Zachariah Poulson was an American editor and publisher. Poulson was born in Philadelphia in 1761. In 1800, he purchased Claypoole's American Daily Advertiser, the successor to America's first daily newspaper, the Pennsylvania Packet, he was state printer for some years, the publisher of Poulson's Town and Country Almanac, 1789-1801. He published Proud's History of Pennsylvania, 1797-98, he was a member of several literary and charitable associations, connected with the Library Company of Philadelphia for 58 years. Ninian Magruder. An inaugural dissertation on the small-pox Samuel Cooper. A dissertation on the properties and effects of the datura stramonium, or common thorn-apple This article incorporates text from the International Cyclopedia of 1890, a publication now in the public domain. Works by Zachariah Poulson at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Zachariah Poulson at Internet Archive
New York World
The New York World was a newspaper published in New York City from 1860 until 1931. The paper played a major role in the history of American newspapers, it was a leading national voice of the Democratic Party. From 1883 to 1911 under publisher Joseph Pulitzer, it became a pioneer in yellow journalism, capturing readers' attention and pushing its daily circulation to the one-million mark; the World was formed in 1860. From 1862 to 1876, it was edited by Manton Marble, its proprietor. In 1864, the World was shut down for three days after it published forged documents purportedly from Abraham Lincoln. Marble, disgusted by the defeat of Samuel Tilden in the 1876 presidential election, sold the paper after the election to a group headed by Thomas A. Scott, the president of the Pennsylvania Railroad, who used the paper "as a propaganda vehicle for his stock enterprises." But Scott was unable to meet the newspaper's growing losses, in 1879 he sold the newspaper to financier Jay Gould as part of a deal that included the Texas & Pacific Railroad.
Gould, like Scott, used the paper for his own purposes, employing it to help him take over Western Union. But Gould could not turn the financial state of the newspaper around, by the 1880s, it was losing $40,000 a year. Joseph Pulitzer began an aggressive era of circulation building. Reporter Nellie Bly became one of America's first investigative journalists working undercover; as a publicity stunt for the paper, inspired by the Jules Verne novel Around the World in Eighty Days, she traveled around the planet in 72 days in 1889–1890. In 1890, Pulitzer built the New York World Building, the tallest office building in the world at the time. In 1889, Julius Chambers was appointed by Pulitzer as managing editor of the New York World. In 1896, the World began using a four-color printing press, it joined a circulation battle with William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal-American. In 1899 Pulitzer along with Hearst were the cause of the newsboys' strike of 1899 which led to Pulitzer's circulation dropping by 70%.
The World was attacked for being "sensational", its circulation battles with Hearst's Journal American gave rise to the term yellow journalism. The charges of sensationalism were most leveled at the paper by more established publishers, who resented Pulitzer's courting of the immigrant classes, and while the World presented its fair share of crime stories, it published damning exposés of tenement abuses. After a heat wave in 1883 killed a disproportionate number of poor children, the World published stories about it, featuring such headlines as "Lines of Little Hearses", its coverage spurred action in the city for reform. Hearst reproduced Pulitzer's approach in the San Francisco Examiner and in the Journal American. Charles Chapin was hired in 1898 as City Editor of the Evening World, he was most known for embracing the sensational and showing little empathy in the face of tragedy, only taking a more solemn tone when reporting on the assassination of William McKinley in 1901. He controlled the newsroom with an iron fist, was despised by the journalists who worked for him.
Chapin fired 108 newspaper men during his tenure. However, Stanley Walker still referred to him as "the greatest city editor that lived." His time at the World ended when, after falling into financial ruin, he murdered his wife in 1918. He was sentenced to Sing Sing Prison and died there in 1930. Frank Irving Cobb was employed on a trial basis as the editor of the World in 1904 by publisher Pulitzer. Cobb was a fiercely independent Kansan who resisted Pulitzer's attempts to "run the office" from his home; the elder man was so invested in the paper. The two found common ground in their support of Woodrow Wilson, but they had many other areas of disagreement; when Pulitzer's son took over administrative responsibility of The World in 1907, his father wrote a worded resignation. Cobb had it printed in every New York paper—except the World. Pulitzer raged at the insult, but began to respect Cobb's editorials and independent spirit. Exchanges and messages between them increased; the good rapport between the two was based on Cobb's flexibility.
