OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
For the Kentucky newspaper, please see News Democrat & Leader. The Belleville News-Democrat is a daily newspaper in Illinois. Focusing on news, local to the area of southwestern Illinois, it has been published under various names for 150 years; as of 2009, it is published by The McClatchy Company, is based in St. Clair County, Illinois, it publishes content in print as well as online at bnd.com. The Belleville News-Democrat was founded in 1858 as the Weekly Democrat. In the early 1860s, it merged with the Belleville News to become the Belleville News-Democrat, it was a family-owned newspaper until 1972. When Disney acquired Capital Cities, it owned the News-Democrat until Knight Ridder acquired the newspaper in 1997. McClatchy acquired the paper in 2006 with its purchase of Knight Ridder; the Belleville News-Democrat has been featured on the television programs 60 Minutes and Nightline, as an example of investigative reporting. In 2003, an article in Editor & Publisher called the News-Democrat one of "Ten newspapers that do it right" under the leadership of former publisher, Gary Berkeley, former editor, Greg Edwards.
It is the only newspaper in Illinois or Missouri to grow net paid circulation for ten years in a row, is a frequent winner in state and regional journalism awards. In 2007, News-Democrat reporters Beth Hundsdorfer and George Pawlaczyk won the Robert F. Kennedy Journalism Award for "Lethal Lapses", a series investigating errors of the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services that resulted in the deaths of 53 children; the newspaper employs 280 people, plus about 75 at its weekly ancillary papers. The newsroom staff consists of 26 reporters, 12 editors, seven copy editors, four photographers, three newsroom assistants and an editorial cartoonist, it publishes separate editions in St. Clair County; the News-Democrat publishes the following weekly papers: The Highland News Leader Tri-County Leader O'Fallon Progress Command Post Legal Reporter Penny Saver St. Clair Madison Bond Clinton Washington Monroe Marion Randolph Perry Jefferson St. Louis St. Louis City bnd.com official site Official mobile website The McClatchy Company's subsidiary profile of the Belleville News-Democrat the Lethal Lapses series
John Rollin Ridge
John Rollin Ridge, a member of the Cherokee Nation, is considered the first Native American novelist. Born in New Echota, Georgia, he was the son of John Ridge, the grandson of Major Ridge, both of whom were signatories to the Treaty of New Echota, which Congress affirmed in early 1836, ceding Cherokee lands east of the Mississippi River and leading to the Trail of Tears. At the age of twelve, Ridge witnessed his father's death at the hands of supporters of Cherokee leader John Ross, who had vehemently opposed the treaty, his mother, Sarah Bird Northrup, fled to Fayetteville, Arkansas. In 1843, he was sent to the Great Barrington School in Great Barrington, Massachusetts for two years, after which he returned to Fayetteville to study law, it was during this period. He published a poem, "To a Thunder Cloud," in the Arkansas State Gazette, he married Elizabeth Wilson, a white woman, in 1847. They had one daughter, Alice, in 1848. In 1849, he killed Ross sympathizer David Kell, whom he thought had been involved with his father's assassination, over a horse dispute.
Despite having a good argument for self-defense, he fled to Missouri to avoid prosecution. The next year, he disliked being a miner. While there, he was reunited with his daughter, his writing career began with poetry and essays for the Democratic Party before what is now considered the first Native American novel and the first novel written in California, The Life and Adventures of Joaquin Murieta: The Celebrated California Bandit. A fictionalized version of the notorious bandit's story, the tale describes a young Mexican who comes to California to seek his fortune during the Gold Rush and turns to crime after his wife is raped and his brother murdered by white men; this novel, which condemned American racism towards Mexicans inspired the Zorro stories. Although popular, Ridge saw no money from the book's publication—by the time of his death it had not yet turned a profit. Ridge was a writer and the first editor of the Sacramento Bee and wrote for the San Francisco Herald, among other publications.
As an editor, he advocated assimilationist policies for American Indians as his father had, placing his trust in the federal government to protect their rights. At the same time, however, he was blind to the ways in which those rights were continually abused by the same government. Despite his novel's stance against racism, Ridge had owned slaves on his Arkansas property and felt that California Indians were inferior to those of other tribes. During the Civil War, Ridge supported the "Copperheads" and opposed both the election of Abraham Lincoln as well as the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation, blaming the war on abolitionists. After the war, Ridge was invited by the federal government to head the Southern Cherokee delegation in postwar treaty proceedings. Despite his best efforts, the Cherokee region was not admitted as a state to the Union. In December 1866, he returned to his home in Grass Valley, where he died of "brain fever" on October 5, 1867, he was buried at Greenwood Memorial Park in Grass Valley.
