The Manchester Arena is an indoor arena in Manchester, England north of the city centre and above Manchester Victoria station in air rights space. The arena has the highest seating capacity of any indoor venue in the United Kingdom, second largest in the European Union with a capacity of 21,000 and is one of the world's busiest indoor arenas, hosting music and sporting events such as boxing and swimming; the arena was a key part of Manchester's bids to host the Olympic Games in 1996 and 2000 and was used for the 2002 Commonwealth Games. The arena was temporarily closed following a terrorist attack by a suicide bomber on 22 May 2017, in which a suicide bomber killed 22 people and injured 500 more at the end of an Ariana Grande concert during her Dangerous Woman Tour. Shows that were scheduled to be at the arena were either moved to alternative venues, or cancelled completely; the arena reopened on 9 September for a special benefit concert headlined by Manchester-born singer Noel Gallagher. First proposed during the regeneration of Manchester city centre during the 1980s, the structure was designed by DLA Ellerbe Beckett, Ove Arup & Partners, Austin-Smith:Lord.
The arena is sited in air rights space over the Manchester Victoria railway station and was constructed without disrupting use of the station. The original plans included a glass tower, not built, it hosted a seven-screen multiplex cinema, a multi-purpose arena and multi-storey parking. The former multiplex cinema, which opened in 1996, closed after just four years and is now a call centre. Following the bombing, the foyer has undergone renovation which still remains in progress during 2017, although it has been reopened to the public. A large truss measuring 105 metres spans the roof. Reinforced concrete is used to increase sound insulation; the upper parts of the building are clad in purple-grey with green glass. The arena was opened on 15 July 1995; the arena was one of the first indoor venues in Europe to be built following layout of 360-degree seating, is the only arena in the UK to have this feature. Other European indoor venues built to the same concept include the Lanxess Arena, Arena Zagreb, Spaladium Arena, Kombank Arena, O2 Arena, the Barclaycard Arena.
The arena was constructed as part of the city's unsuccessful bid for the 2000 Summer Olympics. Construction cost £52 million of which £35.5m was provided by government grants and £2.5m from the European Regional Development Fund. Although built as an American style sports arena it has been more successful hosting large music events; the arena opened in July 1995, sponsored by NYNEX CableComms as NYNEX Arena. In July 1998 it was renamed the Manchester Evening News Arena, or just the MEN Arena, when it was sponsored by the Manchester Evening News newspaper. In December 2011, the paper ended its thirteen-year sponsorship, the arena was renamed Manchester Arena in January 2012. In July 2013 the arena was renamed Phones 4u Arena after the mobile phone company Phones 4u, but this deal ended in January 2015 after Phones 4u went out of business, renaming the arena back to Manchester Arena. On the opening night, 15,000 spectators watched Jayne Christopher Dean perform. Attendance records were set in 1997 when 17,425 people watched Manchester Storm play Sheffield Steelers, a record for an ice hockey match in Europe at that time.
When 14,151 people watched Manchester Giants play London Leopards, it set a British record for attendance at a basketball match. The venue attracts over a million customers each year for concerts and family shows, making it one of the world's busiest indoor arenas, was named "International Venue Of The Year" in 2002 in the'Pollstar' awards, was nominated in the same category in 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009; the arena was named "Busiest Arena Venue In The World", based on ticket sales for concerts in 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007 ahead of other indoor arenas including the Madison Square Garden and Wembley Arena. The arena was the'World's Busiest Arena' from 2001 until 2007 based on ticket sales for concerts, attracting five and a half million customers, it was voted'Europe's Favourite Arena' at the TPi Awards in 2008 by the touring companies that bring the shows to the venue. On the evening of 27 May 1999, a reception was held at the arena to celebrate Manchester United's European Cup triumph in Barcelona 24 hours earlier, following the victorious side's parade around Manchester at the end of the season in which they became the first English team to win the treble of the league title, FA Cup and European Cup in the same season.