In May 1908, Cobb and Pulitzer met to outline plans for a consistent editorial policy. Pulitzer's demands for editorials on contemporary breaking news led to overwork by Cobb; the publisher sent his managing editor on a six-week tour of Europe to restore his spirit. Shortly after Cobb's return, Pulitzer died. Cobb published Pulitzer's resignation. Cobb retained the editorial policies he had shared with Pulitzer until he died of cancer in 1923; when Pulitzer died in 1911, he passed control of the World to his sons Ralph and Herbert. The World continued to grow under its executive editor Herbert Bayard Swope, who hired writers such as Frank Sullivan and Deems Taylor. Among the World's noted journalists were columnists Franklin Pierce Adams who wrote "The Conning Tower," Heywood Broun who penned "It Seems To Me" on the editorial page, hardboiled writer James M. Cain. C. M. Payne created several comic strips for the newspaper; the paper published the first crossword puzzle in December 1913. The annual reference book, called The World Almanac, was founded by the newspaper, its name, World Almanac, is directly descended from the newspaper.
The paper ran a twenty-article series, an exposé on the 20th-century revival of the Ku Klux Klan, starting September 6, 1921. In 1931, Pulitzer's heirs went to court to sell the World. A surrogate court judge decided in the Pulitzer sons' favor.
Graham's Magazine was a nineteenth-century periodical based in Philadelphia established by George Rex Graham and published from 1841 to 1858. It was alternatively referred to as Graham's Lady's and Gentleman's Magazine, Graham's Magazine of Literature and Art, Graham's American Monthly Magazine of Literature and Art, Graham's Illustrated Magazine of Literature, Romance and Fashion; the journal was founded after the merger of Burton's Gentleman's Magazine and Atkinson's Casket in 1840. Publishing short stories, critical reviews, music as well as information on fashion, Graham intended the journal to reach all audiences including both men and women, he offered the high payment of $5 per page attracting some of the best-known writers of the day. It became known for its engravings and artwork. Graham's may have been the first magazine in the United States to copyright each issue. Edgar Allan Poe became the editor of Graham's in February 1841 and soon was publishing the harsh critical reviews for which he became known.
It was where he first published "The Murders in the Rue Morgue", now recognized as the first detective story. After Poe left the journal, his successor was Rufus Wilmot Griswold, a man who bitterly disliked Poe. Graham's began rejecting Poe's submissions and passed up the chance to publish "The Raven". Graham left his magazine for a time in 1848 and it ceased in 1858. In December 1840, Graham had just acquired Burton's Gentleman's Magazine for $3,500, paying a dollar for each of its 3,500 subscribers, merged it with another purchased magazine, Atkinson's Casket, which only had 1500 subscribers; the Casket, subtitled "Flowers of Literature and Sentiment" had been in existence since 1826 and, despite the small subscriber base, was flourishing financially. Graham intended his new magazine to be popular amongst both men and women, containing fashion, music, short stories and critical reviews, he hoped to reach out to both mainstream audiences and those with more refined tastes. Graham was not a writer himself, other than a section at the back of each issue called "Graham's Small Talk", so relied on contributors.
