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The Searchers

The Searchers is a 1956 American Technicolor VistaVision Western film directed by John Ford, based on the 1954 novel by Alan Le May, set during the Texas–Indian wars, starring John Wayne as a middle-aged Civil War veteran who spends years looking for his abducted niece, accompanied by his adoptive nephew. Critic Roger Ebert found Wayne's character, Ethan Edwards, "one of the most compelling characters Ford and Wayne created"; the film was a commercial success. Since its release, it has come to be considered a masterpiece and one of the greatest and most influential films made, it was named the greatest American Western by the American Film Institute in 2008, it placed 12th on the same organization's 2007 list of the 100 greatest American movies of all time. Entertainment Weekly named it the best Western; the British Film Institute's Sight & Sound magazine ranked it as the seventh-best film of all time based on a 2012 international survey of film critics and in 2008, the French magazine Cahiers du Cinéma ranked The Searchers number 10 in their list of the 100 best films made.

In 1989, The Searchers was deemed "culturally or aesthetically significant" by the United States Library of Congress, selected for preservation in its National Film Registry. The Searchers was the first major film to have a purpose-filmed making-of, requested by John Ford, it deals with most aspects of making the movie, including preparation of the site, construction of props, filming techniques. In 1868, Ethan Edwards returns after an eight-year absence to the home of his brother Aaron in the wilderness of West Texas. Ethan fought in the Civil War on the side of the Confederacy, in the three years since that war ended, he fought in the Mexican revolutionary war, as well, he has a large quantity of gold coins of uncertain origin in his possession, a medal from the Mexican campaign that he gives to his eight-year-old niece, Debbie. As a former Confederate soldier, he is asked to take an oath of allegiance to the Texas Rangers; as Rev. Captain Samuel Clayton remarks, Ethan "fits a lot of descriptions".

Shortly after Ethan's arrival, cattle belonging to his neighbor Lars Jorgensen are stolen, when Captain Clayton leads Ethan and a group of Rangers to recover them, they discover that the theft was a Comanche ploy to draw the men away from their families. When they return, they find. Aaron, his wife Martha, their son Ben are dead, Debbie and her older sister Lucy have been abducted. After a brief funeral, the men set out in pursuit, they come upon a burial ground of Comanches. Ethan mutilates one of the bodies; when they find the Comanche camp, Ethan recommends a frontal attack, but Clayton insists on a stealth approach to avoid killing the hostages. The camp is deserted, further along the trail, the men ride into an ambush. Although they fend off the attack, the Rangers are left with too few men to fight the Indians effectively, they return home, leaving Ethan to continue his search for the girls with only Lucy's fiancé, Brad Jorgensen and Debbie's adopted brother, Martin Pawley. Ethan finds Lucy brutally murdered and raped in a canyon near the Comanche camp.

In a blind rage, Brad is killed. When winter arrives and Martin lose the trail and return to the Jorgensen ranch. Martin is enthusiastically welcomed by the Jorgensens' daughter Laurie, Ethan finds a letter waiting for him from a trader named Futterman, who claims to have information about Debbie. Ethan, who would rather travel alone, leaves without Martin the next morning, but Laurie provides Martin with a horse to catch up. At Futterman's trading post and Martin learn that Debbie has been taken by Scar, the chief of the Nawyecka band of Comanches. A year or more Laurie receives a letter from Martin describing the ongoing search. In reading the letter aloud, Laurie narrates the next few scenes, in which Ethan kills Futterman for trying to steal his money, Martin accidentally buys a Comanche wife, the two men find a portion of Scar's band killed by soldiers; the search leads Ethan and Martin to a military fort, to New Mexico, where a Mexican man leads them to Scar. They find Debbie after now an adolescent, living as one of Scar's wives.