In 2008, the arena was world's third busiest arena behind London's The O2 Arena and New York's Madison Square Garden. In 2009, it was the world's second busiest arena behind London's The O2 and ahead of Antwerp's Sportpaleis and Madison Square Garden. Although second to London's The O2, Manchester's arena had its busiest year with over 1,500,000 people attending concerts and family shows; the arena hosts over 250 events annually including comedy, live music and tours, sporting events, musicals. As one of the largest venues in the UK, the arena has hosted music concerts since opening in 1995; as of 2015, British pop group Take That, who were formed in Manchester, hold the record for the most performances, with 38. Irish pop group Westlife held the record with 33 performances. Spice Girls performed 4 sold-out shows during their Spiceworld Tour in April 1998, 4 s
Hillsong Church is a charismatic Christian megachurch and Christian denomination originating from Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The church was founded in 1983 called Hills Christian Life Centre, in Baulkham Hills, New South Wales, by Brian Houston and his wife, Bobbie; the church is known for its worship music, with groups such as Hillsong Worship, Hillsong United and Hillsong Young & Free. A member of the Australian Christian Churches, it separated from ACC in 2018. According to the church, over 100,000 people attend services each week at the church or one of its 80 affiliated churches located worldwide. Hillsong is a megachurch, described by popular music scholar Tom Wagner as a "confluence of sophisticated marketing techniques and popular music"; the music of Hillsong United and Hillsong Worship are credited with driving Hillsong's global popularity. It was founded in 1983 inside a warehouse as Hills Christian Life Centre by former window cleaner Brian Houston and his wife Bobbie Houston.
Through the 1980s and 1990s the congregation grew from 45 members to nearly 20,000 and emerged as a significant influence in the area of contemporary worship music. This was a result of strategic marketing that targeted younger generations and Hillsong's success at establishing itself as a global music standard. Services were held at the Baulkham Hills Public School hall. In 1997 the church moved into its new building at Baulkham Hills' Norwest Business Park. A new convention centre at the church's "Hills" location, was opened on 19 October 2002 by John Howard, the Prime Minister of Australia. During the 1990s, Kiev Christian life Centre, now Hillsong Kiev, London Christian Life Centre, now Hillsong London, were planted from the Hillsong Church as independent churches. In March 2007, Hillsong Kiev planted an offshoot church in Moscow, which started regular services in July 2007, it was announced in October 2007 that Phil Dooley and Lucinda Dooley would plant a Hillsong Church in South Africa in March 2008.
Hillsong Stockholm, Sweden known as Passion Church, was planted in 2008-2009. In 2009, a third campus, in Campbelltown, New South Wales, a fourth, in Mount Gravatt, were added. In 2015, there were three campuses in Melbourne. In February 2016 a campus was added in Northern Territory. 2017 brought a large expansion with Bali and Perth all being launched. In 2017 Hillsong announced that it would be opening a church in Israel. Hillsong United featured Daher Nassar, a Palestinian Christian, in their music video Prince of Peace; the video was recorded live in Israel and shows a stone at the entrance of Nassar's farm which has the words "We refuse to be enemies" written on it. In 2018 it was announced that Hillsong would be expanding into Canada and Mexico with the launch of Hillsong Ottawa on 23 September 2018 and Hillsong Monterrey that year. In September 2018, Hillsong left the Australian Christian Churches to become an autonomous denomination, identifying itself more as a global and charismatic church.
According to both Hillsong and ACC, the parting was amicable. The founders and Bobbie Houston, are the lead pastors of Hillsong Church; the church is governed by a board of elders. The elders lead the church spiritually as well as act as a board of directors; the members of "The Hillsong Eldership" are senior executive staff and business leaders from Hillsong's congregation. Elders are appointed with renewable terms. Hillsong's various ministries include Hillsong Music, Hillsong Kids, Hillsong Sisterhood, Hillsong Men, Hillsong Conference, Hillsong CityCare, Hillsong International Leadership College, Hillsong Channel, TV & Film, Hillsong Performing Arts Academy and Hillsong Health Centre, their total facilities are estimated to be worth around $100 million. Hillsong Young & Free is an Australian contemporary worship music group from Sydney, where they started making Christian music in 2012 at Hillsong Church, they have released two live albums, We Are Young & Free and Youth Revival, the studio album III and two extended play recordings, This Is Living and We Are Young & Free: The Remixes.