To that end, Graham made sure. Other journals at the time were paying the standard rate of $1 per page, his attempt at attracting the best contributors worked: Contributors to the magazine included William Cullen Bryant, Nathaniel Hawthorne, James Russell Lowell, Christopher Pearse Cranch, Fitz-Greene Halleck, George D. Prentice, Horace Binney Wallace, Phoebe Cary. Not all writers, were paid. A notice in the May 1841 issue read: "Writers who send articles to this Magazine for publication, must state distinctly at the time of sending them, whether they expect pay. We can not allow compensation; this rule will hereafter be rigidly enforced." James Fenimore Cooper was the highest-paid contributor to Graham's, receiving $1,600 for the serial "The Islets of the Gulf, or Rose-Budd" published as Jack Tier, or The Florida Reefs. He received another $1,000 for a series of biographies on distinguished naval commanders. Graham's at one point was advertised as having the most distinctive list of contributors achieved by any American magazine.
Graham's boasted. Graham's may have been the first magazine in America to copyright each issue. By March 1842, Graham's Magazine was issuing 40,000 copies; this boom was reflective of a changing market in American readership. John Sartain believed its success was due to the appeal of the engravings he provided for each issue; the Saturday Evening Post reported that the August 1841 issue of Graham's cost $1,300 for these "embellishments". The Post reported April 30, 1842: "It is doubtful, if engravings of equal beauty adorned an American work". Typical engravings in Graham's included bridges, happy maids, scenes which focused on peaceful domestic life and promoted marriage; the editorial staff grew to include Ann S. Stephens and Emma Catherine Embury. Graham hired Edgar Allan Poe as a critic and editor in February 1841 at an annual salary of $800. Poe suspended his plans to start his own journal, The Penn, to work for Graham, who promised to help subsidize Poe's entrepreneurial endeavor within a year, though he never did.
Poe complained about the content of Graham's. Graham, was aware of Poe's status as an author and critic and knew he would increase the magazine's popularity, he introduced his new editor in the pages of the magazine: "Mr. POE is too well known in the literary world to require a word of commendation."Poe had an assistant editor who aided in corresponding with contributors, allowing him enough free time to write his own stories. Poe had a decent relationship with Graham and took advantage of the editorial control he was granted; the magazine was the first to publish "The Murders in the Rue Morgue", "A Descent into the Maelström", "The Island of the Fay", "The Mask Of The Red Death - A Fantasy", others. He reviewed Charles Dickens's The Old Curiosity Shop, Nathaniel Hawthorne's Twice-Told Tales, works by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Washington Irving and many others, he further built up his reputation as a harsh literary critic, causing James Russell Lowell to suggest Poe sometimes mistook "his phial of prussic acid for his inkstand".
With Graham's, Poe launched his Literati of New York ser
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events and is typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as politics, business and art, include materials such as opinion columns, weather forecasts, reviews of local services, birth notices, editorial cartoons, comic strips, advice columns. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; the journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves metonymically called newspapers. Newspapers have traditionally been published in print. However, today most newspapers are published on websites as online newspapers, some have abandoned their print versions entirely. Newspapers developed as information sheets for businessmen. By the early 19th century, many cities in Europe, as well as North and South America, published newspapers; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record.
Newspapers are published daily or weekly. News magazines are weekly, but they have a magazine format. General-interest newspapers publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news; the news includes political events and personalities and finance, crime and natural disasters. The paper is divided into sections for each of those major groupings. Most traditional papers feature an editorial page containing editorials written by an editor and expressing an opinion on a public issue, opinion articles called "op-eds" written by guest writers, columns that express the personal opinions of columnists offering analysis and synthesis that attempts to translate the raw data of the news into information telling the reader "what it all means" and persuading them to concur. Papers include articles which have no byline. A wide variety of material has been published in newspapers. Besides the aforementioned news and opinions, they include weather forecasts; as of 2017, newspapers may provide information about new movies and TV shows available on streaming video services like Netflix.