Ridge's novel, one of the earliest by a Native American author, is curious both because it is written not about a Native American subject, but about a Mexican immigrant, because it is not original but based on a legendary figure discussed in the media of the day. Ridge presents the figure of Joaquin Murieta as that of a young and industrious man, hampered in his attempts to be successful in the United States by the racism of the people and by the 1850 Foreign Miner's Tax Law, which hampered the ability of Latinos to mine for gold. Ridge's version of Murieta becomes a bandit who attracts a large number of associates and who terrorizes the state of California for several months with his gruesome acts of violence. At the same time, Ridge's Murieta is a romantic figure showing kindness and relishing the stories about him as he keeps his identity so well secret that he can walk through town in broad daylight with no one recognizing him. Although the novel is fictional, many people took it as fact and some historians cited it when writing biographical materials on Murrieta.
The Life and Adventures of Joaquin Murieta, the Celebrated California Bandit Poems, by a Cherokee Indian, with an Account of the Assassination of His Father, John Ridge The Lives of Joaquin Murieta and Tiburcio Vasquez. John Rollin Ridge: His Life and Works. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-8780-1. Page images of The Life and Adventures of Joaquin Murieta John Rollin Ridge at Find a Grave
Environmental protection is the practice of protecting the natural environment by individuals and governments. Its objectives are to conserve natural resources and the existing natural environment and, where possible, to repair damage and reverse trends. Due to the pressures of overconsumption, population growth and technology, the biophysical environment is being degraded, sometimes permanently; this has been recognized, governments have begun placing restraints on activities that cause environmental degradation. Since the 1960s, environmental movements have created more awareness of the various environmental problems. There is disagreement on the extent of the environmental impact of human activity and scientific dishonesty occurs, so protection measures are debated. In the industrial countries, voluntary environmental agreements provide a platform for companies to be recognized for moving beyond the minimum regulatory standards and thus support the development of best environmental practice.
For instance, in India, Environment Improvement Trust has been working for environmental and forest protection since 1998. A group of Green Volunteers get a goal of Green India Clean India concept. CA Gajendra Kumar Jain a Chartered Accountant, is the founder of Environment Improvement Trust in Sojat city a small village of State of Rajasthan in India In developing countries, such as Latin America, these agreements are more used to remedy significant levels of non-compliance with mandatory regulation; the challenges that exist with these agreements lie in establishing baseline data, targets and reporting. Due to the difficulties inherent in evaluating effectiveness, their use is questioned and, the whole environment may well be adversely affected as a result; the key advantage of their use in developing countries is that their use helps to build environmental management capacity. An ecosystems approach to resource management and environmental protection aims to consider the complex interrelationships of an entire ecosystem in decision making rather than responding to specific issues and challenges.
Ideally the decision-making processes under such an approach would be a collaborative approach to planning and decision making that involves a broad range of stakeholders across all relevant governmental departments, as well as representatives of industry, environmental groups and community. This approach ideally supports a better exchange of information, development of conflict-resolution strategies and improved regional conservation. Religions play an important role in the conservation of the environment. Many of the earth's resources are vulnerable because they are influenced by human impacts across many countries; as a result of this, many attempts are made by countries to develop agreements that are signed by multiple governments to prevent damage or manage the impacts of human activity on natural resources. This can include agreements that impact factors such as climate, oceans and air pollution; these international environmental agreements are sometimes binding documents that have legal implications when they are not followed and, at other times, are more agreements in principle or are for use as codes of conduct.
These agreements have a long history with some multinational agreements being in place from as early as 1910 in Europe and Africa. Some of the most well-known international agreements include the Kyoto Protocol. Discussion concerning environmental protection focuses on the role of government and law enforcement. However, in its broadest sense, environmental protection may be seen to be the responsibility of all the people and not that of government. Decisions that impact the environment will ideally involve a broad range of stakeholders including industry, indigenous groups, environmental group and community representatives. Environmental decision-making processes are evolving to reflect this broad base of stakeholders and are becoming more collaborative in many countries. Many constitutions acknowledge the fundamental right to environmental protection and many international treaties acknowledge the right to live in a healthy environment. Many countries have organizations and agencies devoted to environmental protection.
There are international environmental protection organizations, such as the United Nations Environment Programme. Although environmental protection is not the responsibility of government protection acts, most people view these agencies as being of prime importance in establishing and maintaining basic standards that protect both the environment and the people interacting with it. Tanzania is recognised as having some of the greatest biodiversity of any African country. 40% of the land has been established into a network of protected areas, including several national parks. The concerns for the natural environment include damage to ecosystems and loss of habitat resulting from population growth, expansion of subsistence agriculture, timber extraction and significant use of timber as fuel. Environmental protection in Tanzania began during the German occupation of East Africa — colonial conservation laws for the protection of game and forests were enacted, whereby restrictions were placed upon traditional indigenous activities such as hunting, firewood collecting and cattle grazing.