Bobbie Houston has been influential in Hillsong's ministry for women, called Sisterhood. She is a mentor to many of Hillsong's women leaders. Although Hillsong supports the traditional roles of wife and mother for women, the church's position is that their ministries "empower" women. Church members have described Hillsong's leadership development as a process that supports women's movement from timid, supportive wife into leadership roles within the Church; the Sisterhood is involved in issues like domestic violence and human trafficking. Their midweek gathering is for women, it is the foundation of Hillsong's women's ministries. The Thursday meeting for mothers and includes businesswomen, they have special quarterly "Sisterhood United" night meetings that include working women. Members of the church say that Bobbie's authority as a leader comes from "a pentecostal understanding of Spirit empowerment". In 1986 a social engagement program called CityCare was established offering various community services including personal development programs, counseling services, a health centre and youth mentoring.
CityCare's "street teams" worked within the community to care for and clothe the homeless. In 1986, the first Hillsong conference was held with 150 attendees. In 1999 Hillsong Church was founded when the Hills Christian Life Cent
Barclays Center is a multi-purpose indoor arena in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. The arena is part of a $4.9 billion future business and residential complex now known as Pacific Park. The site is at Atlantic Avenue, next to the renamed Atlantic Avenue–Barclays Center subway station on the 2, 3, 4, 5, B, D, N, Q, R and W routes, as well as directly above the LIRR's Atlantic Terminal; the arena is home to the Brooklyn Nets of the National Basketball Association, is one of the home arenas for the New York Islanders of the National Hockey League. The arena hosts concerts and other sporting and entertainment events, it competes with other facilities in the New York metropolitan area, including Madison Square Garden in Manhattan and Prudential Center in Newark. The arena, proposed in 2004 when real estate developer Bruce Ratner purchased the Nets for $300 million as the first step of the process to build a new home for the team, experienced significant hurdles during its development.
Its use of eminent domain and its potential environmental impact brought community resistance as residential buildings and businesses such as the Ward Bakery were to be demolished and large amounts of public subsidies were used, which led to multiple lawsuits. The global recession of 2009 caused financing for the project to dry up; as a result, construction was delayed until 2010, with no secure funding for the project having been allotted. Groundbreaking for construction occurred on March 11, 2010, the arena opened on September 21, 2012, attended by some 200 protesters, it held its first event with a Jay-Z concert on September 28, 2012. The arena and the Brooklyn Nets are owned by Mikhail Prokhorov's American holdings; the arena was conceived by Bruce Ratner of real estate developer Forest City Ratner Companies, the New York division of Forest City Enterprises that Ratner founded. He acquired the New Jersey Nets basketball team in 2004 for $300 million for the purpose of moving them to the Pacific Park development on Brooklyn's Prospect Heights play in the arena that would be the centerpiece of the Pacific Park commercial and residential redevelopment project.
The move had marked the return of major league sports to Brooklyn, absent since the departure of the Dodgers to Los Angeles in 1957. Coincidentally, the original proposal for a domed stadium for the Brooklyn Dodgers was just north of the Pacific Park Brooklyn site, where the Atlantic Terminal Mall owned by Forest City Ratner Companies, is located; the arena was projected to open in 2006, with the rest of the Pacific Park Brooklyn complex to follow. However, controversies involving local residents, the use of eminent domain, potential environmental impact, lack of continued public financing, as well as a major economic downturn delayed the project. Due to these legal and financial troubles, the development deal seemed headed towards failure or collapse. Frank Gehry, an architect involved in the project's initial designs said, in March 2009, "I don't think it is going to happen," and Ratner at one point explored selling the team; the New York Supreme Court ruled in favor of Ratner on May 16, 2009.
Opponents appealed the court decision. A hearing for the appeal was scheduled for October 14, 2009, with a decision to be issued no sooner than November 25. Russian businessman Mikhail Prokhorov agreed to a $200 million deal on September 23, 2009, to become a principal owner of the Nets and a key investor in the Brooklyn arena; the Nets played two preseason games at Prudential Center in October 2009. The two preseason games were successful, a deal that would have the Nets play at the Prudential Center for the 2010–11 and 2011–12 NBA seasons became more likely. Negotiations nearly fell apart, when the New Jersey Sports and Exhibition Authority refused to release the Nets from their lease at Izod. Negotiations resumed, on February 18, 2010, the Nets finalized a deal that would move them to the Prudential Center in Newark, New Jersey until Barclays Center opened; the New York Court of Appeals ruled in favor of the state using eminent domain for the project on November 24, 2009. Empire State Development Corporation Vice President Warner Johnston indicated that the agency is committed to seeing the project completed and said "we can now move forward with development."Another potential roadblock to this development resulted from the Appellate Court's negative decision regarding a similar eminent domain case, brought against Columbia University.