Newspapers have classified ad sections where people and businesses can buy small advertisements to sell goods or services. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; some newspapers are at least government-funded. The editorial independence of a newspaper is thus always subject to the interests of someone, whether owners, advertisers, or a government; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record. Many newspapers, besides employing journalists on their own payrolls subscribe to news agencies, which employ journalists to find and report the news sell the content to the various newspapers; this is a way to avoid duplicating the expense of reporting from around the world. Circa 2005, there were 6,580 daily newspaper titles in the world selling 395 million print copies a day; the late 2000s–early 2010s global recession, combined with the rapid growth of free web-based alternatives, has helped cause a decline in advertising and circulation, as many papers had to retrench operations to stanch the losses.
Worldwide annual revenue approached $100 billion in 2005-7 plunged during the worldwide financial crisis of 2008-9. Revenue in 2016 fell to only $53 billion, hurting every major publisher as their efforts to gain online income fell far short of the goal; the decline in advertising revenues affected both the print and online media as well as all other mediums. Besides remodeling advertising, the internet has challenged the business models of the print-only era by crowdsourcing both publishing in general and, more journalism. In addition, the rise of news aggregators, which bundle linked articles fro
John Dunlap was an Irish printer who printed the first copies of the United States Declaration of Independence and one of the most successful Irish/American printers of his era. Dunlap was born in Co.. Tyrone, Ireland in 1747; when he was ten years old, he went to work as an apprentice to his uncle, William Dunlap, a printer and bookseller in Philadelphia. In 1766, William Dunlap left the business in the care of his nephew. John bought the business, at first made a living by printing sermons and broadsides and handbills too. In November 1771, Dunlap began the publication of the Pennsylvania Packet, or General Advertiser, a weekly newspaper. In 1773 he married Elizabeth Hayes Ellison. During the American Revolutionary War, Dunlap became an officer in the First Troop Philadelphia City Cavalry, saw action with George Washington at the battles of Trenton and Princeton, he continued in the First City Troop after the war, rising to the rank of major, leading Pennsylvania's cavalry militia to help suppress the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794.
In 1776, Dunlap secured a lucrative printing contract for the Continental Congress. In July 1776, fighting between the American colonists and the British forces had been going on for over a year. On July 2, the Second Continental Congress voted on the Lee Resolution to secede. Two days they approved the final wording of a public declaration regarding their decision, which we today call the Declaration of Independence. President of Congress John Hancock signed the fair copy with Secretary of Congress Charles Thomson attesting it; that evening Hancock ordered Dunlap to print broadside copies of the declaration. Dunlap printed 200 broadsides, since known as the Dunlap broadsides, which were the first published versions of the Declaration. Dunlap printed items for Pennsylvania's revolutionary government. In 1777 he took over the printing of the Journals of the Continental Congress from Robert Aitken, but lost the contract in 1779 after printing in his newspaper a letter from Thomas Paine that leaked news of the secret French aid to the Americans.
In 1784, Dunlap's paper became a daily with a new title: the North American and United States Gazette. It was not the first daily in the United States—the Pennsylvania Evening Post was the first in 1783—but it became the first successful daily. Continuing to serve the changing needs of the government and his partner David Claypoole printed the Constitution of the United States September 19, 1787 for use by the Constitutional Convention, published it for the first time in The Pennsylvania Packet. Dunlap's major financial success came from real estate speculation. During the American Revolution, he bought property confiscated from Loyalists who refused to take Pennsylvania's new loyalty oath. After the war, he bought land in Kentucky. By 1795, when he was forty-eight, he was able to retire with a sizable estate. Retirement did not agree with him, however, he died in Philadelphia. Teeter, Dwight L."Dunlap, John". American National Biography Online, February 2000
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Whig Party (United States)
The Whig Party was a political party active in the middle of the 19th century in the United States. Four presidents belonged to the party while in office, it emerged in the 1830s as the leading opponent of Jacksonian democracy, pulling together former members of the National Republican and the Anti-Masonic Party. It had some links to the upscale traditions of the long-defunct Federalist Party. Along with the rival Democratic Party, it was central to the Second Party System from the early 1840s to the mid-1860s, it formed in opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson and his Democratic Party. It became a formal party within his second term, receded influence after 1854. In particular terms, the Whigs supported the supremacy of Congress over the presidency and favored a program of modernization and economic protectionism to stimulate manufacturing, it appealed to entrepreneurs, planters and the emerging urban middle class, but had little appeal to farmers or unskilled workers. It included many active Protestants and voiced a moralistic opposition to the Jacksonian Indian removal.