In year 1948, Serengeti was established the first national park for wild cats in East Africa. Since 1983, there has been a more broad-reaching effort to manage environmental issues at a national level, through the establishment of the National Environment Management Council and the development of an environmental act. In 1998 Environment Improvement Trust start
The Sacramento Union
The Sacramento Union was a daily newspaper founded in 1851 in Sacramento, California. It was the oldest daily newspaper west of the Mississippi River before it closed its doors after 143 years in January 1994, no longer able to compete with The Sacramento Bee, founded in 1857, just six years after the Union; the birth of this storied newspaper institution began 156 years ago, when the city of Sacramento was in its infancy. Under the direction of its first editor, Dr. John F. Morse, who had attracted proprietors through letters to the New Orleans Delta and well-known literary attainments, The Union was printed as The Daily Union on Wednesday, March 19, 1851. Upon the front page of this 23-inch by 34-inch paper, Morse addressed the readers of The Union, committing to “publish the first news in the best style and at the lowest prices” and “to have an efficient correspondent in every important town and mining region in the state.” The paper had evolved through the efforts of four Sacramento Transcript printers.
The printers had introduced the idea of The Union's creation a year earlier, due to their frustrations with a labor dispute between the Transcript and the Placer Times, which were the city’s first two newspapers. The battle between these two newspapers became so fierce that the papers sold advertising space for below the cost of composition for the mere purpose of undercutting their competition. Opening its operation at its 21 J St. headquarters, The Union endured competitive times during its early years, when it was one of about 60 Sacramento newspapers. Sacramento's status as a newspaper town, was short-lived, as all but two newspapers failed, leading to the Union's famous slogan, “The Oldest Daily in the West”; the Union's early years are recognized for their famous contributors, who included Mark Twain, Bret Harte and Dan De Quille. The Daily Union evolved quite as a leading newspaper, as its initial circulation of 500 was soon afterward expanded with an wider circulation and the daily publication was joined by the semi-monthly Steamer Union for Atlantic states and European readers, the Weekly Union, the semi-annual Pictorial Union, which featured drawings of towns and other scenes of the era.
The Union, referred to as the “Miners’ Bible” during its early years, passed a major test when it overcame a great fire on November 2, 1852, continued printing on a small press, saved from the flames. A brick building, which still stands today, was constructed at 121 J Street to replace the paper’s original building. In 1852, Thomas Gardiner, one of the founders of the Los Angeles Times, was publisher of the Union. On November 17, 1858, The Union became the first California newspaper to issue a double-sheet daily; the publication was recognized as the largest double-sheet daily in the nation. The Sacramento Publishing Co. purchased the Sacramento Daily Union, as it was known, the Daily Record in 1875, merged them into one newspaper, calling it the Sacramento Daily Record-Union – a name, dropped. The Missouri-born Samuel Langhorne Clemens, better known by his nom de plume of Mark Twain, is remembered most for his contributions to The Union; this point was evident through the large bronze bust of Twain, which sat just west of the State Capitol in the lobby of The Union’s latter building at 301 Capitol Mall.
Inscribed on the bust were Twain’s words: “Early in 1866, George Barnes invited me to resign my reportership on his paper, the San Francisco Morning Call, for some months thereafter, I was without money or work. The proprietors of the Sacramento Union, a great and influential daily journal, sent me to the Sandwich Islands to write four letters a month at twenty dollars a piece. I was there for four or five months, returned to find myself about the best known man on the Pacific Coast.” Twain dispatched a series of articles on Hawaii for The Union in 1866. These were popular, many historians credit the series with turning Twain into a journalistic star; because many people thought that Twain wrote in The Union building, whenever The Union was struggling financially during the turn of the 20th century, the owners would drag out an old desk and sell it for a princely sum as "the desk where Mark Twain sat." Said Charlotte Gilmore, former head of The Union's “morgue” or bound volumes collection, the original Twain articles were cut out and stolen from The Union's bound volumes during the 1970s.
“Sometime after I left in the summer of 1971, it happened,” Gilmore said. “It’s a disappointing situation, but at least the articles were photographed before this happened.” The Union's bound volumes, as well as the bronze bust of Twain, are now in the possession of the Shields Library at UC Davis, having been donated by the Danel and Reboin families, owners of the Herald Printing Co. The Twain articles can be viewed on microfilm at the Sacramento Public Library’s central location at 828 I St. In 1966, the paper was purchased by Copley Press, which brought in millions of dollars that resulted in improvements such as the 1967 construction of the publication’s Capitol Mall headquarters and a new long-run, photo-offset press. During those years it was the dominant morning newspaper in Sacramento. In the mid-1970s, the Bee an afternoon newspaper, decided to go head-to-head with the Union as a morning newspaper and promised that the Bee would arrive on the doorstep by 6:00 a.m. The Union circulation department couldn't equal that service, the Bee became the larger of the two dailies.