This landmark case could have given new life to the case being brought by the community group Develop Don't Destroy Brooklyn. However, on March 1, 2010, Brooklyn Supreme Court Justice Abraham Gerges struck down a challenge by property owners, regarding the state's use of eminent domain, which allowed the private property to be condemned. Groundbreaking for the project occurred on March 11, 2010; the first concrete was poured into Barclays Center's foundation on June 29, 2010. The arena began vertical construction on November 23, 2010, with the erection of the first steel piece; the arena topped out on January 12, 2012, was opened to the public on September 21, 2012. Barclays Bank agreed to a 20-year naming rights agreement for $400 million in 2007. However, 2 years due to the slump in the economy the deal was renegotiated to $200 million; the New York Islanders of the National Hockey League announced on October 24, 2012, that the franchise would move to Barclays Center in 2015 after the expiration of their lease at the Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum, which the team has called home since its inception in 1972.
The deal did not require the involvement of the New York Rangers, as the Islanders
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
The Millennium Dome referred to as The Dome, is the original name of a large dome-shaped building used to house the Millennium Experience, a major exhibition celebrating the beginning of the third millennium. It is the ninth largest building in the world by usable volume. Located on the Greenwich Peninsula in South East London, the exhibition was open to the public from 1 January to 31 December 2000; the project and exhibition was political and in spite of excellent customer feedback attracted half the 12 million customers its sponsors forecast, so was deemed a failure by the press. All the original exhibition elements were dismantled. In a 2005 report, the cost of selling the Dome and surrounding land and managing the Dome until the deal was closed was £28.7 million. The value of the 48 acres occupied by the Dome was estimated at £48 million, which could have been realised by demolishing the structure, but it was considered preferable to preserve the Dome; the structure itself still exists, it is now a key exterior feature of The O2.
The Prime Meridian passes the western edge of the Dome and the nearest London Underground station is North Greenwich on the Jubilee line. The dome is one of the largest of its type in the world. Externally, it appears as a large white marquee with twelve 100 m-high yellow support towers, one for each month of the year, or each hour of the clock face, representing the role played by Greenwich Mean Time. In plan view it is 365 m in diameter, it has become one of the United Kingdom's most recognizable landmarks. It can be identified on satellite images of London, its exterior is reminiscent of the Dome of Discovery built for the Festival of Britain in 1951. The architect was Richard Rogers and the contractor was a joint venture company, McAlpine/Laing Joint Venture formed between Sir Robert McAlpine and Laing Management; the building structure was engineered by Buro Happold, the entire roof structure weighs less than the air contained within the building. Although referred to as a dome it is not one as it is not self-supporting, but is, in fact, a giant Big Top, the canopy being supported by a dome-shaped cable network, from twelve king posts.
For this reason, it has been disparagingly referred to as the Millennium Tent. The twelve posts represent the twelve months of the year, another reference to time in its dimensions, alongside its height and diameter; the canopy is made of PTFE-coated glass fibre fabric, a durable and weather-resistant plastic, is 52 m high in the middle – one metre for each week of the year. Its symmetry is interrupted by a hole through which a ventilation shaft from the Blackwall Tunnel rises; the critic Jonathan Meades has scathingly referred to the Millennium Dome as a "Museum of Toxic Waste", apart from the dome itself, the project included the reclamation of the entire Greenwich Peninsula. The land was derelict and contaminated by toxic sludge from East Greenwich Gas Works that operated from 1889 to 1985; the clean-up operation was seen by the Deputy Prime Minister Michael Heseltine as an investment that would add a large area of useful land to the crowded capital. This was billed as part of a larger plan to regenerate a large, sparsely populated area to the east of London and south of the River Thames, an area called the East Thames Corridor but latterly marketed as the "Thames Gateway".