She tells the men that she has become a Comanche, wishes to remain with them. Ethan would rather see her dead than living as an Indian, tries to shoot her, but Martin shields her with his body and a Comanche wounds Ethan with an arrow as they escape. Although Martin tends to Ethan's wound, he is furious with him for attempting to kill Debbie, wishes him dead. "That'll be the day," Ethan replies. Meanwhile, Charlie McCorry has been courting Laurie in Martin's absence. Ethan and Martin arrive home just as Laurie's wedding is about to begin. After a fistfight between Martin and Charlie, a nervous "Yankee" soldier, Lt. Greenhill, arrives with news that Ethan's half-crazy friend Mose Harper has located Scar. Clayton leads his men to the Comanche camp, this time for a direct attack, but Martin is allowed to sneak in ahead of the assault to find Debbie, who welcomes him. Martin kills Scar during the battle, Ethan scalps him. Ethan locates Debbie, pursues her on horseback. Martin fears that he will shoot her as he has promised, but instead he sweeps her up onto his saddle.

"Let’s go home," he says. Debbie is brought to the Jorgensen ranch, Martin reunites with Laurie. In an iconic closing scene, Ethan departs the homestead as he arrived—alone—clutching his arm, the cabin door shutting on his receding image; the Searchers was t

Emotion-in-relationships model

The Emotion-in-Relationships model describes a theory designed to predict individual's experiences towards emotions. First introduced by Ellen Berscheid in 1983, it was further developed in cooperation with Hilary Amazzalorso in 2001. ERM proposes that intense emotions in a close reciprocal relationship occur when the relationship partner violates our expectancies and thereby interrupts a behavior sequence; the situation is unconsciously evaluated, leading to a positive or negative feeling, which depends on whether the violation of the expectancies is a facilitation or a threat. A relationship is not defined: either characterized by an strong bond and the positive feelings towards the relationship partner or the reciprocal dependency; this model draws attention to another important definition: once two people are in a close relationship with each other, the change in the state of one person is able to cause a change in the state of the other person. After having the ‘infrastructure’ of a relationship - with all the causal interconnections between the partners activities - the emotional experience within the relationship can flourish.

ERM is based on George Mandler’s interruption theory, which states that emotion is experienced when there is a change in relating patterns, meaning that a partner behaves in unexpected or unusual ways. This can have either positive or negative impacts, depending on the way it affects the individual's goals; the theory can be used to explain the roots of emotions within close relationships and people’s conversation behavior in courtship and marriage. Moreover, it can be used in therapeutic treatments to reduce the amount of negative emotions in a relationship by persuading the violating partner to bring his or her behaviour in line with the individual’s expectations or change one's own expectations to bring them in line with the partner's actual behaviour. ERM defines a close relationship and describes how expectancies and disruption of behavioral activities could lead to emotional arousal. ERM predicts that emotions in relationships occur because partners are highly interdependent on each other.

As a result, they develop rather consciously or unconsciously expectations towards the behavior and attitudes of their partners, who if not performing like expected, are violating the expectancies, which in turn leads to experience of emotions, positive as well as negative ones. According to most emotion theories, both positive and negative ones, occur most and intensely among people in close interpersonal relationship. A close relationship is defined as a state of relationship in which partners are interdependent, although the degrees of dependence are not equal. Four characteristics of interaction pattern that determine the closeness of a relationship: the partners influence each other's behaviors the influence occurs in a diversity of behaviors the influence is strong in magnitude the interaction pattern with three above characteristics has lasted for a long duration of time. In other words, a relationship is established based on the causal linkages between the activities of two partners.

Each partner has their own activity chain in which organized action sequences are formed as parts of higher-order plans. These intrachain sequences are connected or "meshed" with each other; the closer the relationship is, the more frequent and stronger the interconnections between activities of two persons are over a long time duration. Therefore, in a close relationship, a partner's behavior can be reliably and predicted from the other partner's behavior; the influence can be either unintentional. The types of behaviors that the partners influence may consist of cognitive behaviors, physiological behaviors and verbal behaviors; the relationship expectancies result out of the increasing knowledge of partners in a relationship. With increasing knowledge the dependency in the relationship increases and results at the same time in expectancies of the two partners towards each other and the possibilities of potential expectancy violations; these in turn are the basic conditions for experience of emotions in relationships.

This web of expectancies includes characteristics, but behavioral dispositions and habits that a partner forms towards their mate. This allows the reciprocal coordination of actions and plans to maximize one's own and the partner's well-being. Expectancies can be seen as the emotional investment of the individual, given to the relationship and carries the potential for violation of expectations. Both partners are unaware of their own expectancies, because cultural norms and understandings, as well as how other relationships have been observed, result into the expectations in one's own relationship, but over time both partners violate and confirm each other's expectancies so that the longer and closer a relationship is, the more the relationship expectancies were acknowledged and confirmed. If a partner fails to perform as expected in a relationship that can result through disruption of behavioral activities in violation of the individual's expectancies. Since over time the development of interaction routines – so called ‘meshed interaction sequences’ – are crucial to the relationship and build on the relationship expectancies, they are highly sensitive to violation thereof.