Party founders chose the "Whig" name to echo the American Whigs of the 18th century who fought for independence. The political philosophy of the American Whig Party was not related to the British Whig party. Historian Frank Towers has specified a deep ideological divide: The Whig Party nominated several presidential candidates in 1836. General William Henry Harrison of Ohio was nominated in 1840, former Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky in 1844, General Zachary Taylor of Louisiana in 1848, General Winfield Scott of New Jersey in 1852 and the last nominee, former President Millard Fillmore from New York in 1856. In its two decades of existence, the Whig Party had two of its candidates and Taylor, elected president and both died in office. John Tyler succeeded to the presidency after Harrison's death in 1841, but was expelled from the party that year. Millard Fillmore, who became President after Taylor's death in 1850, was the last Whig President; the party fell apart because of internal tension over the expansion of slavery to the territories.
With deep fissures in the party on this question, the anti-slavery faction prevented the nomination for a full term of its own incumbent President Fillmore in the 1852 presidential election—instead, the party nominated General Scott. Most Whig Party leaders quit politics or changed parties; the Northern voter base gravitated to the new Republican Party. In the South, most joined the Know Nothing Party, which unsuccessfully ran Fillmore in the 1856 presidential election, by which time the Whig Party had become defunct having endorsed Millard Fillmore's candidacy; some former Whigs became Democrats. The Constitutional Union Party experienced significant success from conservative former Whigs in the Upper South during the 1860 presidential election. Whig ideology as a policy orientation persisted for decades, played a major role in shaping the modernizing policies of the state governments during Reconstruction; the name "Whig" repeated the term that Patriots used to refer to themselves during the American Revolution.
It indicated hostility to the king. Despite the identical name it did not directly derive from the British Whig Party; the American Whigs were modernizers who saw President Andrew Jackson as "a dangerous man on horseback"—like a king—with a "reactionary opposition" to the forces of social and moral modernization. The Democratic-Republicans who formed the Whig Party, led by Kentucky Senator Henry Clay, drew on a Jeffersonian tradition of compromise, balance in government and territorial expansion combined with national unity and support for a Federal transportation network and domestic manufacturing. Casting their enemy as "King Andrew", they sought to identify themselves as modern-day opponents of governmental overreaching. Despite the apparent unity of Jefferson's Democratic-Republicans from 1800 to 1824, the American people preferred partisan opposition to popular political agreement; as Jackson purged his opponents, vetoed internal improvements and killed the Second Bank of the United States, alarmed local elites fought back.
In 1831, Henry Clay started planning a new party. He defended national rather than sectional interests. Clay's plan for distributing the proceeds from the sale of lands in the public domain among the states was intended to serve the nation by providing the states with funds for building roads and canals, which would stimulate growth and knit the sections together. However, his Jacksonian opponents distrusted the federal government and opposed all federal aid for internal improvements and they again frustrated Clay's plan. Jacksonians promoted opposition to the National Bank and internal improvements and support of egalitarian democracy, state power and hard money; the Tariff of Abominations of 1828 had outraged Southern feelings—the South's leaders held that the high duties on foreign imports gave an advantage to the North. Clay's own high tariff schedule of 1832 further disturbed them as did his stubborn defense of high duties as necessary to his American System. However, Clay moved to pass the Compromise of 1833, which met Southern complaints by a gradual reduction of the rates on imports to a maximum of twenty percent.
Controlling the Senate for a while, Whigs passed a censure motion denouncing Jackson's arrogant assumption of executive power in the face of the true will of the people as represented by Congress. The Whig Party began to take shape in 1833. Clay had run as a National Republican against J