The Dome project was conceived on a somewhat smaller scale, under John Major's Conservative government, as a Festival of Britain or World's Fair-type showcase to celebrate the third millennium. The incoming Labour government elected in 1997 under Tony Blair expanded the size and funding of the project, it significantly increased expectations of what would be delivered. Just before its opening Blair claimed the Dome would be "a triumph of confidence over cynicism, boldness over blandness, excellence over mediocrity". In the words of BBC correspondent Robert Orchard, "the Dome was to be highlighted as a glittering New Labour achievement in the next election manifesto", but criticised in the 2001 Conservative Party manifesto as "banal and rootless", lacking "a sense of Britain’s history or culture". However, before its opening, The Dome was excoriated in Iain Sinclair's diatribe, Sorry Meniscus – Excursions to the Millennium Dome, which forecast the hype, the political posturing and the eventual disillusion.
The post-exhibition plan had been to convert The Dome into a football stadium which would last for 25 years: Charlton Athletic at one point considered a possible move but instead chose to redevelop their own stadium. Fisher Athletic were a local team interested in moving to the Dome, but they were considered to have too small a fan base to make this feasible; the Dome was planned to take over the functions performed by the London Arena, after its closure. This is the function. After a private opening on the evening of 31 December 1999 the Millennium Experience at the Dome was open to the public for the whole of 2000, contained a large number of attractions and exhibits; the interior space was subdivided into 14 zones: Who we are: Body, sponsored by Boots, supported by L'Oréal and Roche Mind, sponsored by BAE Systems and Marconi Faith comprised 5 sections: History of Christianity, Making of Key Life Experiences, How Shall I live?, Night Rain and Faith Festivals Calendar (Eva Jiricna Archite
North Greenwich tube station
North Greenwich is a London Underground station served by the Jubilee line. Despite its name, it is not in the locality known as North Greenwich, on the Isle of Dogs, north of the River Thames, it is closer to Charlton than to Greenwich, however, it is at the northernmost tip of the Royal Borough of Greenwich, which provides the best explanation of the name. The tube station was opened in 1999, it is adjacent to The O2 at the northern end of the Greenwich Peninsula, on the south bank of the Thames. It is the easternmost below ground station on the line, it lies between Canary Wharf and Canning Town on the Jubilee line, in Travelcard Zone 2 and Zone 3. An Underground station was first proposed for the Greenwich Peninsula in a government report on the redevelopment of London's Docklands published in 1973; the proposal, part of the unbuilt Fleet line, proposed a line running from Charing Cross via Fenchurch Street to Beckton, with stations on each side at Millwall and Custom House. The proposal was developed during the 1970s as the Fleet line developed into the Jubilee line.
The route was approved in 1980, but financial constraints meant that the route was not proceeded with. By the start of the 1990s new plans had been developed to extend the Jubilee line on a route south of the River Thames towards Stratford with North Greenwich station built in accordance with this plan. Opened on 14 May 1999, North Greenwich is one of the largest stations on the Jubilee line, capable of handling around 20,000 passengers an hour, having been designed to cope with the large number of visitors expected at the Millennium Dome; the track at North Greenwich was designed to facilitate a branch of the line from this station. A branch towards Thamesmead was planned; the track layout allows trains from both Stratford to terminate at North Greenwich. A number of trains from Stanmore terminate here during peak and off-peak times, enter platform 2 instead of the usual platform 3. Trains head back towards central London from platform 2. During times of disruption and engineering work, trains from and back to Stratford can be routed into and out of platform 2.
The striking blue-tiled and glazed interior, with raking concrete columns rearing up inside the huge underground space, was designed by the architectural practice Alsop, Lyall and Störmer. The blue tiles on walls were inspired by the design of MTR stations in Hong Kong, where every station adopts a livery in order to help passengers to recognise their alighting stop; as with other stations on the Jubilee Line Extension, all platforms are equipped with platform screen doors. On 20 October 2016, police conducted a controlled explosion on an improvised explosive device at North Greenwich after a passenger spotted an unattended bag filled with "wires and an alarm clock" aboard a Jubilee line train. No injuries were reported, a suspect was detained; the man, Damon Smith, was convicted of possession of an explosive substance with intent and was sentenced to 15 years' imprisonment. The bus station is interconnected and above the tube station on the surface for direct transfer with London Buses routes 108, 129, 132, 161, 188, 422, 472 and 486 serving the station.