While the Bee had a much larger staff, the Union beat the Bee on a number of huge stories. Among them were the Dorothea Puente Victorian grave
Sacramento is the capital city of the U. S. state of California and the seat of Sacramento County. Located at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River in Northern California's Sacramento Valley, Sacramento's estimated 2018 population of 501,334 makes it the sixth-largest city in California and the ninth largest capital in the United States. Sacramento is the seat of the California Assembly, the Governor of California, Supreme Court of California, making it the state's political center and a hub for lobbying and think tanks. Sacramento is the cultural and economic core of the Sacramento metropolitan area, which had 2010 population of 2,414,783, making it the fifth largest in California. Sacramento is the fastest-growing major city in California, owing to its status as a notable financial center on the West Coast and as a major educational hub, home of Sacramento State University and University of California, Davis. Sacramento is a major center for the California healthcare industry, as the seat of Sutter Health, the world-renowned UC Davis Medical Center, the UC Davis School of Medicine, notable tourist destination in California, as the site of The California Museum, the Crocker Art Museum, California Hall of Fame, the California State Capitol Museum, the Old Sacramento State Historic Park.
Sacramento is known for its evolving contemporary culture, dubbed the most "hipster city" in California. In 2002, the Harvard University Civil Rights Project conducted for Time magazine named Sacramento "America's Most Diverse City". Before the arrival of the Spanish, the area was inhabited by the Nisenan people indigenous peoples of California. Spanish cavalryman Gabriel Moraga surveyed and named the Rio del Santísimo Sacramento in 1808, after the Blessed Sacrament, referring to the Eucharist in the Catholic Church. In 1839, Juan Bautista Alvarado, Mexican governor of Alta California granted the responsibility of colonizing the Sacramento Valley to Swiss-born, Mexican citizen John Augustus Sutter, who subsequently established Sutter's Fort and the settlement at the Rancho Nueva Helvetia. Following the American Conquest of California and the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, the waterfront developed by Sutter began to be developed and incorporated in 1850 as the City of Sacramento; as a result of the California Gold Rush, Sacramento became a major commercial center and distribution point for Northern California, serving as the terminus for the Pony Express and the First Transcontinental Railroad.
Nisenan and Plains Miwok Native Americans had lived in the area for thousands of years. Unlike the settlers who would make Sacramento their home, these Native Americans left little evidence of their existence. Traditionally, their diet was dominated by acorns taken from the plentiful oak trees in the region, by fruits, bulbs and roots gathered throughout the year. In 1808, the Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga discovered and named the Sacramento Valley and the Sacramento River. A Spanish writer with the Moraga expedition wrote: "Canopies of oaks and cottonwoods, many festooned with grapevines, overhung both sides of the blue current. Birds chattered in the trees and big fish darted through the pellucid depths; the air was like champagne, drank deep of it, drank in the beauty around them. "¡Es como el sagrado sacramento!" The valley and the river were christened after the "Most Holy Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ", referring to the Catholic sacrament of the Eucharist. John Sutter Sr. first arrived in the area on August 13, 1839, at the divergence of the American and Sacramento Rivers with a Mexican land grant of 50,000 acres.
The next year, he and his party established Sutter's Fort, a massive adobe structure with walls eighteen feet high and three feet thick. Representing Mexico, Sutter Sr. called his colony New Helvetia, a Swiss inspired name, was the political authority and dispenser of justice in the new settlement. Soon, the colony began to grow as more pioneers headed west. Within just a few short years, Sutter Sr. had become a grand success, owning a ten-acre orchard and a herd of thirteen thousand cattle. Fort Sutter became a regular stop for the increasing number of immigrants coming through the valley. In 1847 Sutter Sr. received 2,000 fruit trees, which started the agriculture industry in the Sacramento Valley. That same year, Sutter Sr. hired James Marshall to build a sawmill so that he could continue to expand his empire, unbeknownst to many, Sutter Sr.'s "empire" had been built on some thin margins of credit. In 1848, when gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, a large number of gold-seekers came to the area, increasing the population.
In August 1848 Sutter Sr.'s son, John Sutter Jr. arrived in the area to assist his father in relieving his indebtedness. Now compounding the problem of his father's indebtedness, was the additional strain placed on the Sutters by the ongoing arrival of thousands of new gold miners and prospectors in the area, many quite content to squat on unwatched portions of the vast Sutter lands, or to abscond with various unattended Sutter properties or belongings if they could. In Sutter's case, rather than being a'boon' for Sutter, his employee's discovery of gold in the area turned out to be more of a personal'bane' for him. By December 1848, John Sutter Jr. in association with Sam Brannan, began laying out the City of Sacramento, 2 miles south of his father's settlement of New Helvetia. This venture was undertaken against the wishes of Sutter Sr. however the father, being in debt, was in no position to stop the venture. For