The aim of these routines is to reconcile the individual's plans and goals

Joe Rokocoko

Josevata Taliga "Joe" Rokocoko is a professional New Zealand rugby union player. Rokocoko is known for his strength which has accounted for his prolific try strike rate, he is a specialist left-winger but has played on the right wing for the All Blacks. Born 6 June 1983 in Nadi, Rokocoko migrated to New Zealand with his family at the age of 5, settling in Weymouth, South Auckland, he attended James Cook High School. Rokocoko won a scholarship to Saint Kentigern College, where he was a member of the 2001 National Secondary Schools team. After an outstanding career with New Zealand international sides at the under-16, under-19, under-21 level, he started playing Super 12 rugby. Rokocoko played for the Blues in the 2003 Super 12 season, he made his first appearance for the All Blacks on 14 June 2003 against England. He had a high strike rate for the All Blacks, scoring 25 tries in his first 20 tests, breaking the All Blacks single-season record for test tries shared by Jonah Lomu and Christian Cullen—his 17 test tries scored in 2003 equals the world record held by Daisuke Ohata of Japan.

The International Rugby Players' Association named him new player of the year in 2003. His incredible speed has been seen many times throughout his career. On 19 June 2004, in the All Blacks' second 2004 test with England, Rokocoko shredded the England defence for three tries in a 36–12 All Blacks victory over the reigning Rugby World Cup champions. Rokocoko returned to the All Blacks line-up for the 2005 Tri Nations Series, punctuating his comeback with a two-try effort in the All Blacks' pivotal home fixture against South Africa. By the end of the 2006 season he had scored 35 tries in 39 test matches – and in total scored 46 tries with the All Blacks in 68 tests, including 4 hat-tricks: against France, Australia and Romania, he scored his first try since the 2007 Rugby World Cup against Italy in June 2009. In 2011, after 68 games for New Zealand and 96 for the Blues, he signed with Aviron Bayonnais of the Top 14, he played for Aviron Bayonnais for a total of four seasons, where he made a positional switch from wing to centre during his time there.

In July 2015, it was announced that Rokocoko had signed a contract with Racing Metro 92, will link up with a host of other New Zealanders plying their trade at this club in Paris. He debuted for them on Friday 21 August 2015, where Racing Metro recorded an emphatic victory over Toulon at Stade Mayol in Toulon. Although known as Joe, Rokocoko asked New Zealand rugby management to list his Christian birth name, Josevata, on team releases, he is a cousin of former Auckland Blues and All Black winger Joeli Vidiri and NPC, Super 12, New Zealand sevens player Iliesa Tanivula. He and fellow All Black wing Sitiveni Sivivatu regard themselves as "cousins" because Sivivatu lived with the Rokocoko family, but they are not blood relations. In January 2008, Rokocoko married his long-time sweetheart Beverly Politini, the daughter of Howard Politini, a Major in the Fiji Military, at a wedding attended by a large number of All Blacks, they have a son called Cypress Rokocoko. Rokocoko scored his 100th First-class try against the Force in the 2010 Super 14 season.

He has scored 19 for Auckland and 40 for the Blues. Joe Rokocoko at New Zealand Rugby Museum article on Rokocoko Rokocoko profile from official Blues Super 12 site

Winter Offensive of 1947 in Northeast China

The Winter Offensive of 1947 in Northeast China was a series of battles initiated by the Communist forces against the Kuomintang during the Chinese Civil War after World War II. After the Summer Offensive of 1947 in Northeast China and the Autumn Offensive of 1947 in Northeast China, the nationalists were forced to withdraw to 28 cities in northeast China, including SipingDashiqiao, Jilin City and other cities along the Shanhai PassShenyang railroad; the Nationalist force totaled 13 armies and with additional independent divisions, the total strength was 44 divisions with troops numbering more than 580,000. In contrast, the Communists had a total of 730,000 troops, including more than 340,000 regular troops in 40 divisions belonging to 9 columns of the field army, an additional 390,000 belong to local garrison and militia units; the Nationalist force was commanded by Chen Cheng, the decision was made to ensure the security of the Liaoxi Corridor and the current cities under the Nationalist control, when the situation permitted, restore the communication line between Changchun and Shenyang.

