Straits of Malacca, Straits of Singapore, South China Sea and Celebes Sea; the territorial seas of both countries only meet in the Straits of Straits of Singapore. Territorial sea boundaries exist at the continuation of both ends of the land boundary between the two countries in Borneo.

Only continental shelf boundaries have been agreed to in the South China Sea while the continen

Hadrian (TV programme)

Hadrian is a Bafta Cymru-winning 2008 BBC Television documentary film in which Dan Snow follows the travels of the Roman Emperor Hadrian. The film was produced by BBC Wales to tie in with the exhibition Hadrian: Empire and Conflict at the British Museum. Sam Wollaston writing in The Guardian describes the film as, a breathless, whistle-stop tour of the Roman Empire, complimented Snow for having, contagious bounding enthusiasm, a real passion for his subject, as well as the authority and gravitas to make you sit up and listen, but he is however critical of the cameraman’s dizzying, habit of circling presenters, the presenter’s, prancing around in the desert, wearing a silk-scarf in the style of, The English Patient or Indiana Jones. Andrew Billen writing in The Times described the film as a rather good account, but described Snow as, a bit too public school for my liking, a bit keen on showing us his biceps, and, a bit too Bear Grylls with his flowing desert scarf, concluding that he was unsure, whether to be pleased or sad that Hadrian died a long and lonely death.

Broadcast 2008-07-19: 2.2 million viewers. 2009 Bafta Cymru for Best Presenter: Dan Snow. Hadrian. Now at the British Museum in London there’s a new exhibition which sheds light on some of the key moments of this remarkable man’s life. I'm going to get to the places where these remarkable objects came from. Snow begins his journey at Monte Testaccio a vivid indication of the importance of Hadrian’s family olive oil business in Baetica; the Emperor Trajan was appointed guardian to the orphaned Hadrian who achieved his reputation leading the Emperor’s wars of Imperial expansion. Snow visits Trajan's Markets where Hadrian asserted his authority to rule following the death of his guardian. Reversing the expansionist policies of his predecessor Hadrian defined the Empire’s northern borders with a wall along the Danube-Rhine frontier and Hadrian's Wall, visited by Snow, in Northern England. Snow visits the wall that defined the southern borders and the nearby city of Sbeitla in Tunisia which shows the prosperity this brought to the region.

Snow sees Hadrian’s commitments to the cities of the Empire in the monumental constructions of Cyrene in Libya and Sagalassos in Greece built to enforce Roman cultural domination. Hadrian found solace is his close companionship with Antinous and his spiritual heartland of Athens, where he was initiated into the Eleusinian Mysteries and built the Temple of Olympian Zeus visited by Snow, in Greece. Snow visits the remote Mons Claudianus in Egypt where Hadrian quarried the great granite columns for his most impressive monument the Pantheon. Hadrian decrees the construction of Aelia Capitolina on the ruins of Jerusalem exiling the resident Jews. Snow follows Hadrian’s tour of Egypt to the Great Pyramid at Giza and the Valley of the Kings where following the drowning of his beloved Antinous in the Nile the Emperor founded the city of Antinoöpolis and deified the young boy. Hadrian’s repressive policies in Judea resulted in the Bar Kokhba revolt which the Emperor had Julius Severus quash by besieging the guerrillas’ mountain base, visited by Snow, in Israel.

Snow visits the massive Villa Adriana at Tivoli where the isolated and paranoid Hadrian spent his final years on personal building projects. Hadrian constructed his own monumental mausoleum Castel Sant' Angelo, visited by Snow, where he was interred after rebuilding the Empire and ensuring its stability; the Cult of Hadrian by Vanessa Thorpe in The Observer A Very Modern Emperor by Mary Beard in The Guardian Hadrian on IMDb


Trinervitermes is a termite genus belonging to family Termitidae, native to the Old World. They inhabit grasslands and store grass in their mounds, just below the ground surface, their grass collecting activities are nocturnal. The soldier caste has atrophied a fontanelle squirt gun on the frons. Diterpenes and monoterpenes are released to deter ants and smaller predators, but these are not effective against larger mammalian predators. Due to the snout on the head of soldiers, their grass collecting habits, they are known as snouted harvester termites. Species include: Trinervitermes biformis – India and Sri Lanka Trinervitermes dispar – East Africa to South Africa Trinervitermes rapulum – East Africa to southern Africa Trinervitermes rhodesiensis – East Africa to southern Africa Trinervitermes trinervoides – South Africa, Namibia and Mozambique Trinervitermes rubidus – Sri Lanka

NCH Healthcare System

The NCH Healthcare System is a not-for-profit, multi-facility healthcare system located in Naples, United States. The anchor of the system is the two hospitals with a total of 681 beds; the system operates walk-in centers and outpatient rehabilitation facilities in Naples, North Naples, Marco Island, Bonita Springs. Naples Diagnostic Imaging Center is an affiliate of the system; the system had 32,746 admissions, 89,189 Emergency department visits, 4,291 births, 477 open heart surgeries, 9,493 wellness members, 566 community physicians, 3,200 employee colleagues. On March 7, 1956, Naples Memorial Hospital began serving the residents and visitors of the greater Naples area with 50 beds in its first building. In 1966, the hospital added 50 more beds, an emergency department and several specialized departments; that decade, several more departments were added including an Intensive Care Unit. The hospital expanded the original building in 1970 to six stories and began construction on a new, two-story building next door.

This building was expanded to six stories and was dubbed the "South Tower" while the first tower was called the "North Tower". Construction on the Downtown Naples facility continued in the 1980s and on October 15, 1984, The North Collier Health Center opened its doors; this facility was opened as a satellite facility of the main hospital. Shortly after, on February 4, 1985, another satellite facility, which included a helipad, was opened on Marco Island. In January 1990, North Collier Hospital was opened with 50 beds at its current location on Immokalee Road in North Naples; the healthcare system as well as the local population continued to grow during this decade. In February 2007, the system expanded once again with the opening of the $64 million Jay & Patty Baker Patient Care Tower at the North Naples hospital; the Brookdale Center for Healthy Aging, located on the North Naples Hospital campus is an acute care unit for frail elderly that incorporates care specialized for this population. The multidisciplinary model of inpatient care is geared to avoid complications and return elderly patients to their level of baseline function prior to hospitalization through attention to individualized care, family involvement, lower staffing rations, care protocols, the unit’s specialized physical design.

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