The Emirates Air Line cable car opened nearby on 28 June 2012, providing a link between the Greenwich Peninsula and the Royal Victoria Dock and ExCeL London. Media related to North Greenwich tube station at Wikimedia Commons
Michael Joseph Jackson was an American singer and dancer. Dubbed the "King of Pop", he is regarded as one of the most significant cultural figures of the 20th century and one of the greatest entertainers of all time, he was known for his unorthodox lifestyle, residing in a private amusement park he called Neverland Ranch, becoming the focus of tabloid scrutiny. Jackson's contributions to music and fashion, along with his publicized personal life, made him a global figure in popular culture for over four decades; the eighth child of the Jackson family, Michael made his professional debut in 1964 with his elder brothers Jackie, Tito and Marlon as a member of the Jackson 5. He began his solo career in 1971 while at Motown Records, in the early 1980s, became a dominant figure in popular music, his music videos, including those for "Beat It", "Billie Jean", "Thriller" from his 1982 album Thriller, are credited with breaking racial barriers and transforming the medium into an art form and promotional tool.
Their popularity helped bring the television channel MTV to fame. Bad was the first album to produce five US Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles, he continued to innovate throughout the 1990s with videos such as "Black or White" and forged a reputation as a touring artist. Through stage and video performances, Jackson popularized complicated dance techniques such as the robot and the moonwalk, to which he gave the name, his sound and style have influenced artists of various genres. Jackson is one of the best-selling music artist of all time, with estimated sales of over 350 million records worldwide, his other albums, including Off the Wall, HIStory rank among the world's best-selling. He won hundreds of awards, has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame twice, is the only pop or rock artist to have been inducted into the Dance Hall of Fame, his other achievements include Guinness world records, 15 Grammy Awards, 26 American Music Awards, 13 number-one US singles. Jackson was the first artist to have a top ten single in the Billboard Hot 100 in five different decades.
In the late 1980s, Jackson became a figure of controversy due to his changing appearance and behavior. In 1993, he was accused of sexually abusing the child of a family friend; the case led to an investigation and was settled out of court for $25 million in 1994. In 2005, he was tried and acquitted of further child sexual abuse allegations and several other charges. In 2009, while preparing for a series of comeback concerts, This Is It, Jackson died from an overdose of propofol and benzodiazepine given to him by his personal physician, Conrad Murray. Jackson's fans around the world expressed their grief, his public memorial service was broadcast live. In 2019, the documentary Leaving Neverland detailed renewed allegations of child sexual abuse and led to an international backlash against Jackson. Michael Joseph Jackson was born in Gary, near Chicago, on August 29, 1958, he was the eighth of ten children in the Jackson family, a working-class African-American family living in a two-bedroom house on Jackson Street.
His mother, Katherine Esther Jackson, played clarinet and piano, had aspired to be a country-and-western performer, worked part-time at Sears. His father, Joseph Walter "Joe" Jackson, a former boxer, was a crane operator at U. S. Steel and played guitar with a local rhythm and blues band, the Falcons, to supplement the family's income, his father's great-grandfather, July "Jack" Gale, was a Native American medicine man and US Army scout. Michael grew up with five brothers. A sixth brother, Marlon's twin Brandon, died shortly after birth. Joe acknowledged that he whipped Michael, he recalled that Joe sat in a chair with a belt in his hand as he and his siblings rehearsed, ready to physically punish any mistakes. Katherine Jackson stated that although whipping is considered abuse in more modern times, it was a common way to discipline children when Michael was growing up. Jackie, Tito and Marlon have said that their father was not abusive and that the whippings, which were harder on Michael because he was younger, kept them disciplined and out of trouble.
In an interview with Oprah Winfrey in 1993, Jackson said that his youth had been lonely and isolating. In 1964, Michael and Marlon joined the Jackson Brothers—a band formed by their father which included Jackie and Jermaine—as backup musicians playing congas and tambourine. In 1965, Michael began sharing lead vocals with Jermaine, the group's name was changed to the Jackson 5; the following year, the group won a talent show. From 1966 to 1968 they toured the Midwest; the Jackson 5 performed at clubs and cocktail lounges, where striptease shows were featured, at local auditoriums a