To achieve this objective, the nationalists deployed at least 3 – 5 divisions at each city of Siping, Jilin City, while 1 – 2 divisions were deployed at each of the strategic locations along the Jinzhou – Shenyang railroad. In the meantime, the Newly Organized 1st Army and the Newly Organized 6th Army were deployed as mobile strike force in regions between Shenyang and Tieling; the objective of the Communist force under the command of Lin Biao and Luo Ronghuan was to deploy its force more by taking advantage of the winter when the river surfaces had frozen, destroy another 7 – 8 Nationalist divisions by concentrating its troops belonging to the field army, with the help of units of local garrison. The Communists hoped to eliminate Nationalist force in southern Liaoning. In order to achieve this objective, the 8th column and the 9th column of the field army were ordered to strike eastward from Chaoyang, while other columns were ordered to the north and west of Shenyang. Nationalist order of battle: major units engaged in the campaign included: The Newly Organized 1st Army deployed at Shenyang The Newly Organized 3rd Army deployed at Shenyang The Newly Organized 5th Army deployed at Shenyang The Newly Organized 6th Army deployed at Tieling The 49th Army deployed at Zhangwu The 52nd Army deployed at Yingkou The 60th Army deployed at Panshan The 71st Army deployed at Xinmin The 25th division deployed at Anshan The 43rd division deployed at Jinzhou The 50th division deployed at Changchun The 53rd division deployed at Changchun The 54th division deployed at Jinzhou The Reorganized 54th division deployed at Liaoyang The 87th division deployed at Siping The 91st division deployed at Siping, The 195th division deployed in South Liaoning The 207th division deployed to the northwest of ShenyangCommunist order of battle: Entire field army: The 1st Column The 2nd Column The 3rd Column The 4th Column The 6th Column The 7th Column The 8th Column The 9th Column The 10th Column The offensive started on December 15, 1947, when Communist 2nd column surrounded Faku, while at the same time, the communist 4th column approached Shenyang.

In the meantime, the communist 1st column, 3rd column, 6th column, 7th column penetrated into the regions surrounding Tieling, Xinmin and Faku, while the 10th column approached Kaiyuan. On December 18, 1947, the 22nd division of the Nationalist Newly Organized 6th Army was sent out from Tieling to reinforce Faku, but was ambushed by the Communist 2nd and 7th columns on the way, losing an entire regiment, after which the Nationalist reinforcement retreated back to Tieling. Another regiment of the Nationalist 59th division was lost to the same Communist units to the south of Faku, as a result, the nationalists temporarily suspended all rescue attempts to relieve Faku. To counter the Communist threat to Shenyang, Chen Cheng strengthened defense of Tieling, Shenyang regions by redeploying the 50th division and the 53rd division from Changchun, the 81st division and the 91st division from Siping, the 195th division from southern Liaoning, the 43rd division and 54th division from Jinzhou. Chen Cheng's redeployment of his troops left many areas vulnerable, taking this advantage, the Communist 2nd column and the 7th column took Zhangwu after annihilating the 79th division of the 49th Army of the Nationalist defenders of city on December 28, 1947.

The next day, the Nationalist 207th division deployed to the northwest of Shenyang was badly mauled by the Communist 6th column. Fearing the Nationalist formations would be decimated once left their strongholds, Chen Cheng ordered his troops to assume defensive positions behind city walls instead of going out to engage the enemy. In order to lure the nationalists out of their strongholds, the Communist 1st column penetrated into central Liaoning region, while the 4th column penetrated into the regions between Shenyang and Liaoyang, the 8th column along with the 9th column attacked the isolated Nationalist outposts. Smaller cities like Beipiao, Tai'an and Dahushan fell into communist hands. After witnessed the separate enemy offensives and learning that the Communist 1st column and the 2nd column remained at Zhangwu, Chen Cheng believed that the communist force was no longer concentrated together and thus he had an opportunity to launch a counterattack; the five Nationalist armies deployed at Shenyang and Tieling were ordered to attack westward from Shenyang, hoping to relieve Faku by destroying the Communist 1st column, 6th column

1958 NBA Finals

The 1958 NBA World Championship Series was the championship series for the 1957–58 National Basketball Association season, the culmination of the season's playoffs. It pitted the Western Division champion St. Louis Hawks against the Eastern Division champion Boston Celtics; the Hawks won the series in six games to win the franchise's only NBA title. After being defeated by the Celtics in Game 7 of the 1957 NBA Finals, St. Louis survived a sometimes difficult 1957-58 NBA season en route to winning the Western Division crown with a 41-31 record; the Celtics, had dominated the Eastern Division with a 49-23 record. The Hawks upset the Celtics in Game 1 at the Boston Garden, 104-102. Boston struck back with a wipeout in Game 2, 136-112. In St. Louis, the Hawks prevailed 111-108 in Game 3 when Russell sprained his ankle. Without Russell, the Celtics evened the series with a 109-98 surprise victory in Game 4. St. Louis forced a 102-100 win in Game 5 in Boston to take the series lead. Back home in Kiel Auditorium on April 12, the Hawks weren't about to miss their opportunity to defeat the defending champions.

Pettit turned in a spectacular performance. He scored 31 points in the first three quarters zoomed off in the final period, nailing 19 of his team's last 21 points, his last two points, on a tip-in with 15 seconds remaining, put the Hawks ahead 110-107. The Celtics could do no more; the Hawks had a title, 110-109. Pettit had scored 50 points, including 18 of the Hawks' final 21 points in propelling the Hawks' to the championship. Most observers figured that the Celtics would have won the 1958 title if Russell hadn't suffered his ankle injury in game 3. Auerbach, found no comfort in that opinion. "You can always look for excuses," he said. "We just got beat."The 1958 Hawks were the last team to win an NBA championship without a black player on the roster. Hawks win series 4–2 1958 NBA Playoffs NBA History

Bryan Cave

Bryan Cave Leighton Paisner LLP is an international law firm with 25 offices worldwide, headquartered in St. Louis, United States. In 2018, Bryan Cave merged with Berwin Leighton Paisner to create Bryan Cave Leighton Paisner LLP; the new firm is led by co-chairs Lisa Therese Pritchard. Founded in 1873 as King, Phillips & Stewart in downtown St. Louis. Pendleton Taylor Bryan joined the firm in 1911, followed by Rhodes Cave in 1917. In 2002, Bryan Cave acquired New York-based Robinson, Pearce and Berman LLP, bringing the headcount of the combined firms up to over 800 lawyers; the firm established an office in southern Illinois in 2004 to assist clients with class-action, product liability and commercial litigation matters in Madison and St. Clair Counties in Illinois. In 2005 Bryan Cave lost its Riyadh and Dubai offices to the Houston-based mega-firm Fulbright & Jaworski, but retained its office in Kuwait; the Kuwait office however soon closed as well. In 2007 offices were opened in Hamburg and Milan, followed by San Francisco and Paris in 2008.

In 2009, Bryan Cave and Atlanta-based Powell Goldstein merged, creating an expanded firm with new offices in Atlanta and Dallas. At the beginning of 2012, Bryan Cave merged with Holme Roberts & Owen, a law firm based in Denver, Colorado with over 210 attorneys. Bryan Cave established an office in Frankfurt, Germany in 2012, to be integrated with the firm’s established Hamburg office. In 2018, Bryan Cave merged with the London firm of Berwin Leighton Paisner. Represented Ralcorp in the $2.6 billion merger between Ralcorp and Kraft Foods' portfolio of cereals under the Post Cereal label. Advised Monsanto in its $290 million purchase of Aly Participacoes, a division of Brazilian global conglomerate Votorantim. Aly Participacoes operated two companies, CanaVialis S. A. and Alellyx S. A. which focus on sugarcane breeding and related applied genomics and biotech in the sugarcane industry. Counseled Barnes & Noble, the bookseller, on its $596 million purchase of Barnes & Noble College Booksellers Inc. a division, spun off from Barnes & Noble in the mid-1980s.

The acquisition closed on October 1, 2009. Official website